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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

SAM. L. ROGERS, DIRECTOR 



DEAF-MUTES 
IN THE UNITED STATES 



ANALYSIS OF THE CENSUS OF 1910 

WITH 

SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS RELATIVE TO THE DEAF 
AS OF JANUARY I, I9I8 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1918 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 11 

Scope of the report 12 

Comparison -with previous censuses 15 

Comparison with foreign countries 17 

Geographic distribution of the deaf and dumb 18 

Sex 19 

Race and nativity 21 

Country of birth of foreign-bom white deaf-mutes 23 

Age 24 

Marital condition ; 32 

Age when hearing was lost , 35-53 

Summary 35 

Extent of congenital deaf-mutism 36 

Relative risk of deaf-mutism at different ages 40 

Comparison by sex 42 

Comparison by geographic divisions 42 

Comparison by race and nativity 44 

Comparison according to age at enimieration 45 

Relation to marital condition 52 

Cause of deafness i ■. 53 

Heredity and deafness : 65 

Education 75 

Means of communication and ability to read lips 82-92 

Means of communication ^ 82 

Ability to read lips 89 

Occupations and economic status 92 

Blind deaf-mutes 106 

GENERAL TABLES. 

Table 1. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to race, nativity, and sex; 

by divisions and states: 1910 Ill 

Table 2. — Foreign-bom white deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to country 

of birth, by divisions and states: 1910 112 

Table 3. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to age and sex, by divisions 

and states: 1910 113 

Table 4. — ^Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedule^ were returned, classified according to race, nativity, and age, 

by divisions: 1910 116 

Table 5. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to race, nativity, age, and 

sex, for the United States as a whole: 1910 Hg 

Table 6. — ^Male and female deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified accordiag to marital 

condition, by divisions and states: 1910 129 

Table 7. — ^Male and female deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to race, 

nativity, and marital condition, for the United States as a whole: 1910 120 

Table 8. — ^Male and female deaf and dumb population 15 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified 

according to age at enumeration and marital condition, for the United States as a whole: 1910 120 

Table 9. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to age when hearing was lost, 

by divisions and states: 1910 121 

Table 10. — ^Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to race, nativity, sex, age 

at enumeration, and age when hearing was lost, for the United States as a whole: 1910 122 

Table 11. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to broad age groups and age 

when hearing was lost, by divisions: 1910 126 

Table 12. — ^Male and female deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to age when 

hearing was lost and marital condition, for the United States as a whole: 1910 127 

Table 13. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to reported cause of deafness, 

by divisions and states: 1910 128 

Table 14. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to race, nativity, sex, and 

reported cause of deafness, for the United States as a whole: 1910 132 

(3) 



CONTENTS. 



Table 15. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special Bchedules were returned, classified according to age when hearing was 
lost and reported cause of deafness, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 16. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to relationship of parents, 
status as to existence of brothers and sisters and children, and status of parents, brothers and sisters, and children as to hearing, 
for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 17. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to race, nativity, sex, rela^ 
tionship of parents, and status of parents as to hearing, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 18. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to age when hearing was 
lost, relationship of parents, and status of parents as to hearing, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 19. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to reported cause of deafness, 
relationship of parents, and status of parents as to hearing, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 20. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were retmned, classified according to reported cause of deafness, 
status as to existence of brothers and sisters, and status of brothers and sisters as to hearing, for the United States as a whole: 
1910 

Table 21. — Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned reporting children, classified according to reported 
cause of deafness and status of children as to hearing, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 22. — Deaf and dumb population 5 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to 
education, by divisions and states: 1910 

Table 23. — Deaf and dumb population 5 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to 
race, nativity, sex, age at enumeration, and education, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 24. — ^Deaf and dumb population 5 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to 
age when hearing was lost and education, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 25. — Deaf and dumb population 10 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to 
ability to read lips and means of commimication, by divisions and states: 1910 

Table 26. — Deaf and dumb population 10 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to 
race, nativity, sex, ability to read lips, and means of communication, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 27. — Deaf and dumb population 10 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to 
ability to read lips, means of communication, and age when hearing was lost, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 28. — ^Male and female deaf and dumb population 10 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified 
according to race, nativity, and occupation, for the United States as a whole: 1910 

Table 29. — Deaf and dumb population 10 years of age or over gainfully employed for whom special schedules were returned, clas- 
sified according to sex, occupation, ability for self-support, dependence on occupation, and annual earnings, for the United 
States as a whole: 1910 

Table 30. — Deaf and dumb population 10 years of age or over for whom special schedules were returned, classified according to 
ability for self-support, dependence on occupation, annual earnings, and education, by race, nativity, and sex, for the United 
States as a whole: 1910 

Table 31. — ^Population both blind and deaf and dumb for whom special schedules were returned: 1910 

SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS RELATIVE TO THE DEAF. 



Page. 
134 

135 
143 
145 
146 

150 
151 
152 
154 
158 
160 
162 
163 
164 

167 



170 
176 



Page. 

179 

180 

180 

180 

181 

181 

181 

182 

182 

182 

182 

183 

183 

183 

184 

184 

Kentucky 184 



Introduction 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 



Page. 

Louisiana 185 

Maine 185 

Maryland 185 

Massachusetts 186 

Michigan 186 

Minnesota 186 

Mississippi 187 

Missouri 187 

Montana 187 

Nebraska 188 

Nevada 188 

New Hampshire. 188 

New Jersey 189 

New Mexico 189 

New York 190 

North Carolina 190 

North Dakota 191 



Oluo 191 

Oklahoma ^ 192 

Oregon 192 

Pennsylvania 192 

Porto Rico 193 

Rhode Island 193 

South Carolina 194 

South Dakota 194 

Tennessee 194 

Texas 195 

Utah 195 

Vermont 195 

Virginia jgg 

Washington i9g 

West Virginia igg 

Wisconsin jgy 

Wyoming j^j 



CONTENTS. 

APPENDICES. 

Appendix A. — Institutions for the deaf in the United States 201, 202 

I. Residential schools - 201 

II. Public day schools 202 

III. Homes 202 

Appendix B. — Special schedules employed at censuses of the deaf and the deaf and dumb in the United States 203-209 

Thirteenth Census: 1910 — Supplemental schedule for the deaf 203 

Twelfth Census: 1900— 

Special schedule for persons defective in sight, hearing, or speech 204 

Supplemental schedule for the deaf 205 

Eleventh Census: 1890 — Supplemental schedule for the deaf 207 

Tenth Census: 1880 — Supplemental schedule for deaf-mutes 209 

Appendix C. — Special schedules employed in enumerating the deaf and dumb in foreign countries 210-215 

German Empire- 
Schedule used by the state governments for transmitting to the Imperial Health Office the returns of the population census 

of 1900 210 

Schedule and instructions for the continuous census of deaf-mutes 210 

Ireland — Schedule used at the population census: 1911 213 

Prussia — Schedule for use in the physician's examination reqtured by the Prussian law providing for the compulsory education 
of deaf and dumb children 214 

Index 217-221 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Washington, D. C, March 16, 1918. 
Sir: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on deaf-mutes in the United States in 1910. The material 
for this report was obtained in connection with the decennial census of 1910, at which a question was included 
on the general population schedule asking whether the person enumerated was deaf and dumb. After the 
completion of the population census, in order to obtain data on subjects which were of special interest and 
significance for a study of deaf-mutism, a supplementary schedule was maUed to each person reported as deaf 
and dumb, the questions on this schedule covering degree and cause of deafness, age when hearing was lost, 
existence of deafness among relatives, education, means of communication, and economic status. Certain 
of the basic data have already been pubHshed in a preliminary bulletin. The report contains also a summary 
of the laws in the several states relating to the education and care of the deaf, brought down to January 1, 1918. 
This report was prepared in the Division of Revision and Results imder the general direction of Dr. Joseph A. 
Hill, expert special agent. The analytical text is mainly the work of Reginald L. Brown, who also had imme- 
diate charge of the tabulation of the data. Dr. C. W. Richardson, of Washington, a former president of the 
American Otological Society, and Dr. E. A. Fay, of GaUaudet College, Washington, kindly consented to examine 
the proof of the report. The Bureau has reason to be gratified by their commendation of its work and at the 
same time is under obligations to them for some helpful criticisms and suggestions. 

As was the case at the census of 1900, the returns have been utilized not only for statistical purposes but 
also for supplying, upon request, lists of the deaf and dtimb enumerated in particular states or localities, indudiog 
names, addresses, and other personal data, for the use of schools or other agencies interested in the deaf. In 
this way the bureau has, no doubt, been iastnmiental in extending the phUanthropic work carried on by various 
pubhc agencies in behalf of those afflicted with deafness. 
Respectfully, 

Sam. L. Rogers, 

Director of the Census. 
Hon. William C. Redfield, 

Secretary of Commerce. 

(7) 



DEAF-MUTES 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

1910 



(9) 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES 



INTRODUCTION. 

This report summarizes the data relating to the deaf 
and dumb in the United States in 1910 obtained in 
connection with the Thirteenth Decennial Census of 
population. It consists mainly of an intensive study 
of the statistics for the 19,153 deaf-mutes who returned 
a special schedule of inquiry which was sent out to 
every person reported as deaf and dumb by the popu- 
lation enumerators; it also includes a summary of the 
laws of the various states relating to the deaf. 

The first enumeration of the deaf and dumb, as well 
as of the blind, in the United States was made in con- 
nection with the census of 1830, and a similar enumer- 
ation has been reqtiired by law at each subsequent 
decennial census of population. When the census of 
1900 was taken, however, the enumeration as eventu- 
ally made covered all the deaf, regardless of their 
ability to speak, and not merely the deaf and dumb, 
and the report presenting the results of this census 
related to the deaf generally, so that the Federal 
statistics of the deaf and dumb lack the continuity 
possessed by those for the blind, which have been 
compiled for each census since this class of the popu- 
lation was first enimierated in 1830. Moreover, while, 
so far as has been possible to determine, the United 
States was the fibrst country to make an official enu- 
meration of the blind, this was not the case with respect 
to the deaf and dumb, as an official census of this class 
was taken in Prussia in 1825, or five years before the 
first enumeration in the United States.* 

Prior to the census of 1880 the census of the deaf 
and dumb in the United States was merely an inci- 
dental feature of the censiis of population. The law 
providing for the Fifth Decennial Census (1830), under 
which the fiLrst enumeration was made, merely required 
that the population enumeration should "distinguish 
the number of those free white persons included in 
such enumeration, who are deaf and dumb, imder 
the age of fourteen years; and those of the age of 
fourteen years and imder twenty-five, and of the 
age of twenty-five years and upwards; * * * ^nd 
* * * of those free coloured and other coloured 
persons * * * who are deaf and dumb, without 
regard to age * * * ." The act providing for 
the census of 1840 contained a similar provision. 

* An enumeration of the deaf and dumb was also made in Baden 
in 1824, but it is impossible to determine definitely from the inf wma- 
tion at hand whether this was made under ofEaal auspices. Spe- 
cial enumerations of the deaf and dumb were made in individual 
diBtricts of Pruasia as early as 1819. 



The law providing for the census of 1850, imder which 
those of 1860 and 1870 were also taken, contained 
no reference in the body of the act to an enumeration 
of the deaf and diunb, but the population schedules, 
which, with the other schedules used at that census, 
were appended to and made a part of the act, included 
a column in which, among other things, the fact that 
the person enumerated was deaf and dumb was to be 
noted whenever found to be the case. 

The Tenth Census act (1880) required that the popu- 
lation schedule should contain "inquiries as to 

* * * the physical and mental health of each per- 
son enumerated whether active or disabled, * * * 
deaf, dimib, blind * * *;" and the Eleventh Cen- 
sus act (1890) merely continued in force the provisions 
of the Tenth Census act in this respect, but gave the 
Secretary of the Interior full discretion over the form 
of the schedule. There was, however, a difference at 
the two censuses in the scope of the actual enumera- 
tion based on this section of the law. At the census 
of 1880 the population schedule required only that for 
those who were deaf and dumb this fact shoiild be indi- 
cated by an entry in a column provided for that pur- 
pose, and the enumerators were also given a supple- 
mental schedule on which they were to obtain for each 
deaf-mute enumerated certain special data not called 
for by the population schedules,^ receiving additional 
compensation for each name entered on these supple- 
mental schedules. At the census of 1890, on the other 
hand, it was decided to collect information with regard 
to all persons reported as being so deaf that they were 
imable to hear loud conversation, whether or not they 
were able to speak. A column was provided on the 
population schedule in which the existence of any 
physical or mental defect, with the nature of the de- 
fect, was to be indicated, the heading employed, 
" Whether defective in mind, sight, hearing, or speech 

* * *," making it plain that a literal interpretation 
was given to the law, and that all persons who were 
either deaf or dumb were to be reported, even if they 
were able respectively to speak or to hear. In addi- 
tion, the enumerators were provided with a supple- 
mental schedule which called for information relative 
to every deaf person enumerated, and not merely, as 
in 1880, for information concerning deaf-mutes. At 
both censuses the statistics compiled from the in- 
formation obtained by means of the supplemental 

^In addition to the enumerators' canvass a certain amount of 
correspondence was canied on with the authorities in charge of 
institutions for the deaf and dumb and with local physicians. 

(11) 



12 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



schedule were ejabodied in a special report covering 
also other defective classes. At the census of 1890 the 
deaf who could speak were, by means of the answers to 
an inquiry on the supplemental schedule, separated 
from those who could not, and the returns for the two 
classes were tabulated separately; the main statistical 
presentation, however, related to the latter class, desig- 
nated in the report as the "deaf and dumb." 

By the act providing for the Twelfth Census a 
radical change in the status of the enumeration of the 
deaf and dumb was brought about. Under previous 
census acts, as already stated, this enumeration was 
merely an adjunct of the general census of population; 
this act, however, placed "statistics relating to special 
classes, including the insane, feeble-minded, deaf, 
dumb, and bhnd" in a list of subjects which were not 
to be taken up until after the close of the decennial 
census period. Under this law the statistics were 
hmited to inmates of institutions ; but this limitation 
was removed, so far as related to the deaf, dumb, and 
blind, by an amendatory act approved February 1, 
1900, which authorized the collection of statistics 
concerning all persons belonging to these classes, pro- 
viding, however, that the inquiries in the population 
census should be confined to the name, age, sex, and 
post-oflB.ce address of the person enumerated. To 
carry out these provisions the special column, in which 
the existence of physical defects was to be noted was 
dropped from the population schedule, and the popu- 
lation enumerators were instead provided with blanks 
on which they were to enter the name, age, sex, and 
address of every deaf person, as well as of every 
blind person, enumerated by them. The deaf with 
defective speech were to be separately shown on 
this schedule, but the enumerators were specifically 
instructed not to return the dumb who were not deaf. 
Subsequently a special schedule asking for detailed 
information was sent out to every person reported on 
these lists, and the information thus obtained was 
tabulated and presented in a special report. 

The various provisions in regard to the collection 
of statistics concerning special classes contained in the 
legislation relating to the Twelfth Census were incor- 
porated in the law creating the permanent Census 
OflB.ce, which defimitely established statistics of these 
classes among the subjects for which deceimial inves- 
tigations during the intercensal period were author- 
ized. AU specific mention of the deaf or the dumb was, 
however, eliminated by an amendment passed in 1906, 
which changed the language of the law so that it 
simply authorized the collection, decennially during 
the intercensal period, of statistics relating to the 
defective classes. 

In the Thirteenth Census act provision was made 
for an enumeration of the defective, dependent, and 
delinquent classes in institutions, and whether inten- 
tionally or otherwise, the "deaf and dumb" were 
specifically mentioned among the classes covered by 



this institutional enumeration. Since, however, a 
report of the name and address of every deaf and 
dumb person was likewise required and the provisions 
of this act were not understood to involve the repeal 
of the provision of the permanent census legislation 
authorizing the collection of statistics concerning all 
persons belonging to the defective classes, it was 
decided to make the investigation cover the total deaf 
and dumb population, and not merely the deaf and 
dumb in institutions. 

In enumerating the deaf and dumb population in 
1910, instead of employing separate blanks, as at the 
preceding census, a return was made to the method in 
use prior to 1900 of including on the population sched- 
ule a special column in which an appropriate entry 
was to be made for every deaf and dumb person enu- 
merated. No attempt was made to secure a return 
of aU deaf persons, as the phraseology of the law, 
which merely required the return on the population 
schedule of the "name and address of each blind or 
deaf and dumb person," appeared to preclude such an 
eflfort. A special schedule, similar to that employed in 
1900, asking for detailed information in addition to 
that called for by the general population schedtde, was 
also sent out to every person reported as deaf and 
dumb by the population enumerators. For reasons 
which wiU be discussed later only a little more than 
two-fifths of the deaf and dumb population enu- 
merated retm-ned these schedules satisfactorily filled 
out; the information contained on the schedules 
returned has, however, been tabulated, the presenta- 
tion of the results of this tabulation constituting, 
as already noted, the greater part of this report. 

SCOPE OF THE REPOKT. 

As previously stated, the enumeration of the deaf and 
dimab population of the United States in 1910 was 
made through the medium of a separate column on the 
general population schedule. The instructions given 
to the population enumerators were as follows: 

Column 32. Whether deaf and dumb. — If a person is hoth deaf 
and dumb, write "DD." For all other persons leave the column 
blank. Persons who are deaf but not dumb, or persons who are 
dumb but not deaf, are not to be reported. 

Under these instructions a total of 44,519 persons 
were reported by the enumerators as being deaf and 
dumb; in addition, 189 persons not entered as deaf and 
dumb on the population schedules were subsequently 
reported to the oflBce, either by themselves or by other 
interested persons, as suffering from the defects stated, 
making the total nmnber reported as deaf and dumb 
44,708. To each of these persons, as already stated, 
a special schedule of inquiry was sent by mail, asking 
for data on a number of subjects which it was felt 
would be of interest in connection with a statistical 
study regarding deai-mutism. Of the total number of 
persons reported as deaf and dumb, however, only 
22,491, representing 50.3 per cent, or about one-half, 



SCOPE OF THE REPORT. 



13 



replied to the request to fill out the special schedule. 
In 3,583 cases the schedule was returned by the post- 
master unclaimed, while in the remaining 18,634 cases 
nothing whatever was heard from it after it was sent 
out. The reason for the comparatively small pro- 
portion of rephes lies partly in causes inherent in the 
correspondence method of obtaining statistics, partly 
in the methods adopted for securing the addresses of 
the deaf and dumb eniunerated, and partly in the 
administrative necessities of the Census Bureau. 

In the first place, in any investigation relative to 
any of the defective classes in which the data are 
secured wholly or in large part by correspondence, 
no matter how great an effort is made, there will 
always be a considerable proportion of persons for 
whom it is impossible to obtain schedules; at the 
census of the deaf in 1900, for example, "several 
thousands of circular letters of inquiry,, sent out to the 
addresses of persons reported as deaf by the enumera- 
tors * * *, failed to bring any reply, in spite of 
repeated requests for information." * In the greater 
number of cases the failure to reply is probably due to 
the fact that those to whom the schedules are sent, or 
the members of their families, are too ignorant or 
illiterate to comprehend or answer the inquiries. In 
other cases negligence may be responsible, or the 
schedule may have been mislaid, to be discovered 
perhaps years later, when the person to whom it was 
sent, if particularly conscientious, may fill it out and 
send it in; thus schedules have been tabulated in the 
present report which were received after the lapse of 
nearly four years from the time when they were sent 
out, and a schedule for the census of the blind in 1900 
was received by the Bureau of the Census as late as 
March, 1916. In still other instances the failure to 
return the schedule is probably due to indifference, to 
sensitiveness, or to resentment at what is regarded as 
oflS.cious prying into personal affairs. There will also 
be a certain number of cases where by reason of the 
death of the person enumerated, or removal to another 
locality since the population enumeration, it wiU prove 
impossible to obtain a schediJe. 

Another factor contributing to reduce the number of 
schedules returned was the method employed for de- 
termining the addresses of the persons reported by the 
enumerators as deaf and dumb. At the census of 1900, 
which was the first census at which the attempt was 
made to secure information relating to the blind or the 
deaf by correspondence directly with the person suffer- 
ing from the given defect, the population enumerators 
were, as already stated, required to report upon a 
separate schedule the name and address of every blind 
or deaf person found by them. At the census of 1910, 
however, no special schedule for this purpose was pro- 
vided, and while the Thirteenth Census act required 
the address of each blind or deaf and dumb person to 
be returned on the population schedule, the entries on 
that schedule showing the minor civil divisions (i. e., 

• The Blind and the Deaf: 1900, p. 68. 



township, town, city, village, etc.), and the street and 
house number were regarded as sufficiently complying 
with this requirement. In cases where the person enu- 
merated lived in an incorporated place, these entries did 
of course in most instances give an accurate indication 
of his post-office address; but if he lived in a rural 
district it was necessary to refer to an atlas and to the 
Postal Guide to determine to what post office the 
schedule probably should be mailed. The fact that 
only about 3 ,600 schedules, representing 8 per cent of the 
total number sent out, were returned unclaimed would 
seem to show that the methods employed were on the 
whole fairly successful in obtaining the correct address 
of the person enumerated, especially as some of the 
schedules returned unclaimed presimiably failed of 
delivery because the persons to whom they were sent 
had moved to another locality without leaving any 
address or had Sied; but it must be borne in mind 
that there were probably numerous instances where 
a schedule was sent to a wrong post office and by 
reason of official oversight was never returned, which 
would be particularly likely to occur in the rural dis- 
tricts. It is manifest, however, that the method of 
obtaining the address must have been in part responsi- 
ble for the small percentage of schedules returned. 

Perhaps even more important in bringing about the 
low percentage of rephes to the request to fiU out the 
special schedule were the administrative necessities of 
the Census Bureau. At the census of 1900, as has 
already been shown, "repeated requests for informa- 
tion" were made of those who failed to reply to the 
circular letter of inquiry. It was originally the inten- 
tion to follow up in like manner the failures to reply to 
the first request to ffil out the special schedule for the 
census of 1910. At the time when this work should 
have been done, however, a reduction in the clerical 
force of the Bureau of the Census, consequent upon a 
shortage in the appropriation, made necessary a practi- 
cal suspension of the work upon the inquiry regarding 
the deaf and dumb in order to concentrate upon the 
main work of the decennial census, and when a re- 
sumption of the work in connection with the report 
on the deaf and dumb became feasible, so long a time 
had elapsed since the schedules were sent out that 
any further effort to secure schedules from those who 
failed to respond to the first request seemed inad- 
visable. It is not improbable that if the work could 
have been carried on along the lines originally planned 
the proportion of cases in which schedules failed to be 
received would have been considerably less. 

In view of the large number of persons reported by 
the enumerators as deaf and dumb who failed to 
return the special schedule, it was at first planned to 
issue the report on this class in two parts, one compris- 
ing a tabulation of the principal data on the population 
schedule (that is, sex, race, nativity, age, marital con- 
dition, and occupation) for the total population 
reported as deaf and dumb, and the other a tabulation 
of the information obtained on the special schedule. 



14 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



A careful study of the returns, however, revealed the 
fact that there was apparently a considerable diver- 
gence of opinion among the enumerators as to the scope 
of the term "deaf and dmnb." Some enumerators, 
on the one hand, interpreted the term in its most 
Hteral sense and reported only those persons who were 
destitute both of hearing and of articulate speech; 
thus the envmierator who covered the largest school for 
the deaf in the United States, having several hundred 
pupils, reported none of the pupUs as deaf and dumb, 
presumably because they had all acquired in greater or 
less degree the faculty of articulation. On the other 
hand, some enumeratoJl^ gave the term a broader 
interpretation and reported aU deaf-mutes properly 
so-caUed (i. e., all persons who by reason of defective 
hearing either had never acquired the faculty of 
articulate speech or had required special instruction 
in order to acquire it), even if they had learned to 
speak, as well as any other deaf persons who by reason 
of their deafness had lost the faculty of speech which 
they possessed before the loss of their hearing. Fur- 
thermore, it became apparent from the replies to the 
request to fill out the special schedule that the enumer- 
ators had reported as deaf and dumb a large nimiber 
of persons who were not suffering from defects of 
hearing or speech, at least to such an extent as to bring 
them properly within the scope of the envuneration. 
It was thus impossible to say just what the total 
reported as deaf and dumb by the enumerators rep- 
resented. On the one hand it fell considerably short, 
in aUprobabUity, of including all deaf-mutes, aiccording 
to the scientific signification of the term, and on the 
other hand it included many who were not deaf and 
dmnb in the literal sense of the term, as well as many 
others who could not imder any interpretation be 
regarded as deaf and dumb. For this reason it was 
finally decided not to make any tabulation covering 
the total poptilation returned as deaf and dumb, but 
to confine the main presentation to those returning the 
special schedule, which contained data that afforded 
the means of determining whether the person making 
out the schedide was properly classifiable as deaf and 
dimib. Except in a few instances, therefore, the sta- 
tistics for 1910 in this report relate solely to the deaf 
and dumb returning special schedules, and do not 
represent totals for the United States. 

In making the tabulation for the report as finally 
planned, it was decided to include not merely the deaf 
and dumb in the most literal sense of the term, but 
also all persons who could be properly regarded as 
deaf-mutes. This was done partly because a tabula- 
tion on this basis was thought to be more in conformity 
with the spirit of the law and partly because a limita- 
tion of the statistics to those literally unable either to 
hear or to speak would have made the number so small 
as to render the resultant figures of little significance. 
In carrying out this decision it of course became neces- 
sary to lay down certain definite rules indicating just 
what conditions brought a person within the scope of 
the tabulation. Under these rules the tabulation cov- 



ered the following classes of persons: (1) All totally 
deaf persons who had never acquired the power of 
speech, or having acquired it had lost it either wholly 
or to such an extent that it no longer constituted an 
effective means of communication, this class consti- 
tuting the "deaf and dumb" in the most literal sense 
of the term; (2) aU other totally deaf persons who had 
lost their hearing before the completion of their eighth 
year of life, even if they were able to employ speech as 
a means of commimication; and (3) aU partially deaf 
persons who could hear only with the aid of an ear 
trumpet or other mechanical appliance and whose deaf- 
ness had supervened before the completion of 'their 
eighth year of life. The reason for fixing a limit with 
regard to the age when hearing was lost in the case of 
the two latter classes was that after the completion of 
the eighth year of life a child has presumably acquired 
fully the faculty of articulate speech, so that the prob- 
lem, when he becomes deaf, is merely to keep him from 
losing what he already has; in adopting this limit, 
moreover, the Bureau of the Census is in practical 
accord with the Imperial Health Office of Germany, 
where more appears to have been done in the direction 
of developing scientific statistics of deaf-mutism than 
in any other country.* 

The total number of schedules tabulated on the 
basis above set forth was 19,153. This figure of course 
represents only a part of the deaf-mute population of 
the United States, so that the absolute numbers de- 
rived from a tabulation of these schedules are not 
comparable with those for other censuses or other 
countries. But while the statistics are partial and in- 
complete, it does not follow that they are destitute of 
value. Unless the deficiencies affect one class of the 
population to a significantly greater extent relatively 
than another, and the respective classes in turn differ 
markedly in their characteristics as regards the sub- 
ject of inquiry, a situation which there is no reason to 
suppose exists, the figures can be regarded as giving a 
fairly accurate representation of the composition and 
characteristics of the deaf-mute population of the 
United States. In other words, there is, in the ab- 
sence of evidence to the contrary, a reasonable pre- 
sumption that the portion of the deaf-mute population 
represented in the tabulation is typical of the whole, 
so that analyses based upon the results of this tabula- 
tion wiU in general give as correct an indication of the 
constitution of the deaf-mute population as if the tab- 
ulation had covered all deaf-mutes in the United States. 

' Cf. the following: 

"Children who lose their hearing after 7 veara of age are scarcely 
ever dumb." {Bacon: A Manual of Otology, ed. 1913, p. 509.) 

"The diagnosia [of deaf-mutism] * * * is based on the fol- 
lowing facts: * * * 

b. Deafness dates from birth or before the seventh year." 
{Ballenger: Diseases of the Nose, Throat, and Ear, ed. 1909, p. 900.) 

"According to expert opinion, deafness occasioned by sickness 
or injury after the completion of the seventh year does not ordi- 
narily involve deaf -mutism as a consequence, the person in question 
retaining, on the contrary, the power of speech existing at the time 
when complete loss of hearing occurred. (Translated from "Die 
Taubstummen im Deutschen Reiche nach den Ergebnissen der Volis- 
zahlung von 1900," in Medizinal-statistische Mitteilungen aus dem 
KaiserlicJien Gesundheitsamte, Band IX, p. 19.) 



COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS CENSUSES. 



15 



COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS CENSUSES. 

The enumeration of tlie deaf and dumb has varied 
to such an extent at the different censuses as regards 
scope and method that comparisons between the fig- 
ures for the different years shed very little light on the 
question whether this class is increasuig in number in 
the United States at a greater or a less rapid rate than 
the general popidation. As a matter of interest, how- 
ever, Table 1 is presented, which shows for each census 
from 1830 to 1910 the number of deaf and dumb re- 
ported and their ratio to the total population. 



Table 1 


DBAF AND DUMB POPULATION Ot THE 
UNITED STATES. 


TEAS. 


Total. 


Per 100,000 
general 


Per cent ol 
increase 
over pre- 
ceding 
census.' 


1910S 


44,708 

24,369 

40,592 

33,878 

16,205 

12,821 

9,803 

7,678 

6,106 


48.6 
32.1 
64.8 
67.5 
42.0 
40.8 
42.3 
45. 
47.5 


83.5 


1900S 


-40.0 


1890 « 


19.8 


IggQS 


109.1 


18702 


26.4 


I860* 


30.8 


1850' . ...' 


27.7 


1840» 


25.7 


18302 









1 A minus sign (— ) denotes decrease. 

s Persons reported as deaf and dumb by the population enumerators. 
> Deaf persons unable to speak at all for whom special schedules were returned. 
* Deaf persons unable to speak at all. 

' Deaf-mutes, exclusive of those reported as 16 years of age or over when hearing 
was lost. 

For all censuses prior to 1880 there is little question 
that the figures for the deaf and dumb population of 
the United States are seriously deficient.^ The re- 
sults of certain censuses appear to have been publicly 
criticised,* and in the report for at least one census ' 
the census authorities themselves specifically recog- 
nized the probabUity that there had been a consider- 
able number of omissions. On the other hand, the 
marshals, on whom the duty of making the eniunera- 
tion devolved, appear not infrequently to have erred 
through excess of zeal and to have included among 
the deaf and dumb persons who actually were able to 
speak. The figures for these censuses, therefore, do 
not afford any reliable basis for measuring the in- 
crease or decrease of deaf-mutism in the United States 
during the period covered by the table. They should, 
however, be broadly comparable with each other, as 
there was during this period no change of consequence 
in the method of reporting, and at all five censuses 
the meaning of the term "deaf and dumb" appears 
to have been regarded as sufficiently established by 
common usage to require no definition. Under these 
circumstances it is not improbable that the steady 
decrease in the ratio of the deaf and dumb to the 

' "The figures for the United States censuses previous to 1880 
are worthless bo far as the calculation of rates of the number of 
deaf-mutes to population is concerned, since the number of deaf- 
mutes returned m these censuses was certainly far below the 
number actually present." (Report on the Insanfe, Feeble-minded, 
Deaf and Dumb, and BUnd in the United States at the Eleventh 
Census: 1890, p. 92.) 

'The Seventh Census of the United States, 1850, pp. xlviii, 
xlix; Ninth Census, Vol. II, p. 425. 

* That of 1860 (see Eighth Census, Population, pp. Ivi ff). 



general population between 1830 and 1860 which is 
shown in the table does in fact reflect an actual de- 
cline in the relative number of deaf-mutes in the 
population. So far as there was any such decline, 
however, it was almost certainly due in large part to 
the increasing volume of immigration to the United 
States during this period, which would have caused a 
much greater increase in the general than in the deaf 
and dumb population, as deaf-mutes are not likely to 
migrate to any great extent; and it is not impossible 
that if there had been no immigration no decrease 
whatever would have been shown in the ratio. The 
increase in the ratio shown at the census of 1870 
probably indicates an increase in the accuracy of the 
enumeration, a conjectiu"e borne out by the circum- 
stance that the number of blind persons enumerated 
per 100,000 of the total population also showed an 
increase at the census of 1870 for which it is difficidt 
to account satisfactorily on any other hypothesis than 
that of an increased accuracy of enumeration. 

At the census of 1880 a special effort was made to 
secure an accurate return of all the defective classes 
for which the Census Office was required to obtain 
statistics. As already indicated, in addition to the 
column on the general population schedule, which had 
at the last three censuses been the only medium for 
securing a return of the deaf and dumb population, a 
special supplemental schedule was provided, on which 
the eniunerator was required to answer certain in- 
quiries for each deaf-mute enumerated, receiving an 
additional compensation of five cente for each name 
thus reported.* It was impressed upon the enumera- 
tor by his instructions that he was to make every 
possible effort to obtain a complete return of the 
deaf-mutes in his district; in particular, it was recom- 
mended that inquiry be made of physicians, school- 
teachers, and deaf-mutes themselves as to where any 
deaf-mutes might be foimd. The enumerators were, 
moreover, for the first time given definite instructions 
for their guidance in determining who should be 
enumerated as deaf and dumb. The inquiries on the 
schedule, as already noted, were to be answered for 
each "deaf-mute" enumerated, "deaf-mute" being 
defined in the instructions as "one who can not speak 
because he can not hear sufficiently well to learn to 
speak." This of course would seem to imply that 
only those literally unable both to hear and to speak, 
were to be reported, but other instructions made it 
evident that all deaf-mutes in the broader sense of the 
term, including those who had learned to speak as a 
result of special instruction, were to be reported.* In 

* For copies of the schedules for this and subsequent censuses, 
see Appendix B (p. 203). 

* One of the questions on the schedule was "Is this person semi- 
mute?", the following explanatory note being attached: 

"The word 'semi-mute' has a technical meaning, and denotes a 
deaf-mute who lost his or her hearing after having acquired at 
least a partial knowledge of spoken language. Some semi-mutes 
retain the ability to speak imperfectly, others lose it entirely. If 
a deaf-mute has ever learned to speak, he is a semi-mute; (unless he 
was artificially taught to speak in an institution for deaf-mutes)." 



16 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



tabulating the returns, moreover, all persons reported 
as having lost their hearing after reaching the age of 16 
were excluded, on the ground that by that time their 
powers of speech were so developed that they did not 
require special training at a school for the deaf. The 
enumerators' returns were supplemented to a certain 
extent by correspondence with institutional oflBcials 
and local physicians, the number added by this means 
amounting to 4.4 per cent of the total. The results of 
the special diligence employed at this census are reflected 
in the great relative increase shown in the niunber of 
deaf and dmnb persons enumerated and in their ratio 
to the general population as compared with 1870. 

At the census of 1890, as already described, the 
enumerators were required to report every deaf or 
dumb person, instead of the deaf and dumb, as at 
previous censuses. The supplemental schedule for the 
deaf, however, contained an inquiry asking whether 
the person in question was "able to speak so as to be 
readily understood, * * * imperfectly * * *^ 
or not at all * * *;" and on the basis of the an- 
swers to this inquiry the deaf reported were divided 
into two classes, the deaf who could speak and the 
deaf who could not speak, detailed statistics being 
published for the latter class, under the designation 
of "the deaf and dumb." The class covered by the 
tabulation for 1890, as presented in Table 1, therefore 
differed from that covered by the tabulation for 1880 
in that the former included only the deaf and dumb 
in the most literal sense of the term while the latter 
included aU deaf-mutes reported as having lost their 
hearing when less than 16 years of age, even if they 
had been taught to articulate. This, difiference in the 
comprehensiveness of the class covered by the tabu- 
lation furnishes an explanation of the decreased num- 
ber of deaf and dumb per 100,000 population shown 
at the census of 1890, although it is also probable that 
the census of the defective classes generally was much 
less complete in 1890 than in 1880. 

The scope of the enumeration in 1900 was, as pre- 
viously stated, essentially the same as in 1890, cover- 
ing all the deaf who were unable to imderstand 
loudly-shouted conversation, and the special schedule 
contained an inquiry in regard to the deaf person's 
power of speech which was practically the same as 
that on the 1890 schedule. The basic distinction be- 
tween the "deaf and dumb" and the "deaf but not 
dumb" was not made in the tabulation at this census, 
and the pubHshed statistics covered aU the deaf for 
whom schedules were returned; but the replies to the 
inquiry above referred to in regard to ability to speak 
were tabulated, and the figure presented for 1900 in 
Table 1 represents the deaf who reported themselves 
as imable to speak at aU. As a result of differences in 
the method of collecting the data and in the basis of 
tabulation at this census, however, the figures are 
practically valueless for the purpose of numerical 
comparisons. As already noted, the special schedule 



employed at this census was not filled out by the 
enumerator, as had been the practice at the censuses of 
1880 and 1890, but was mailed directly to the persons re- 
ported by the enumerators as deaf, and in many cases 
it was never returned. In tabiilating the returns all 
persons who failed to return the schedule were ex- 
cluded, although many of them must have been deaf, and 
some of them deaf-mutes. The figure shown for 1900 
in Table 1 , therefore, is only a partial figure, represent- 
ing an unknown fraction of the true total, a circum- 
stance which explains the great decreases shown in 
the table for 1900 as compared with earlier censuses. 
The methods adopted at the census of 1910 have al- 
ready been described. As regards the means for se- 
curing a return of the deaf and dimib in the first in- 
stance, they represent a reversion to the practice which 
prevailed at the censuses before 1880, since the 
enumerators were simply required, whenever they 
enumerated a deaf and dumb person, to indicate that 
fact in a colimin specially provided for the piu"pose 
on the general population schedule. The instructions 
to the enumerators, too, corresponded more closely to 
those at the census of 1870 * than to those at any other 
census. In view of these facts it is not surprising that 
the number of deaf and dumb persons enumerated 
per 100,000 of the total population approximates the 
number in 1870 much more closely than that for any 
subsequent census, a circumstance which, in view of 
the generally acknowledged deficiency in the returns 
for 1870, makes it seem likely that in addition to the 
factors already mentioned (p. 14) as making the 
figm"es for the total deaf and dimib population in 
1910 of uncertain significance, there were a consider- 
able number of omissions in the returns. This is the 
more probable in view of the comparatively small in- 
crease in the number enumerated and the decided de- 
crease in the ratio to the general population as com- 
pared with 1890, for which year the figures relate ex- 
clusively to the deaf who were imable to speak, since, 
even making allowance for the increase during the last 
25 years in the teaching of speech to the deaf, it 
seems doubtful whether there has been so marked a fall- 
ing off in the past two decades in the relative munber of 
deaf and dumb in the most literal sense of the term. 
The return of the deaf and dumb in 1910, when the 
eniunerators received no additional compensation for 
reporting this class, may indeed have very well been 
less complete than the returns in 1880 or 1890, when 
eaich person reported represented so much additional 
compensation to the enumerators. It should be re- 
membered, moreover, that a complete enumeration of 
any of the defective classes is hardly to be expected 
at a population census, by reason of the general re- 
luctance of persons to acknowledge that they have 
defectives in their families. In view of the conditions 
just discussed the dependence which can be placed 

' "Deafness merely, without the loss of speech, is not to be 
reported." 



COMPARISON WITH FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



17 



upon the returns for 1910 as a quantitative measure 
of the extent of deaf-mutism in the United States be- 
comes more than ever uncertain. 

From what has been said it is apparent that the 
figures in Table 1 afford absolutely no indication as to 
whether deaf-mutism in the United States has been 
increasing or decreasmg relatively to the population 
during the period covered by the table. It is probable, 
however, that the tendency has been in much the 
same general direction as in other countries. For 
this reason Table 2 is presented, which gives for several 
of the principal countries of Europe the deaf and 
dumb population as reported at the most recent cen- 
sus for which figures are available in comparison with 
that in 1880 or the nearest census year, together with 
the ratio of the deaf and dumb to the total population 
at these two censuses. 



Table 2 


DEAF AND DUUB POPI7LATION. 




Later census. 


Earlier census. 


Increase 

(+)or 


OOUMTKT. 


Year. 


Number. 


Per 
100,000 
general 
popu- 
lation. 


Year. 


Number. 


Per 
100,000 
general 


decrease 
(-)in 
number 

100,000 
general 
popu- 
lation. 


Austria 


1910 
11911 
1911 
1910 
1911 
1910 
1911 


40,110 
15,122 
21,823 
32,098 

3,145 
34,804 

2,369 


140.4 
41.9 
55.7 

153.7 
71.9 
86.7 
49.8 


1880 
1881 
1876 
1880 
1881 
1880 
1881 


28,958 
13,295 
21,395 
19,874 

3,993 
27,794 

2,142 


130.8 
51.2 
58.0 

126.3 
77.2 

101.9 
57.3 


+ 9.t 
-9.3 

— 2.3 


England and Wales. . 
France 


TInngary 


-H27.4 
— 5.6 




Prussia 


—15 2 


Scotland 


— 7.5 







> Figures include persons returned simply as dumb. 

Of the seven coimtries for which figures are given in 
the preceding table, five show decreases in the ratio of 
the deaf and dumb to the total population during the 
approximately 30-year period covered, while in one of 
the countries showing an increase (Austria) the cen- 
sus authorities attribute the increase mainly to 
changes in census methods accompanied by increased 
accuracy of enumeration in certain provinces. These 
decreases in the ratio are very probably accoimted 
for in great part by the progress made during the past 
30 years towards the control of the contagious and 
infectious diseases which are by far the most im- 
portant causes of adventitious deaf-mutism. In 
view of the rather general tendency shown in the 
table towards a decrease in the number of deaf-mutes 
relatively to the population, it seems reasonable to 
suppose that a similar tendency may exist in the 
United States, 

COlktPAEISON WriH FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

Table 3 shows, for the United States and for most 
of the foreign countries taking censuses of the deaf 
and dumb, the deaf and dumb population as reported 
in the latest year for which returns are at hand, to- 
gether with the total population and the number of 
deaf and dumb per 100,000 of the total population. 
50171'— 18 2 



Table 3 



COXmTBT. 



NoBTH America. 

Bahama Islands 

Bermuda Islands 

British Honduras 

Canada 

Danish Antilles 

Grenada 

Jamaica 

Mexico 

Newfoundland and Labrador. . ' 

St.Lucia 

St. Vincent 

Trinidad and Tobago 

United States: 

Continental United States. . 

Hawaii 

Porto Bico 

South Ahebica. 

Argantina 

BoUvia" 

ChUe 

Urugqgy 

EUSOPE. 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Cyprus 

Denmark '.. 

England and Waies.!! !!!!!!!!!! 

Finland 

Francft^ 

Germimy 

Prussia 

Saxony 

Gibraltar' 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Isle ot Man and Channel Islands 

Italy. 

Malta and Gozo 

Netherlands 

Portugal*. 

RoumaiUa 

Buss" 

Scotl 

Serbia 

Sweden. 

Asia. 

Ceylon 

Formosa*. 

India 

Philippine Islands" 

Bus& (Asiatic)" 

ArsiCA. 

Gambia 

Mauritius and dependencies . . 

Seychelles Islands 

Sierra Leone 

Uganda Protectorate ». 

Union ol South Africa 

Cape ol Good Hope 

Natal 

Orange Free State 

Transvaal 

Australasia. 

Commonwealth of Australia ". 

New South Wales 

Queensland 

South Australia 

Tasmania.. 

Victoria 

Western Australia 

New Zealand" 



Year. 



1901 
1901 
1901 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1910 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 

1910 
1910 
1910 



1%4 
1900 
1907 
1908 



1910 
1910 
1905 
1901 
1911 
1911 
1900 
1911 
1900 
1910 
1910 
1911 
1910 
1911 
1911 
1901 
1901 
1909 
1911 
1899 
1897 
1911 
1900 
1900 



1901 
1905 
1911 
1903 
1897 



1901 
1901 
1901 
1901 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



Total 
population. 



53,735 
20,961 
37,479 
7,206,643 
27,086 
66,750 

831,383 
15,160,369 

242,619 
48,637 
41,877 

333,552 

91,972,266 

191,909 

1,118,012 



» 7,905,502 
1,633,610 
3,249,279 
1,042,686 



28,570,800 

7,416,464 

4,035,575 

i 237,152 

2,757,076 

36,070,492 

2,712,562 

39,192,133 

56,367,178 

40,165,219 

4,806,661 

19,120 

20,886,487 

4,390,219 

148,915 

32,475,253 

207,890 

5,858,175 

5,960,056 

5,956,690 

102,845,117 

4,760,904 

2,492,882 

5,136,441 



3,573,419 

3,039,751 

11315,156,396 

6,987,686 

22,794,904 



13,456 

378,196 

19,258 

76,655 

2,462,469 

5,973,394 

2,564,965 

1,194,043 

528,174 

1,686,212 



4,455,005 

1,646,734 
605,813 
408,558 
191,211 

1,315,551 
282,114 

1,008,468 



DEAT AND DUMB 
POPm.ATION. 



Total. 



27 

7 

42 

4,584 

28 

65 

565 

7,774 

354 

>38 

71 

•121 

< 44, 708 

«58 

<756 



7,798 
352 

2,336 
690 



40,110 

4,191 

4,098 

323 

1,793 

115,122 

3,474 

21,823 

48,750 

34,804 

2,440 

39 

32,098 

3,145 

'64 

31,267 

95 

2,305 

3,451 

4,896 

109,556 

2,369 

4,167 

5,299 



"2,578 

4,077 

11199,891 

5,910 

14,957 



24 

•181 

•10 

13 

3,672 

2,398 

1,327 

298 

274 

499 



1,852 
640 
257 
246 

98 
535 

76 
301 



Per 
100,000 
general 



ition. 



50.2 
0) 

112.1 

63.6 

103.4 

97.4 

68.0 

51.3 

145.9 

»78.1 

169.5 

•36.3 

<48.6 
4 30.2 
•67.9 



98.9 
21.5 
71.9 
66.2 



140.4 

56.5 

101.5 

136.3 

65.0 

>41.9 

128.1 

55.7 

86.5 

86.7 

50.8 

%.7 
71.6 

>43.0 
96.3 
45.7 
39.3 
87.9 
82.2 

106.5 
49.8 

167.2 

103.3 



U72.1 
134.1 

1163.8 
84.6 
65.9 



«7.» 

^7.0 
145.1 
40.1 
51.7 
25.0 
61.9 
29.9 



41.9 
38.9 
42.4 
60.2 
51.3 
40.7 
26.9 
29.8 



' Ratio not shown by reason of the smallness of the numbers involved. 

> Figures include persons returned simply as dumb. 

> Figures represent persons reported as dumb. 

< Figures represent deaf and dumb population as reported by population 
enumerators. , , ^ ,^. j 

' Includes 18,425 persons for whom no returns as to infirmities were secured. 
These were deductedin computing the ratio. 

• jinumerated population only. 

7 Exclusive of Faroe Islands. 

8 Figures relate to civil population of city and territory only. 

• Includes Azores and Madeira. 

10 Including Poland, but exclusive of Finland. 

11 Figures represent congemitally deaf and dumb only. 

u Includes 1,754,545 persons for whom no returns as to infirmities were secured. 
These were deducted in computing the ratio. 

II Civilized population. 

i< Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia. 

" Native population in administered districts. . , ,, _^^ _, _,x j 

""Exclusive of full-blooded abori^nals. Includes Northern Territwy and 
Federal Capital Terrttory. , ^ „ ^. , . j 

>' Ezclimve of Maivis and of population of annexed Pacific islands. 



18 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBtTTION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

Table 4 shows for each division and state the total 
population reported as deaf and dumb inlQlOfc^with 
the number who returned satisfactory schedules and 
the percentage which this number represented of the 
total. 



Table 4 



DmaON AND STATE. 



United States. 



Oeogbapbic divisions: 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central. . 
West North Central . 

South Atlantic 

East South Central. . 
West South Ceiltral . 

Mountain 

Pacific 



New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East Nobth Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

WiscoDsta 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

Soutii Dakota 

Nebraska 



South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Oecffgia , 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Efflitueky 



Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



population reported as 
deae and dumb: 1910. 



Total. 



44,708 

2,373 
8,823 
9,810 
6,211 
6,260 
4,458 
4,298 
1,027 
1,448 



Returning satisfac- 
tory schedules. 



Number. 



19,453 

1,187 
4,133 
^4,329 
2,767 
2,326 
1,865 
1,613 
352 
581 



352 
202 
128 
1,131 
215 
345 

4,861 

700 

3,262 

2,675 
1.734 
2,725 
1,374 
1,302 

1,113 
995 

1,884 
251 
331 
674 
963 

60 
774 
118 

1,157 
739 

1,458 
744 
989 
221 

1,612 

1,265 

826 

755 

747 

795 

847 

1,909 

120 
118 

25 
260 
192 

53 
236 

23 

378 
255 
815 



Per cent 
of total. 



42.8 

50.0 
46.8 
44.1 
44.5 
37.2 
41.8 
37.5 
34.3 
40.1 



166 
99 
62 
566 
113 
181 

2,348 

324 

1,461 

1,154 
634 

1,310 
660 
571 



436 
872 
101 
109 
280 
470 

19 

388 
56 
876 
304 
504 
245 
348 
86 

664 
588 
317 
296 



254 
304 
719 

48 
41 
14 
109 
59 
16 
58 
7 

152 
130 
299 



47.2 
49.0 
48.4 
50.0 
52.6 
52. 5 

48.3 
46.3 
44.8 

43.1 
36.6 
48.1 
48.0 
43.9 

44.8 
43.8 
46.3 
40.2 
32.9 
41.5 
48.8 

81.7 
50.1 
47.5 
32.5 
41.1 
34.6 
32.9 
35.2 
38.9 

41.2 
46.5 
38.4 
39.2 

45.0 
31.9 
35.9 
37.7 

40.0 
34.7 
56.0 
41.9 
30.7 
30.2 
24.6 
30.4 

40.2 
51.0 
36.7 



New York ranked first among the states in respect 
to the number of persons reported as deaf and diimb 
in 1910 with 4,861, Pennsylvania second with 3,262, 
lUinois third with 2,725, and Ohio fourth with 2,675, 
while the number exceeded 1,000 in 11 other states. 
The smallest number was reported from Nevada 
(23), and the next smallest from Wyoming (25); the 
number was also less than 100 in Arizona and Dela- 



ware (53 and 60, respectively). The proportion of 
the population reported as deaf and dumb who 
returned satisfactory schedules was higher in New 
England than in any other division, being 50 per cent, 
or one-half. The Middle Atlantic division ranked 
next, with 46.8 per cent, while the proportion ex- 
ceeded 40 per cent in four other divisions. The pro- 
portion was lowest (34.3 per cent, or a little more 
than one-third) in the Mountain division, the next 
divisions in this respect being the South Atlantic and 
West South Central, in which the percentages were 
37.2 and 37.5, respectively. 

The differences between the percentages for the 
different divisions result from a variety of factors, of 
which the constitution of the population as regards 
race and nativity, the degree of illiteracy in the various 
classes of the general population, and the extent to 
which the population of the division resided in rural 
districts were probably the most important. Thus 
the high percentage of schedules returned for the New 
England and Middle Atlantic divisions is probably 
due in large part to the high percentage of urban 
population in these divisions, combined with a per- 
centage of illiteracy below the average. The low pro- 
portion for the Mountain division appears to be due 
to the relatively large number of Indians in the 
population in tHs division and those for the South 
Atlantic and West South Central divisions in part to 
the large Negro population of the divisions, since the 
number returning the schedules was smaller rela- 
tively in the case of these two races than among the 
whites; the high percentage of ilHteracy among the 
whites in the Soilth Atlantic and West South Central 
divisions was also a factor of importance in causing 
the low proportion for these divisions. The propor- 
tion returning schedules was higher in Wyoming than 
in any other state, schedules being received for 14 
out of the 25 deaf and dumb persons reported; Rhode 
Island and Connecticut ranked next, with proportions 
somewhat over one-half (52.6 per cent and 52.5 per 
cent, respectively), and in three other states (Oregon, 
Maryland, and Massachusetts) the percentage was 
50 or over. The proportion was lowest in Utah, from 
which only 24.6 per cent, or practically one-fourth, of 
those reported as deaf and dumb returned schedules; 
this low percentage is partly explained by the fact that 
there was a considerable duplication in the returns, 
since many of the students at the state school for the 
deaf were enumerated both at the institution and with 
their families. The next lowest percentages are 
shown for Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico, the 
figures being 30.2, 30.4, and 30.7, respectively. The 
proportion fell below 35 per cent in seven other states, 
and in eight states was less than 40 per cent, although 
more than 35 per cent. 

Table 5 shows for purposes of reference the number 
of deaf and dumb in the respective divisions and states 
as reported at each census from 1830 to 1910, inclusive. 



SEX. 



19 



Table & 

DIVISION AND STATE. 



United States.. 

Geooraphic divisions: 

New England 

Middle Atlantic... 
East North Central 
West North Central 

South Atlantic 

East South Central . 
West South Central 

Mountain 

Pacific 

New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire. . . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East Noeth Centeal: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

East Sovtb Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma.... 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Coiorada 

New Mexico ' 

Aiizona. 

Utah 

Nevada. 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

Caluoroia 



DEAT AND DUMB POPULATION. 



19101 19002 18903 iggo' 18701 igeoi 18601 Ig40i 1880> 



44,708 



2,373 
8,823 
9,810 
6,211 
6,260 
4,458 
4,298 
1,027 
1,448 



352 
202 
128 
1,131 
215 
345 

4,861 

700 

3,262 

2,675 
1,734 
2,725 
1,374 
1,302 

1,113 
995 

1,884 
251 
331 
674 
963 



774 
118 

1,157 
739 

1,458 
744 
989 
221 

1,612 

1,265 

826 

755 

747 

795 

847 

1,909 

120 
118 

25 
260 
192 

53 
236 

23 

378 
255 
815 



24,369 



1,279 
3,974 
5,634 
4,082 
3,673 
2,695 
2,100 
370 
562 



237 
111 

60 
562 

53 
256 

1,864 

391 

1,719 

1,510 

1,103 

1,462 

801 

758 

630 

815 

1,322 

90 

137 



47 
395 

75 
706 
467 
736 
427 
688 
132 

976 
780 
522 
417 

556 

446 

•208 

890 

61 

33 

5 

94 

64 

16 

101 

7 

97 
141 
324 



40,592 



3,389 
7,967 
9,837 
6,214 
5,597 
3,831 
2,478 
508 
771 



627 
321 
241 
1,539 
162 
499 

3,843 

764 

3,360 

2,655 
1,837 
2,480 
1,549 
1,316 

857 

1,313 

l.f" 

92 

173 

629 

1,152 

98 
750 
124 

1,199 
600 

1,108 
668 
860 
190 

1,! 

1,115 
794 
559 

760 

539 

»26 

1,153 

40 
31 
16 

205 
80 
15 

108 
13 

118 
157 
496 



33,878 



2,581 
7,368 
8,612 
4,151 
4,975 
3,682 
1,784 
317 
508 



455 
221 
212 
978 
150 
565 

3,762 

527 

3,079 

2,301 
1,764 
2,202 
1,166 
1,079 

500 
1,052 
1,598 

•63 

(») 
287 
651 

84 
671 
169 
998 
520 
1,032 
564 
819 
118 

1,275 

1,108 

693 

606 

489 
524 



771 

9 

7 

11 

85 

70 

7 

118 

10 

24 
102 
382 



16,206 



82 
170 



170 
148 
538 
64 
475 

1,783 

231 

1,43^ 

1,339 
872 
833 
455 
459 

166 
549 
790 
54 

(«) 
55 
121 

61 
384 
134 
534 
218 
619 
212 
326 

48 

723 
570 
401 
245 

265 
197 



232 

5 
1 
2 

4 

48 
(') 
18 

4 

6 
23 
141 



12,821 



1,482 

3,148 

2,892 

821 

2,239 

1,571 

551 

42 

75 



297 
163 
144 
427 
56 
395 

1,579 

212 

1,357 

959 
600 
743 
277 
313 

33 
252 
498 
(') 

% 
27 

56 
237 

47 
816 



468 

203 

388 

24 

652 
436 
275 
208 

131 
239 



181 



9,803 



1,403 

2,597 

2,002 

341 

1,902 

1,257 

260 

34 

7 



162 
148 
358 
65 
404 

1,: 

1 
1,145 

915 
537 
356 
125 



59 
282 



54 
261 

19 
642 



471 

165 

266 

24 

563 
377 
210 
107 

84 
117 



59 



34 



(>) 



(') 



7,678 



1,246 
2,118 
1,121 

167 
1,772 
1,153 

101 



235 
190 
137 
290 
77 
317 

1,107 
179 
832 

592 

312 

179 

33 

5 



14 
153 



55 
249 

12 
603 



354 

218 

265 

16 

477 

358 

226 

92 

42 
59 



6,106 



1,112 

1,904 

660 

35 

1,609 

702 

84 



185 
144 
158 
265 
60 
300 

885 
222 
797 

435 

144 

66 

15 



35 



44 
231 

14 
549 



313 

243 

204 

11 

349 

200 

112 

41 

14 
70 



1 Persons reported as deaf and dumb by the population enumerators. 

< Deaf persons unable to speak at all for whom special schedules were returned. 

' Deaf persons unable to speak at all. 

* Deaf-mutes, exclusive of those reported as 16 years of age or over when hear- 
ing was lost. 

> No deaf 'and dumb persons reported. 

' Figures for Dakota territory. 

'No deaf and dumb persons reported for Dakota territory. 

■ Figures for Dakota territory given under North Dakota. 

* Includes figures for Indian Territory. 

n Figures (or Oklahoma territory only. Figures (or Indian Territory are not 
avaflable. 

Table 6 shows the per cent distribution by geo- 
graphic divisions both of the deaf and dumb popula- 
tion as reported and of those for whom special sched- 
ules were returned, in comparison with that of the 
total population. 

The distribution of the deaf and dumb, both of the 
total number reported and of those returning sched- 
ules, shows no very pronounced difference from that 
of the total population. The variation between the 
percentage of the total population and of the reported 
deaf and dumb population shown for the individual 



divisions is greatest relatively in the case of the New 
England and Pacific divisions, which contained a 
som^whafo smaller proportion of the deaf and dumb 
than of the total population. This probably results 
from the fact that the population of these divisions 
consists largely of migrants from other states or coim- 
tries, among whom deaf-mutes are not very Ukely to 
be found. In the case of the deaf and dumb returning 
schedules the Mountain and Pacific divisions show the 
greatest relative difiFerence, the former mainly by 
reason of the low percentage of the enumerated deaf 
and dumb who returned schedules. 



Table 6 


PER CENT DISTRIBUTION: 1910. 


DmSION. 


Total pop- 
ulation. 


Deaf and dumb popu- 
lation. 




Total 
reported. 


Returning 

special 
schedules. 


United States 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






New England 


7.1 
21.0 
19.8 
12.7 
13.3 
9.1 
9.6 
2.9 
4.6 


6.3 

19.7 

21.9 

13.9 

14.0 

10.0 

9.6 

2.3 

3.2 


6 2 


Middle Atlantic 


21.6 


East North Central 


22 6 


West North Central 


14.4 


South Atlantic 


12.1 


East South Central 


9.7 


Westfiouth Central 


8.4 


Mountain 


1 8 


Pacific 


3.0 







SEX. 

Of the 19,153 deaf and dumb persons for whom 
schedules were returned 10,507 were males and 8,646 
females, the number of males to each 100 females 
being 121.5. This pronounced excess of males among 
deaf-mutes is a well-recognized statistical phenome- 
non, for which, however, no satisfactory explanation 
has yet been found. To a certain extent, of course, 
it is due to the preponderance of male births, but as 
the number of males per 100 females in the general 
population under 10 years of age, the period of life 
when most deaf-mutes lose their hearing, is only 102.2 
it is obvious that there must be some other factor 
involved, especially as the higher death rate among 
infant males tends normally to equalize the number 
of the sexes. It is true that the number of males to 
each 100 females in the general population without 
distinction of age is by reason of the excess of males 
among the foreign-bom whites somewhat greater than 
in the population under 10 (106 as compared with 
102.2); but as deaf-mutes in all probability rarely 
migrate, the foreign-bom deaf-mutes in the United 
States presumably comprise mainly persons who were 
brought into the country by their relatives while children, 
and would therefore be affected to only a compara- 
tively slight extent by the causes operating to produce 
the excess of males among the total foreign-born pop- 
ulation. The statistics relative to age when hearing 
was lost and cause of deafness seem to indicate that the 
most influential cause of the excess of males among 
deaf-mutes may be a greater susceptibility of this sex 
to the zymotic diseases which are responsible for the 



20 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



major part of acquired deaf-mutism, although it is 
impossible to state why this should be the case. 

Table 7 shows the male and female deaf' and 4fimb 
population returning special schedules at the census 
of 1910 in comparison with that reported at each cen- 
sus from 1850 to 1900, inclusive, together with the 
number of males per 100 females and the correspond- 
ing ratio in the general population. Similar statis- 
tics for 1830 and 1840 are not available, as the male 
and female deaf and diunb were not separately re- 
turned at these censuses. In connection with the ab- 
solute numbers what has already been said relative to 
the comparabiUty of the returns for the several cen- 
suses should be kept in mind. 



Table 7 


DEAF AND DUMB POPTTLATION OF 
THE UNITED STATES. 


Males 
per 100 
females 


TEAR. 


Male. 


Female. 


Males 
per 100 
females. 


in the 

general 
p^ 


1910 1 


10,507 

13,495 

22,429 

18,567 

8,916 

7,124 

5,418 


8,646 
10,874 
18,163 
15,311 
7,289 
6 697 
4,385 


121.5 
124.1 
123.5 
121.3 
122.3 
125.0 
123.6 


106.0 


1900 ' 


104.4 


1890.. 


105.0 


1880. 


103.6 


1870 


102.2 


1880 


104.7 


1850 


104.3 




-41 



> Figures for deaf and dumb relate to population returning special schedules 
only. 

> Figures for deaf and dumb relate to deaf unable to speak at all for whom special 
schedules were returned. 

At each census included in the table the number of 
males to each 100 females has been considerably 
higher among the deaf and dumb than in the total 
population. The variations in the ratio have been 
comparatively slight, the number being greatest 
(125) in I860 and smallest (121.3) in 1880. The ratio 
in 1910 was practically the same as that in 1880. 

Table 8 shows for most of the foreign countries for 
which statistics are available the number of males 
and females, respectively, in the deaf and dumb popu- 
lation as reported at the latest census for which figures 
are at hand, together with the ratio of males to females 
in comparison with the corresponding figure for the 
general population. 

This table brings out clearly what has already been 
said as to the tendency towards an excess of males 
among the deaf and dumb. In every country for 
which the ratio of males to females among the deaf 
and dumb is given in the table there is an excess of 
males in this class of the population, even though the 
general population may show an excess of females. 
The contrast is especially marked in the case of 
Portugal, for which the number of males to each 100 
females among the deaf and dmnb is 142.9, as com- 
pared with only 90.3 in the general population. Jn 
practically every country, moreover, the excess of 
males is greater among the deaf and dimib than in 
the general population, the only exceptions being 
New South Wales and New Zealand. These facts, 
of course, indicate that the number of deaf-mutes is 
in general greater relatively among males than among 
females^ but the reason for this is difficult to ascertain. 



Table 8 



NOBTH AMEBICA. 



Bermuda Islands 

Canada 

Danish Antilles ■ 

Grenada 

Jamaica 

Mexico 

St. Vincent 

Trinidad and Tobago 

United States: 

Continental United 
States 

Hawaii 

Porto Rico 



South America. 



Argentina* 

Bolivia' 

Chile 

Uruguay 

ExntoPE. 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Cyprus 

Denmark' 

England and Wales 

Finland , 

France 

Germany 

Prussia , 

Saxony , 

Gibraltar" 

Hungary , 

Ireland 

Isle of Man and Channel 
Islands 

Italy 

Malta and Qozo 

Netherlands 

Portugal" 

Roumania 

Russia (European) " 

Scotland 

Serbia 

Sweden 



ASU. 

Ceylon 

Formosa' 

India* 

Philippine Islands " 

Russia (Asiatic) 1^ 

Afbica. 

Mauritius and dependencies 

Seychelles Islands 

Sierra I^one 

Uganda Protectorate u. 

Union of South Africa 

Cape of Good Hope 

Natal 

Orange Free State 

Transvaal 



Year. 



Austbalasia. 

Commonwealth of Aus- 
tralia" 

New South Wales 

Queensland 

South Australia 

Tasmania 

Victoria 

Western Australia 

NewZealandu 



1901 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1910 
1911 
1911 



1910 
1910 
1910 



1914 
1900 
1907 
1908 

1910 
1910 
1905 
1901 
1911 
1911 
1900 
1911 
1900 
1910 
1910 
1911 
1900 
1911 

1911 
1901 
1901 
1909 
1911 
1899 
1897 
1911 
1900 
1900 

1901 
1905 
1911 
1903 
1897 



1901 
1901 
1901 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
19U 
1911 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION. 



Male. 



Total 
num- 
ber. 



2,491 

16 

23 

305 

4,644 

34 

368 



nO,507 

32 

395 



4,443 
227 

1,416 
397 

21,514 

2,290 

2,381 

178 

973 

• 8,167 

1,851 

12,136 

26,368 

18,659 

1,349 

26 

13,794 

1,751 

•32 

17,284 

51 

1,228 

2,030 

3,093 

60,524 

1,255 

2,598 

2,950 

HI, 542 
2,470 

H119,251 
3,261 
9,055 



»125 

»6 

6 

1,929 

1,475 

780 

230 

148 

317 



160 
134 

54 
280 

40 
154 



Num- 
ber 
per 
1(W,000 
male 
popu- 
lation. 



(') 

65.2 

127.9 

75.7 

76.7 

61.9 

185.3 

>39.0 



26.0 
70.9 



105.1 
27.7 
87.2 
74.8 

153.3 

62.3 

115.7 

147.0 

72.7 

•46.8 

137.9 

63.0 

95.1 

94.0 

68.0 

(') 

144.0 

79.9 

•45.6 

107.0 

44.7 

42.4 

71.8 

102.2 

119.9 

54.4 

202.8 

117.7 

1*81.0 

153.3 

1*74.3 

93.3 

75.4 



*61.1 
(0 
14.3 

173.3 
48.1 
62.1 
40.7 
63.3 
32.6 



43.1 
38.6 
48.6 
64.6 
55.3 
42.7 
24.8 
29.0 



Female. 



Total 
num- 
ber. 



4 

2,093 

12 

42 

260 

3,130 

37 

•53 



<8,646 

26 

361 



3,355 
125 
920 
293 

18,596 

1,901 

1,717 

145 

820 

• 6,955 

1,623 

9,687 

22,382 

16,145 

1,091 

13 

11,651 

1,394 

•32 

13,983 

44 

1,077 

1,421 

1,803 

49,032 

1,114 

1,569 

2,349 

1*1,036 
1,607 

1*80,640 
2,649 
5,902 



*56 
*4 

7 
1,643 
923 
547 
68 
126 
182 



854 
310 

97 
112 

44 
255 

36 
147 



Num- 
ber 
per 
100,000 
female 
popu- 
:ation. 



Males 
per 100 

females. 



(') 
61.8 
82.3 
115. 5 
69.9 
40.9 
157.2 
»33.3 



(*) 

37.8 

04.4 



91.7 
15.3 
56.6 
67.2 

127.9 
60.8 
86.8 

125.0 
57.8 

•37.3 

118.4 
48.6 
78.2 
79.5 
43.9 

iii?5 

63.4 

• 40.6 
85.7 
46.9 
36.4 
45.4 
61.5 
93.6 
45.4 

129.5 
9.3 

1*62.0 

112.5 

1*52.7 

75.9 

54.8 



*32.2 

0) 

20.1 
121.8 
31.8 
41.8 
10.8 
50.3 
25.5 



39.9 
39.3 
35.1 
65.7 
47.0 
38.6 
29.9 
30.8 



Males 
per 
100 fe- 
males 
in the 
general 
popu- 
lation. 



(•) 
119.0 

^ 

117.3 
148.4 

(?) 
< 121.5 



132.4 
181.6 
153. 9 
135.5 

115.7 
120.5 
138.7 
122.8 
118.7 
•117.4 
114.0. 
125.3 
117.8 
115.6 
123.6 
(•) 

118.4 
125.6 

123.6 

AV.0 

142.9 
171.5 
123.4 
112.7 
165.6 
125.6 

1*148.8 
153.7 

1*147.9 
123.1 
153.4 



116.9 
106.5 

(•) 
119.6 

(«) 
109.8 

(») 
104.8 



112.3 
112.9 
85.8 
83.6 
91.6 
98.0 
78.0 
109.5 



106.0 
178.9 
99.4 



115.5 

100.6 

99.9 

103.6 

96.5 
98.4 
104.0 
104.4 
94.3 
93.7 
97.9 
96.6 
96.91 
97.7 
93.6 
85.0 
99.1 
99.7 

89.1 
99.0 

121.5 
98.0 
90.3 

103.3 
96.3 
94.2 

105.8 
95.3 

114.0 
112.7 
104.8 
100.2 
111.5 



117.8 

104.2 

120. 

82.5 

105.7 

95.9 

89.7 

110.7 

135.9 



108.0 
108.7 
119.3 
103.1 
104.2 
99.3 
134.0 
111.6 



1 Ratio not shown by reason of the smallness of the numbers involved. 
> Ratio not shown where number of females is less than 100. 

• Figures represent persons reported as dumb. 

• Includes only deal and dumb returning special schedules. 

• Ratio not shown by reason of the incompleteness of the returns. 

• In computing the ratios persons for whom no returns as to infirmities wer 
secured were deducted from the general population. 

' Enumerated population only. 

• Exclusive of Faroe Islands. 

• Figures include persons returned simply as dumb. 

10 Figures relate to civil population of city and territory only. 

11 Includes Azores and Madeira. 

u Including Poland, but exclusive of Finland. 

1* Figures represent congenitally deaf and dumb only. 

I* Civilized population. 

1* Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia. 

" Native population in administered districts. 

1' Exclusive of full-blooded aboriginals. 

u Exclusive of Maoris and of population of annexed Pacific islands. 



RACE AND NATIVITY. 



21 



General Table 1 (p. Ill) shows for each division and 
state the number of males and females, respectively, 
among the deaf and dumb population in 1910 for 
whom special schedules were returned. Table 9 
shows the number in each geographic division, to- 
gether with the ratio of males to females in com- 
parison with the corresponding ratio in the total 
population. 



Table 9 

DIVISION 


DEAF AND DUMB POPTOATION 
FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHED- 
UXES WEBB eeiubned: 
IMO. 


Males 
per 100 
females 

in the 
general 

^To'^r 

1910. 




Hale. 


Female. 


Males 
per 100 
females. 


United States 


10,507 


8,646 


121.5 


106.0 






New Erglnjid . 


654 

2,331 

2,362 

1,532 

1,257 

1,005 

849 

203 

314 


533 

1,802 

1,967 

1,235 

1,069 

860 

764 

149 

267 


122.7 
129.4 
12a 1 
124.0 
117.6 
116.9 
111.1 
136.2 
117.6 


99.3 


Middle Atlantic 


103.3 


East North Central 


106.0 


West North Central 


109.9 


South Atlantic 


101.2 


East South Central 


101.9 


West South Central. . 


107.2 


Mo^iTiti^ip 


127.9 


Pacific 


129.5 







The number of males per 100 females was higher 
(136.2) in the Mountain division and lower (111.1) in 
the West South Central division than in any other. 
The variations in the ratios for the different divisions 
are difficult of explanation, and it is possible that to 
a considerable extent they may reflect differences in 
the degree of completeness with which the deaf-mutes 
of the respective sexes were enumerated and returned 
the schedules. 

KACE AND NATIVITY. 

Table 10 shows the distribution by race and nativity 
of the deaf and dumb population in 1910 for whom 
special schedules were returned, and also the per cent 
distribution on this basis of the total population. 



Table lO 

RACE AND NATiyiTT. 


DEAf AND DVMB POP- 
ULATION FOE WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDTn.E3 
WERE EEIX7BNED: 
1«10. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion of 
total 

1010. 




Number. 


Percent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Allclasses.. 


19,153 


loao 


100 






■White . . 


18,016 


94.1 


88.9 






Native 


16,178 
1,838 

1,137 


84.5 
9.6 

6.9 


74.4 




14.5 


Colored 


11.1 






Negro. 


1,069 

68 

66 

2 


6.6 

a4 
as 
0) 


ia7 


other colored 


0.4 


Indian 


as 


Chinefle And Jat>ftTiAfaA, , . 


2 







1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

Of the 19,153 deaf-mutes for whom schedules were 
returned, 16,178, representing 84.5 per cent, or a 
little more than five-sixths, were native whites, 1,838, 
representing 9.6 per cent, or about one-tenth, were 
foreign-born whites, and 1,069, or 5.6 per cent, were 
Negroes. Of the remainder, 66 were Indians, 1 
Chinese, and 1 Japanese. 



The fact that native whites are much more numerous 
relatively, and foreign-born whites and Negroes less 
numerous, among the deaf-mutes covered by the tabu- 
lation than in the general population is in all likeli- 
hood largely accounted for by differences in the extent 
to which the special schedule was returned by the 
different races. This may be inferred from the differ- 
ences in the case of the bhnd enumerated in 1910, 
among whom 54.4 per cent of the native whites re- 
turned the schedule, as compared with corresponding 
percentages of 49.4 for the foreign-bom whites and 
40.8 for the Negroes. It is probable, however, that 
the proportion both of foreign-born whites and of 
Negroes is actually smaller among deaf-mutes than in 
the general population. This is brought out by 
Table 11, which shows the main race and nativity 
classes of the deaf and dumb enumerated at each 
census from 1830 to 1890, inclusive, together with the 
number per 100,000 of the same race and nativity. 
Simaiar figures for 1910 and 1900 are not given by 
reason of the fact that, owing to the deficiencies in the 
published returns, ratios per 100,000 population by 
race and nativity would be of doubtful value. Prior 
to I860 only the white and colored were distinguished, 
but*practically all the colored enumerated at these 
early censuses were Negroes. In connection with this 
table what has previously been said regarding the 
comparability of the figures for the various censuses 
must be borne in mind. 



Table 11 



YEAR. 



1890. 
1880. 
1870. 
1860. 
1850« 
1840<, 
1830«. 

1890. 
1880. 
1870. 
1860. 
1850" 
1840», 
1830», 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION OF THE UNITED 
STATES. 



All 

classes. 



White. 



Total. 



Native. 



Foreign- 
born. 



Negro. 



TOTAL NUMBER. 



>40,592 
> 33,878 
116,205 
12,821 
9,803 
7,678 
6,106 



37,447 

30,661 

14,907 

11,856 

9,136 

6,692 

5,363 



33,278 
27,304 
13,575 
10,801 



4,169 
3,357 
1,332 
1,055 



3,115 
«S,177 
1,291 
965 
667 
98S 
743 



NUMBEE PEE 100,000 POPULATION OF SAME BACE 
AND NATrVlTT. 



64.8 
67.5 
42.0 
40.8 
42.3 
45.0 
47.5 



68.1 
70.6 
44.4 
44.0 
46.7 
47.1 
50.9 



72.6 
74.1 
48.3 
47.3 



45.7 
51.2 
24.2 
25.8 

(4) 



41.7 
48.3 
26.5 
21.7 
18.3 
34.3 
31.9 



> Includes the small number of "other colored." 

> Includes 10 persons reported as "foreign colored" without further statement. 

« The deaf and dumb Indians enumerated, if any, were included with one of the 
other classes. 
' Separate figures not available. 

At each census covered by the table the ratio of deaf 
and dumb to total popidation was much higher for the 
whites as a whole than for the Negroes, and at each 
census at which the whites were classified according 
to nativity it was much higher for the native than for 
the foreign-bom whites. The chief explanation of the 
low ratio for the foreign-bom whites lies of course in 



22 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



the fact that most of the immigrants to the United 
States are adults, and hence woidd probably comprise 
relatively few deaf-mutes, since practically all deaf- 
mutes become so in childhood and an adult deaf -Oiute 
would not be Ukely to migrate from his own country; 
the provision of the immigration law requiring the ex- 
clusion of persons likely to become public charges may 
also be a contributing factor. The figures thus bear 
out what has already been said as to the probabihty 
that the foreign-bom whites actually make a smaller 
contribution relatively to the deaf and dumb than to 
the general population. 

While there is reason to beUeve that the returns 
for the Negroes are somewhat less complete than 
those for the whites, the magnitude of the difference 
between the ratios for this class and those for the 
native whites is such that the conclusion seems 
forced that there are jfetuaUy more deaf-mutes 
relatively in the latter class than in the former. 
The low ratio for the Negroes is more diffictdS^ to 
account for than that for the foreign-born whites, 
but it is significant in this connection that mortality 
returns tend to indicate that the Negroes are less 
sxisceptible to certain of the diseases which are of im- 
portance as causes of adventitious deafness thaii*are 
the whites. This is brought out by Table 12, which 
shows the average annual death rate from measles, 
scarlet fever, diphtheria, and meningitis among the 
white and colored, respectively, in the registration 
area for the 5-year period 1910-1914. The term 
"Colored" covers the Negroes, Indians, Chinese, Jap- 
anese, and all other colored races, but in the registra- 
tion area there were relatively few colored other than 
Negroes. 



Table 12 



CAUSE OF DEATH. 



Measles 

Scarlet fever 

Diphtheria and croup 
Meningitis 



avebage annual death 
bate in the eegistba- 
tion abea feb 100,000 
population: imo-i»u. 



White. 



9.7 

8.7 

19.4 

11.0 



Colored. 



8.4 
2.2 
10.6 
17.3 



The death rate from scarlet fever during the period 
1910-1914 was practically four times as great and 
that from diphtheria nearly twice as great for the 
whites as for the colored, while that from measles 
was shghtly higher for the former class than for the 
latter. On the other hand, Negroes appear to be 
somewhat more susceptible to meningitis, another 
leading cause of deaf -mutism, than are whites; the 
difference, however, is not sufficiently great to make 
up for the higher rate from the three causes first 
mentioned which is shown for the whites. It seems 
probable, therefore, that differences in the relative ex- 
tent to which the respective races suffer from the lead- 
ing causes of acquired deafness may explain in part 
the fact that a relatively smaller nimiber of deaf- 
mutes was reported among Negroes than among whites. 



General Table 1 (p. Ill) shows for each division and 
state the number of deaf-mutes for whom special 
schedules were returned, classified according to race, 
nativity, and sex. Table 13 gives the per cent distri- 
bution according to race and nativity of the deaf and 
dmnb population returning schedules in each division, 
in comparison with the corresponding distribution of 
the total population. 



Table 13 


FEB CENT OF TOTAL: 1910. 


DIVISION AND CLASS OF POPULATION. 


White. 


Negro. 


All 

other. 




All 
classes. 


Native. 


Foreign- 
bom. 


United States: 


88.9 
94.1 


74.4 
84.5 


14.5 
9.6 


10.7 
5.6 


4 




0.4 




New England: 

Total population 


98.9 
99.1 

97.7 
98.6 

98.2 
98.8 

97.5 
97.1 

66.2 
80.4 

68.4 
84.8 

76.5 
89.1 

95.7 
96.3 

96.0 
98.8 


71.2 
79.2 

72.8 
82.8 

81.4 
86.7 

83.7 
87.4 

63.8 
79.4 

67.4 
84.2 

72.5 
87.0 

79.1 
87.8 

7S.4 
83.5 


27.7 
19.9 

25.0 
15.8 

16.8 
12.0 

13.9 
9.8 

2.4 
1.0 

1.0 
0.6 

4.0 
2.1 

16.6 
8.5 

20.5 
10.3 


1.0 
0.8 

2.2 
1.3 

1.6 
1.1 

2.1 
2.1 

33.7 
19.5 

31.5 
15.2 

22.6 
9.8 

0.8 
1.1 

0.7 
0.2 


1 




1 


Middle Atlantic: 

Total noDulation 


1 




1 


East North Central: 

Total Donulation 


1 




0.1 
4 


West North Central: 




0.8 

0.1 
0.1 

(') 


South Atlantic: 

Total population , . . . 




East South Central: 

Total population 




West South Central: 

Total population 


0.9 
1.1 

3.5 
2.6 

3.3 
1.0 


Ti^i and dumi) i . 


Mountain: 

Total population 


Deaf and dumb i 


Pacific: 

Total population . . . 







1 Deaf and dumb for whom special schedules were returned only. 
' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

In every division native whites formed a larger and 
foreign-born whites a smaller proportion of the deaf 
and dumb for whom special schedules were returned 
than of the total population, and in every division 
except two, Negroes formed a smaller proportion of 
the former than of the latter, the exceptions being 
the West North Central and Mountain divisions, in 
which there are comparatively few Negroes. The 
difference between the two sets of percentages is es- 
pecially striking in the three southern divisions, where 
the Negro population is mainly concentrated. Al- 
though in the South Atlantic and East South Central 
divisions Negroes formed in 1910 about one-third (33.7 
and 31.5 per cent, respectively) of the total population, 
and in the West South Central division more than one- 
fifth (22.6 per cent), they contributed less than one- 
fifth (19.5 per cent) of the deaf and dumb population 
returning schedules in the South Atlantic division, less 
than one-sixth (15.2 per cent) of that in the East 
South Central, and less than one-tenth (9.8 per cent) 
of that in the West South Central. These differences 
seem entirely too large to be explained by the difference 
in the proportion of the respective races who returned 
the special schedule, unless the latter diff6rence was 
much greater among the deaf and dumb than among 
the blind, which seems rather improbable. The prob- 



COUNTRY OF BIRTH. 



23 



able influence of the difference in the percentage re- 
turning the schedule is roughly indicated by the fol- 
lowing table, which shows for the three southern 
divisions the percentage of Negroes in the total popu- 
lation and the percentage of Negroes which there would 
have been in the blind population returning the special 
schedule if the ratio of enumerated blind to total popu- 
lation had been the same for the Negroes as for the 
whites, assuming that the percentage returning the 
special schedule remained unchanged. 



Table 14 


PEE CENT NEGKO: 1910. 


DIVISION. 


In total 
population. 


In blind 
population 
reluming 
schedules 
if ratio of 
blind to 
total popu- 
lation had 
been the 
same 
among 
Negroes as 
among 
whites. 


South Atlantic 


33.7 
31.5 
22.6 


29.2 


East South Central 


27.7 


West South Central 


19.2 







Inasmuch as the percentage Negro in the blind 
population would be practically the same as in the 
total population if there were no difference in the ratio 
of blind to total population for whites and Negroes, 
respectively, the differences shown in the table be- 
tween the percentage Negro in the blind population 
returning special schedules and that in the total popu- 
lation are mainly due to the differences between the 
white and the Negro blind in the percentages return- 
ing the schedule. It will be seen that the differences 
between the percentage Negro in the hypothetical 
blind population returning special schedules and that 
in the total population for the respective divisions are 
comparatively small and are considerably less than 
the corresponding differences between the percentage 
Negro in the deaf and dumb population returning 
schedules and in the total population (see Table 13). 
In view of these facts it is doubtful whether these latter 
differences can be explained solely on the theory that 
a larger number relatively of the whites than of the 
Negroes returned the special schedule; and it seems 
probable, therefore, that in these divisions Negroes 
actually contribute a much smaller proportion of the 
deaf and dumb than of the total population, a circum- 
stance which would of course confirm the supposition 
that deaf-mutism is less common among Negroes than 
among whites. 

Table 15 shows the distribution, by sex, of the deaf 
and dumb population in each race and nativity class 
in 1910 for whom special schedules were returned, to- 
gether with the number of males per 100 females, in 
comparison with the corresponding ratio for the general 
population. 

All classes show -an excess of males in the deaf and 
dumb population returning schedules, including even 



the Negroes, among whom there is an excess of females 
in the general popiilation. The ratio of males to 
females among the deaf and dumb was practically 
the.»game for the native whites and the Negroes. It 
was considerably higher for the foreign-born whites 
than for the other two maia classes, although the actual 
difference was probably less, as there is reason to 
believe that a somewhat larger proportion of the male 
than of the female children among the foreign-born 
white deaf-mutes were attending school, a circum- 
stance which would be likely to affect the ratio 
through the fact that certain large institutions for 
the deaf in Nfew York City appear to have made a 
special effort to see that schedules were returned for 
their pupils. In the case of the native whites the ex- 
cess of males was considerably greater among the 
deaf and dumb than in the general population; for the 
foreign-bom whites, howe^r, it was slightly higher in 
the general population, probably by reason of the fact 
thaifc'there is a considerable excess of males among the 
adult immigrants to the United States, who contribute 
the great bulk of the foreign-bom white population, 
whereas the foreign-bom white* deaf-mutes probably 
comprise for the most part persons who were brought 
to the United States by their parents as children, 
among whom the sex ratio would tend more nearly 
to approach the normal. 



Table 15 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEJLE EETUBNED: 
1910. 


Males per 
100 fe- 
males in 
general 


BACE AND NATIVITY. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Males per 

100 
females. 


popula- 
tion of 

same 
race and 
nativity: 

1910. 




19,153 


10,507 


8,646 


121.5 


106.0 






White 


18,016 


9,888 


8,128 


121.7 


106 6 






Native 


16,178 
1,838 

1,137 


8,855 
1,033 

619 


7,323 
805 

518 


120.9 
128.3 

119.5 


102 7 


ForeiEn-born . 


129 2 


Colored 


101 3 








1,069 
68 


584 
35 


485 
33 


120.4 


98.9 


Other colored . 


185 7 







1 Ratio not shown where number of females is less than 100. 

COUNTRY OF BIRTH OF FOREIGN-BORN WHITE DEAF- 
MUTES. 

General Table 2 (p. 112) shows for each division and 
state the distribution, by coimtry of birth, of the f oreign- 
bom white deaf-mutes in 1910 for whom schedules 
were returned. Table 16, on the next page, compares 
this distribution for the United States as a whole with 
that of the total foreign-bom white population. 

Three countries — Germany, Russia, and Canada 
(including Newfoundland) — ^furnished more than one- 
half (55.3 per cent) of the foreign-bom white deaf- 
mutes for whom special schedxdes were returned, Ger- 
many leading with 24.5 per cent, or about one-fourth, 
of the total, and Russia ranking second with 16.6 per 
cent, or one-sixth, of the total. These percentages are 



24 



DEAF-MUTES ^ft^ THE UNITED STATES. 



substantially larger than the correspondiHg figures 
for the total foreign-bom white population,-of whom 
only 39.7 per cent, or less than two-fifths, reported 
one of these three countries as country of birt|;(, the 
proportion bom in Germany being 18.7 per cent and 
the proportion bom in Russia 12 per cfent. 



Table 16 



COXJNTET OF BIBTH. 



All countries. 



Austria^Hungary. 

Austria 

Hungary 

Balkan Peninsula * 

Canada and Newfonndlmd.. 

Of French parentage 

Of other parentage , 

Engtend and Wales 

Fr^ce 

Germany 

Ireland 

Italy 

Mexico 

Netherlands and Belgium. .. 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

Bnssia and Finland 

Russia 

Finland 

Scandinavian countries 

Denmark 

Norway 

Sweden 

Scotland 

Switzerland 

AH other countries * 



FOKEIGN-BOBN •WHITE 




DEAF AND DUMB 


Percent 


POPOTAHON OF THE 


distribu- 


UNITED STATES FOE 


tion of total 


WHOM SPECIAL 


foreign- 
bom white 


SCHEDULES WERE 


eetubned: 1910. 


population 




of the 






United 




Percent 


States: 


Numher. 


distribu- 
tion. 


1910. 


1,838 


100.0 


100.0 


169 


9.2 


12.5 


131 


7.1 


8.8 


38 


2.1 


3.7 


13 


0.7 


1.7 


262 


14.3 


9.0 


97 


5.3 


2.9 


165 


9.0 


!6.1 


140 


7.6 


7.2 


15 


0.8 


0.9 


450 


24.5 


18.7 


91 


5.0 


10.1 


103 


5.6 


10.1 


4 


0.2 


1.6 


19 


1.0 


1.3 


17 


0.9 


0.9 


2 


0.1 


0.4 


312 


17.0 


13.0 


305 


16.6 


12.0 


7 


0.4 


1.0 


155 


8.4 


9.4 


13 


0.7 


1.4 


54 


2.9 


3.0 


88 


4.8 


5.0 


37 


2.0 


2.0 


33 


1.8 


0.9 


35 


1.9 


1.7 



> Includes Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Roumania, Serbia, and Turkey in 
Europe. 

'Includes all persons reporting Newfoundland as country of birth. 
< Includes persons bom at sea. 

Since, as already stated, most of the foreign-bom 
white deaf-mutes probably were very young when they 
came to the United States, the differences between 
the percentages reporting the respective countries of 
birth in the total and the deaf and dumb population 
should reflect mainly differences in the proportion 
of children among the immigrants from the various 
countries, although differences in the degree of illit- 
eracy or in knowledge of the English language prob- 
ably are to some extent a contributory factor in the 
percentages shown in the table through their in- 
fluence on the relative number returning schedules. 
Exact statistics as to the relative number of children 
among the immigrants from the different countries 
are not available, as the only age statistics given in the 
reports of the Commissioner General of Immigration 
relate to races or peoples and not to countries of 
origin. According to these, however, the proportion 
of children among German immigrants is distinctly 
above the average, 17 per cent, or more than one-sixtlj, 
of the German immigrant ahens entering the United 
States during the 12 fiscal years ending Jime 30, 1910, 
being children under 14 years of age, as compared 
'with a corresponding percentage of 12.1 for all races 
or peoples. This large percentage of children is un- 



questionably to a considerable extent responsible for 
the substantially higher percentage reporting Ger- 
many as country of birth among the deaf-mutes who 
returned schedules than in the total foreign-bom white 
population. Similarly, the high percentage of deaf- 
mutes who reported Russia as coimtry of birth is xm- 
doubtedly due to the extremely high percentage of 
children (24.9 per cent, or practically one-fourth, in 
the 12 years ending June 30, 1910) among the Hebrews, 
who constitute the most important element in the 
immigration from that country; there is, however, 
reason for believing that the returns for deaf-mutes 
bom in Russia may be somewhat more complete than 
those for some other nationalities, on account of the 
large Russian Jew population in New York City, where 
there are some large institutions for the deaf which 
sent in schedules for the great majority of their pupils. 
While statistics as to the age of the immigrants from 
Canada are not available, it is practically certain that 
they comprise a large number of children; moreover, 
relatively more adult deaf-mutes probably make the 
short land journey ordinarily involved in migration 
from Canada to the United States than take the long 
sea voyage required of immigrants from Eiiropean 
coimtries. In contrast to the immigration from the 
coimtries just mentioned may be instanced that from 
Ireland and Italy, only 5.2 per cent of the Irish im- 
migrants during the period 1899-1910, and only 11.2 
per cent of the Italian, being children under 14, a 
fact which perhaps explains why these coimtries con- 
tributed only about half as many relatively to the 
deaf and dumb returning schedules in 1910 as to the 
total foreign-bom white population. 



AGE. 



Table 17 shows the age distribution of the deaf and 
dumb population for whom special schedules were 
returned at the census of 1910, in comparison with the 
corresponding distribution of the total population. 

The principal peculiarity distinguishing the age 
distribution of the deaf and dumb returning schedules 
from that of the total population is the much smaller 
proportion of children among the former as compared 
with the latter. Of the deaf-mutes for whom schedules 
were returned only 24.7 per cent, or about one-fourth, 
were under 15 years of age, as compared with 32.1 per 
cent, or a little less than one-third, in the general popu- 
lation. In particular, only 1 .6 per cent of the deaf and 
dumb represented in the tabulation were less than 5 
years old, although the corresponding proportion for 
the general population was 11.6 per cent, or more than 
one-tenth. The main reason for this smaller propor- 
tion of children among the deaf and dumb lies of course 
in the circumstance that loss of hearing at any time 
prior to the complete acquisition of the faculty of ar- 
ticulate speech, which usually does not occur imtil the 
earlier years of the second quiaquennium of life, wiU 



AGE. 



25 



ordinarily result in deaf-mutism, so that the number of 
deaf-mutes among persons bom in any given year will 
not reach its maximum imtil about the middle of the 
first decade of hfe. The actual proportion of children 
among the deaf and dumb is, however, imquestionably 
somewhat larger than is shown in the table, as it is 
practically certain that any enmneration of the deaf 
and dumb in connection with the population census 
will always be seriously defective so far as the earliest 
years of life are concerned. This results from the fact 
that in a large proportion of cases of children bom 
deaf or losing their hearing soon after birth some time 
elapses before the existence of deafness is recognized, 
and from the further fact that parents are always 
more or less reluctant to admit having defective 
children.' It will, for example, be observed that 
schedules were received for only three children under 
1 year of age, a number which, in view of the fact that 
deaf-mutism is very largely congenital in its origin, 
must obviously be very much below the true figure. 
It is furthermore probable that the deaf-mutes at the 
earliest ages do not have a representation in the popu- 
lation for whom schedules were returned that is com- 
mensurate even with their importance in the deaf and 
dmnb population as enmnerated. At the enumera- 
tion of the blind which was made at the same time as 
that of the deaf and dumb a much smaller number of 
schedules relatively were received for those at the 
earlier ages than for the adult blind, presumably be- 
cause the parents or other relatives upon whom the 
return of the schedules for children was dependent 
took less interest in seeing that the schedules were 
returned than did the adult bUnd who received 
schedules, and it is probable that a similar situation 
existed in regard to the deaf and dmnb. 

After the age of 20 the percentages in the respective 
age groups for the deaf and dumb show on the whole 
a fairly close correspondence to those for the general 
population; the variations probably reflect mainly the 
influence of immigration upon the age distribution of 
the general population and differences in the percent- 
ages returning schedules at the different ages for the 
deaf and dumb. The proportions of old people are 
practically identical, the percentage 65 or over being 

' The resulta of the enumeration of 1910 in Delaware afford an 
illuBtration of the unsatisfactory character of an enumeration of 
the deaf and dumb in connection with the population census as 
regards the number of children reported. According to this enu- 
meration, there were only 3 deaf and dumb children under 6 years 
of age in the state in 1910; two years later, however, the Delaware 
CommiBsIon for the Blind, which had been required by law to 
make an enumeration of the deaf-mutes in the state, found 16 such 
children. 

Compare also the following: "The younger * * * the chil- 
dren, the more difficult is certain knowledge of the defect and the 
less inclined are the parents, even when they can scarcely continue 
longer to doubt, formally to acknowledge it against their better 
hopes in the census list. Only with school a^ does the time 
arrive when the misfortune can no lon^r be demed." — ^Translated 
from Mayr: "Die Verhnitung der Blindheit, der Taitbstummheit, 
da Blddsinna und de* Irrtinna in Bayem" {BtitrOge zwr Statiitik 
dea K6mgreiclu Bayem, XXXV. Eefi, Munich, 1877, p. 30). 



4.2 for the deaf-mutes returning schedules as compared 
with 4.3 for the general population. It is doubtfiil, 
however, if the deaf and dumb actually have as great an 
expectation of life as normal persons ; for the small pro- 
portion of children among the former would naturally 
result in an increased percentage in the older age 
groups, and, as wiU be brought out more fuUy later 
(p. 49), statistics tend to show that the longevity of 
the deaf and dumb,- at least of those whose deafness is 
acquired, is in fact less than that of normal persons. 
In view of the fact, moreover, that the progress which 
has been made in the teaching of speech to the deaf 
has occurred mainly within the last three decades, 
it is probable that the deaf-mutes omitted by the 
enmnerators for the reason that they had been taught 
to speak and hence were not regarded as dumb feU 
mainly in the earlier age groups, a circumstance which 
would further have contributed to raise the percentage 
at the later ages. 



Table 17 



AGE OSOUF. 



Total... 
Age reported. 



Under 5 years 

Under 1 year. 
1 to 4 years... 

6to9yeais 

10tol4yeats 



15 to 19 years, 
ao to 24 yeais. 
25 to 29 years. 
30 to 34 years. 
35 to 39 years. 



40 to 44 years. 
45 to 49 years. 
50 to 54 years. 
55 to 59 years. 
60 to 64 years. 



65 to 69 years.... 

70 to 74 years 

75 to 79 years.... 
80 to 84 years. . . . 
85 years or over., 



Age not reported. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPU- 
LATION FOR WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDXn.ES 
WEBE REIimNED: 
1910. 



Number. 



19,153 



19,126 



303 
3 

300 
1,850 
2,569 

2,403 
2,062 
1,706 
1,347 
1,517 

1,344 

1,251 

899 

603 

475 



207 

122 

48 

32 

27 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 



(') 



1.6 



1.6 
9.7 
13.4 

12.6 
10.8 
8.9 
7.0 
7.9 

7.0 
6.5 
4.7 
3.2 
2.5 

2.0 
1.1 
0.6 
0.3 
0.2 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion of 
total popu- 
lation: 
1910. 



100.0 



11.6 
2.4 
9.2 

10.6 
9.9 

9.9 
9.9 
8.9 
7.6 
7.0 

5.7 
4.9 
4.2 
3.0 
2.5 

1.8 
1.2 
€.7 
0.4 
0.2 



> Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

The median age of the deaf and dumb returning 
schedules was 26.1 years — that is, one-half were xmder 
26.1 years of age, whUe one-half had passed that age — 
as compared with 24 years, or 2.1 years less, for the 
general population. In view of the relatively small 
percentage of children among the deaf and dumb, a 
somewhat higher median for this class than for the 
general population was of course to have been ex- 
pected. 

Owing to changes from census to census in the 
method and scope of the enumeration, figures showing 
the age distribution of the deaf and dumb at the 
different censuses are of vincertain comparability. 



26 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



For purposes of reference, however, Table 18 shows the 
distribution at each census from 1860 to 1910. Com- 
parative figures can not be given for censuses prior to 
1860. 



Table 18 

AGE GEOTJP. 



Total. 



Under 5 years — 
Under 1 year . 
lto4 years... 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years 

15 to 19 years 

20 to 39 years 

40 to 59 years 

60 years or over... 

Age not reported . 



Total. 



Under 5 years 

Under 1 year. 
1 to4 years... 

5to9years 

10 to 14 years 

15 to 19 years 

20 to 39 years 

40 to 59 years 

60 years or over... 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



19101 1900 « 1890 1880 1870 I860 



19,153 



3 

300 
1,850 
2,569 
2,403 
6,632 
4.097 
1,272 
27 



24,369 



858 
(') 
(') 

2,658 
3,253 
3. OSS 
8,609 
4,329 
1,481 

123 



40,592 



940 

h 

4,466 
5,224 
5,681 
13,941 
6,672 
3,152 
516 



33.878 16 



941 

30 

911 

4,253 

5,337 

5,020 

10,526 

4,906 

2,895 



407 
12 

395 
2,051 
3,037 
2,560 
5,056 
2,194 

845 
55 



12, 821 



474 
14 

460 
1,583 
2.210 
2. 124 
3,882 
1,892 

623 
33 



PER CENT DISTRIBUTION.' 



100.0 



1.6 

(') 
1.6 

9.7 
13.4 
12.6 
34.7 
21.4 

6.7 



100.0 



3.5 



?^ 



11.0 
13.4 
12.6 
35.5 
17.9 
6.1 



100.0 



2.3 

(') 

^l1.1 
13.0 
14.2 
34.8 
16.6 
7.9 



100.0 



2.8 

0.1 

2.7 

12.6 

15.8 

14.8 

31.1 

14.5 

8.5 



100.0 



2.5 

0.1 

2.4 

12.7 

18.8 

15.9 

31.3 

13.6 

5.2 



100.0 



3.7 

0.1 

3.6 

12.4 

17.3 

16.6 

30.4 

14.8 

4.9 



1 Deaf and dumb for whom special schedules were returned only. 

> Deaf persons unable to speak at all for whom special schedules were returned. 

' Separate figures not available. 

* Based upon the population whose age was reported. 

' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

Table 19 shows the median age of the deaf and 
dumb population as reported at each census from 
1860 to 1910, inclusive, in comparison with that of 
the total population. 



Table 19 


TEAR. 


MEDIAN AGE OF THE 

POPtJLATIONOFTHE 

UNITED STATES. ' 




Total. 


Deaf and 
dumb. 


1910 


24.0 
22.9 
21.4 
20.9 
20.1 
19.4 


>26.1 


1900 


• 25.1 


1890 


23.9 


1880 


21.6 


1870 


20.1 


I860 


20.0 







» Based upon the population whose age was reported. 

• Deaf and dumb for whom special schedules were returned only. 

• Deaf persons unable to speak at all for whom special schedules were returned. 

The median age of the deaf and dumb population 
increased from 20 years in 1860 to 26.1 years in 1910, 
or about 6 years, as compared with an increase of 4.6 
years in the median age of the general population. 



The increase in the median for the general population 
is probably due to a combination of causes, such 
as a general increase in longevity, a decUne in the 
birth rate, and the increasing age of the population of 
foreign birth or parentage. The same causes have 
also in all likelihood contributed to bring about 
the increase in the median for the deaf and dumb. 
The fact, however, that the increase is greater for 
deaf-mutes than for the general population suggests 
that other causes may enter in. In particular, it 
seems not improbable, in view of the increased control 
of the communicable diseases which are responsible 
for most of the acquired deaf-mutism, that fewer per- 
sons relatively are becoming deaf-mutes now than in 
the past, so that the persons making up the deaf and 
dumb population represent to an increasingly greater 
extent the survivors from earlier years. If, moreover,' 
as would naturally be expected, this improvement in 
the control of communicable diseases has resulted in 
a reduction of the relative amount of acquired, as 
compared with congenital, deaf-mutism, this fact 
would probably cooperate further to bring about an 
increase in the age of the deaf and dumb, for the 
reason that the statistics in regard to age when hear- 
ing was lost tend strongly to indicate that the adven- 
titiously deaf are shorter-lived than the congenitaUy 
deaf (see p. 49). This latter circmnstance would fur- 
thermore explain in large measure the slight difference 
between the medians for the total and the deaf and 
dumb population at the earUer censuses covered by 
the table, the influence of the smaller proportion of 
children reported among the deaf and dumb being 
counteracted by the lesser longevity of the adventitious 
deaf-mutes. In connection with the increase in 1910, 
as compared with 1860, in the median for the deaf and 
dumb, however, it should be stated that the median 
for 1910 may be somewhat above the true figure by 
reason of the omission of deaf-mutes who had learned 
to speak, who, as already pointed out, would be 
mainly at the younger ages. 

Table 20 presents statistics regarding the age dis- 
tribution of the deaf and dumb population in the 
principal foreign coimtries for which figures regarding 
age are available. For some countries it has been 
necessary to employ a grouping somewhat different 
from that for most of the countries included ; in these 
cases the grouping employed has been indicated by 
means of a footnote. 



AGE. 



27 



Table 20 



America. 

Canada 

United States: 

Continental United States 2 

Hawaii 

Forto Rico 

EuaoPE. 

Bulgaria 

Denmark ' 

England and Wales * 

Finland 

France 

Oermany 

Prussia 

Saxony 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Russia (European) " 

Scotland 

Serbia 

Sweden 

Asia. 

Ceylon" 

India" 

Philippine Islands ** 

Russia (Asiatic) i< 

ArsiCA. 

Union of South Africa 

Cape of Good Hope 

Natal 

Orange Free State 

Transvaal 

Australasia. 

Commonwealth of Australia '^ 

New South Wales 

Queensland 

South Australia 

Tasmania 

Victoria 

Western Australia 

NewZeeJand" 



America. 



Year. 



Canada 

United States: 

Continental United States '. 

Hawaii 

Porto Rico 



Europe. 



Bulgaria 

Denmark' 

England and Wales ». . 

Finland 

Franre 

Oermany 

Prussia 

Saxony 

Hungary 

Ireland 

Italv 

Netherlands 

Russia (European) ><>.. 

Scotland 

Serbia 

Sweden 



1911 

1910 
1910 
1910 



1905 
1911 
1911 
1900 
1911 
1900 
1910 
1910 
1900 
19U 
1901 
1909 
1897 
1911 
1900 
1900 



1901 
1911 
1903 
1807 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 
19U 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 

1910 
1910 
1910 



1905 
1911 
1911 
1900 
1911 
1900 
1910 
1910 
1900 
1911 
1901 
1909 
1897 
1911 
1900 
1900 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION. 



Total. 



Under 5 

years of 

age. 



5 to 9 

years of 

age. 



10 to 14 

years of 

age. 



15 to 19 

years of 

age. 



20 to 39 

years of 

age. 



40 to 59 

years of 

age. 



60 years 

of age or 

over. 



Age not 
reported. 



4,584 

19,153 

58 

756 



4,098 

1,793 

15,122 

3,4r4 

21,823 

48,750 

31,804 

2,440 

25,445 

3,145 

31,267 

2,305 

109,556 

2,369 

4,167 

5,299 



2,578 

199,891 

5,910 

14,957 



2,398 

1,327 

298 

274 

499 



1,852 
640 
257 
246 
98 
635 
76 
301 



100.0 
100.0 

(18) 

100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



■562 


(') 


1850 


(•) 


1,494 


1,046 


303 


1,850 


2,569 


2,403 


6,632 


4,097 


2 


6 


9 


14 


15 


8 


14 


124 


145 


161 


214 


70 


88 


505 


463 


602 


1,605 


585 


44 


127 


218 


187 


664 


358 


318 


1,340 


1,648 


1,239 


5 6,614 


S3, 073 


26 


189 


320 


539 


1,439 


647 


«681 


•3,449 


(«) 


« 3,386 


6,664 


5,132 


1,093 


4,244 


4,951 


4,780 


20,093 


9,345 


920 


3,149 


3,595 


3,047 


11,351 


9,723 
1^347 


68 


'531 


^') 


'642 


'791 


»705 


«6,145 


h 


3,354 


9,749 


8,970 


35 


191 


288 


267 


1,074 


755 


» 1,364 


97,049 


(') 


•13,786 


(') 


»7,900 


56 


254 


299 


283 


731 


448 


112,555 


(') 


130,084 


(•) 


43,107 


16,337 


36 


265 


321 


222 


785 


519 


104 


447 


602 


656 


1,353 


684 


34 


283 


440 


463 


1,857 


1,668 


194 


348 


315 


400 


957 


306 


8,565 


28,951 


29,863 


24,292 


71,424 


27.533 

"665 


"1,180 


(13) 


"924 


"1,267 


"1,704 


12,112 


(1) 


'4,108 


(1) 


5,626 


2,089 


88 


271 


304 


344 


1,014 


275 


45 


160 


188 


210 


520 


149 


10 


34 


43 


48 


127 


30 


13 


32 


28 


37 


118 


35 


20 


45 


45 


49 


249 


61 


36 


195 


316 


185 


627 


343 


16 


59 


111 


64 


236 


110 


4 


34 


49 


23 


92 


46 


6 


22 


SO 


22 


82 


42 


3 


10 


15 


12 


34 


17 


7 


62 


75 


55 


150 


123 


1 


8 


16 


9 


33 


5 


6 


52 


63 


40 


81 


47 



605 

1,272 
3 

28 



250 

181 

'890 

314 

2,167 

4,067 

2,952 

'61 

1,479 

535 

» 1,059 

234 

7,289 

220 

321 

554 



58 

8,607 

"170 

985 



96 
55 
6 
11 
24 



124 
38 

6 
20 

5 
52 

3 
12 



PEE CENT OF TOTAL." 



112.3 

1.6 
(•») 
1.9 



2. 

0. 
•3. 

2. 

2. 

2. 
9 2. 

1. 
»4. 

2. 
111. 

1. 

2. 

0. 



(1) 


118.7 


9.7 


13.4 


(.3) 


(18) 


16.4 


19 2 


12.3 


11.3 


7.1 


12.3 


8.9 


10.9 


5.4 


9.2 


«16.1 


(») 


8.7 


10.2 


9.1 


10.3 


'21.8 


(') 


«24.2 


(») 


6.1 


9.2 


9 22.6 


^0 


11.0 


(') 


127.5 


11.2 


13.6 


10.7 


14.4 


5.3 


8.3 



(') 


32.8 


23.0 


12.6 


34.7 


21.4 


(18) 


(18) 


(18) 


21.3 


28.3 


9.3 


14.7 


39.2 


14.3 


10.5 


37.3 


20.1 


8.2 


543.7 


5 20.3 


15.5 


41.4 


18.6 


»15.8 


31.0 


23.9 


9.8 


41.4 


19.2 


8.8 


32.7 


28.0 


'26.3 


'32.4 


'14.2 


13.2 


38.4 


15.6 


8.5 


34.1 


24.0 


944.2 


(') 


9 25.4 


12.3 


31.7 


19.4 


(!) 


39.4 


14.9 


9.4 


33.2 


21.9 


15.7 


32.5 


16.4 


8.7 


35.0 


31.5 



13.3 
6.7 

(18) 

3.7 



6.1 

10.2 

6 5.9 

9.0 

10.1 

8.4 

8.5 

»2.5 

5.8 

17.0 

•3.4 

10.2 

6.7 

9.3 

7.7 

10.5 



1 Figures given are for age groups " under 10" and " 10 to 19," respectively. 

> Includes only deaf and dumb returning special schedules. 

> Exclusive of Faroe Islands. 

• Figures include persons returned simply as dumb. 

• Figures given are for age groups " 20 to 44," " 45 to 64," and " 65 or over," respectively. 

• Figures given are approximately for age groups "under 6," "6 to 12,"and "13 to 19," respectively. 
' Figures given are for age groups "5 to 14," " 15 to 29," "30 to 49," "50 to 69," and "70 or over," respectively. 



or over," respectively. 



• Figures given are for age groups "under 6" and "6 to 14," respectively. 

» Figures given are approximately for aje groups "under 6," "6 to 14," "IS to 39," "40 to 69," and "70 
10 Induding Poland, but exclusive of Finland. 
i> Figures represent congenitally deaf and dumb only. 
i> Civilized population. 

>« Figures given are for age groups "under 10," "10 to 14," "15 to 24," "25 to 44," "45 to 64," and "65 or over," respectively. 
>< Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia. 
15 Exclusive of full-blooded aboriginals. 

M Exclusive of Maoris and of population of annexed Pacific islands. 

1' In calculating these percentages, persons wha.so age was not reported have been excluded from the total. 
u Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 



27 



27 
1 



14 

'344 

177 

67 

'43' 

'ioj 

'isi 
1 



656 
"37 



26 
6 
3 
3 
2 

11 
1 



28 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 20— Continued. 



Asia. 

Ceylon 2 

Indian 

Philippine Islands ' 

Russia (Asiatic) ' 

Afbica. 

Union of South Africa 

Cape of Good Hope ; 

Natal 

Orange Free State 

Transvaal 

AOSTRALASIA. 

Commonwealth of Australia' 

New South Wales 

Qneensland 

South Australia 

Tasmania 

Victoria 

Western Australia 

NewZeidand> 



Year. 



1901 
1911 
1903 
1897 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



DEAf AND DUMB POPULATION. 



Total. 



Under 5 

years of 

age. 



5 to 9 

years of 

age. 



10 to 14 

years of 

age. 



15 to 19 

years of 

age. 



20 to 39 

years of 

age. 



40 to 59 

years of 

age. 



60 years 

of age or 

over. 



Age not 
reported. 



FEB CENT OP TOTAL.' 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

(») 

100.0 

(«) 

100.0 



7.5 

4.3 

•20.0 

«14.2 



3.7 
3.4 
3.4 
4.7 
4.1 



2.0 
2.6 
1.6 
2.1 

n.3 
(») 
2.0 



13.5 
14.5 

(<) 

(«) 



11.3 
12.1 
11.4 
11.7 
9.1 



10.7 
9.3 

13.4 
9.1 
(«) 

11.8 

(«) 
17.3 



12.2 

15.0 

• 15.6 

127.5 



12.7 
14.2 
14.4 
10.2 
9.1 



17.3 
17.5 
19.3 
20.6 

(.'■) 

14.3 
(») 

20.9 






15.5 
12.2 

• 21.4 

(«) 



14.4 
15.8 
16.1 
13.5 
9.9 



37.1 

35.8 

•28.8 

37.7 



42.4 
39.2 
42.6 
43.1 
50.5 



10.1 


34.3 


10.1 


37.2 


9.1 


36.2 


9.1 


33.7 


(») 


(») 


10.5 


28.6 


m 


(«) 


13.3 


26.9 



11.9 

13.8 

• 11.3 

14.0 



11.5 
11.2 
10.1 
12.8 
12.4 



18.8 
17.4 
18.1 
17.3 

(») 
23.5 

(») 
15.6 



2.2 

4.3 

• 2.9 

6.6 



4.0 
4.1 
2.0 
4.0 
4.9 



6.8 
6.0 
2.4 
8.2 

(») 
9.9 

(«) 
4.0 



> In calculating these percentages, persons whose age was not reported have been excluded from the total. 
2 Figures represent congenitally deaf and dumb only. 

' Civilized population. 

• Figures given are for age groups "under 10," "10 to 14," "15 to 24," "25 to 44," "45 to 64," and "65 or over," respectively. 

> Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia. 

« Figures given are for..age groups "under 10" and "10 to 19", respectively. 

' Exclusive of full-blooded aboriginals. 

e Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 

> Exclusive of Maoris and of population of annexed Pacific islands. 



Table 21 shows, for the latest year for which figures 
are at hand, the median age of the deaf and dumb 



population in those countries for which figures are 
given in Table 20. 



TaWe »1 

COCNTBT. 


Year. 


Median 
age of 
deaf and 
dumb pop- 
ulation.' 


COUNTBT. 


Year. 


Median 

age of 

deaf and 

dumb pop- 

Illation.' 


America. 
Ganadft , 


1911 

1910 
1910 
1910 

1905 
1911 
1911 
1900 
1911 
1900 
1910 
1910 
1900 
1911 
1901 
1909 
1897 
1911 
1900 
1900 


31.6 

«26.1 
19.1 
18.0 

23.7 
29.6 
•30.7 
26.5 
28.8 
29.6 
31.8 
29.5 
24.1 
34.2 
28.0 
26.7 
24.6 
27.5 
23.4 
35.7 


ASLA. 

Ceylon 


1901 
1911 
1903 
1897 

1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 

1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 


'2a8 


United States: 


India 


•21.7 


Philippine Islands ' 


21.7 


TTfiwn^^ 


Russia (Asiatic) « 


23.4 




Apbica. 
Union of South Africa 




Europe. 


22.9 




Cape of Good Hope 


21.7 




NaS „. 


21.6 




Orange Free State 


23.4 


Fmland 


Transvaal 


26.0 




AUSTBALASIA. 

Commonwealth of Australia • 








Prnwiia. 






25 1 




New South Wales 




Ird^d 


Queensland 


S' . 


Italy 


South Australia 


24 7 






25 5 




VJctorto ■■ ■ 


27.4 
21 5 




Western Australia 


Serbia. 


New Zealand »» 


18.7 


Sweden 









> Based upon the population whose age was reported. 

< Deaf and dumb for whom special schedules were returned only. 

< Exclusive of Faroe Isluids. 

• Figures include persons returned simply as dumb. 

• Including Poland, but exclusive of Finland. 

General Table 3 (p. 113) shows the age distribution 
of the deaf and dumb population for whom special 
schedules were returned in the different geographic 
divisions and states. Table 22 gives, for each di- 
vision, the per cent distribution by age of the deaf 
and dumb for whom special schedules were returned, 
a somewhat broader grouping being employed than 
that used in General Table 3. 



• Figures represent congenitally deaf and dumb only. 
' Civilized population. 
> Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia. 
» Exclusive of full-blooded aboriginals. 
10 Exclusive of Maoris and of population of annexed Pacific islands. 

The age distribution of the deaf-mutes for whom 
schedules were returned differed widely in the several 
geographic divisions. In the East South Central divi- 
sion, for example, the proportion under 20 years of 
age was 47.6 per cent, or nearly one-half, while it ex- 
ceeded two-fifths in the Middle Atlantic, West South 
Central, and South Atlantic divisions also; in the East 
North Central and New England divisions, on the 



AGE. 



29 



other hand, it was only a little more than one-fourth 
(27.5 and 27.4 per cent, respectively). It is extremely 
improbable that there are actually any such wide dif- 
ferences in the age distribution in the different divisions, 
and the variations shown in the table appear to reflect 
very largely variations in the degree of completeness 
with which schedules were returned for the deaf-mutes 
of school age. In some states all the inmates of schools 
for the deaf were enumerated at the institution, and 
in a number of cases the institutional authorities ap- 
pear to have given special attention to seeing that the 
schedules were filled out and returned; whereas in 
other states either the pupils, with a very few ex- 
ceptions, were not enumerated at the institution, or 
if they were emmierated there the institutional authori- 
ties made no effort to see that schedules were returned 
for them. Thus the exceptionally high percentage of 
children shown for the East South Central division is 
mainly due to the fact that 297 schedules were re- 
ceived for pupils at the state schools for the deaf in 
Kentucky and Tennessee, these schedules represent- 
ing 15.9 per cent, or nearly one-sixth, of the total 
number received for the division. Similarly, the high 



proportion for the Middle Atlantic division results to 
a great extent from the fact already mentioned that 
very full returns were received from the large insti- 
tutions for the deaf in New York City, and a like 
explanation accounts in part for the high percentage for 
the South Atlantic division, although in this latter 
division the percentage of children in the general 
population is somewhat above the average. In New 
England, on the other hand, comparatively few sched- 
ules were received from institutions, and in at least 
one instance the pupils of a large school for the 
deaf were not reported as deaf and dumb by the 
enumerator, apparently because they had been taught 
to articulate. The situation is somewhat similar in 
the East North Central division, as in only one state 
in this division were any considerable number of sched- 
ules received from a state school. In view of these 
facts the age statistics for the dijBferent divisions and 
states in this report are of significance mainly as 
indicating the age composition of the population for 
whom schedules were returned and can not be regarded 
as necessarily reflecting the actual age distribution 
of the deaf-mutes in the respective areas. 



Table 23 


per cent disteibution of the deat akd dumb population pob whom special scheddxes were 

returned: 1910.' 


AGE GROUP. 


United 
States. 


New 
England 
division. 


Middle 
Atlantic 
division. 


East 

North 

Central 

division. 


West 

North 

Central 

division. 


South 
Atlantic 
division. 


East 

South 

Central 

division. 


West 

South 

Central 

division. 


division. 


Paraflo 
division. 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 








37.3 

1.6 

9.7 

13.4 

12.6 

56.1 
19.7 
15.0 
13.6 
7.9 

6.7 
4.5 
1.7 
0.4 


27.4 
1.5 
9.3 
8.1 
8.4 

59.5 
15.1 
16.0 
15.9 
12.5 

13.2 
8.5 
3.1 
1.5 


42.9 
1.1 
13.3 
15.5 
13.0 

49.8 
15.5 
13.7 
13.5 
7.0 

7.3 
6.0 
1.9 
0.4 


27.5 
1.4 
6.7 
9.9 
9.6 

65.0 
19.3 
18.8 
17.7 
9.2 

7.4 
5.0 
2.0 
0.4 


35.1 

1.3 

7.0 

13.9 

12.9 

59.0 
21.0 
15.7 
14.3 
8.0 

5.9 
4.1 
1.5 
0.3 


42.2 
2.1 
11.4 
14.1 
14.6 

52.1 
22.3 
11.0 
10.9 
7.8 

5.7 
4.0 
1.3 
0.4 


47.6 
2.3 
10.5 
17.1 
17.7 

47.7 

20.8 

11.6 

8.9 

6.4 

4.7 
3.1 
1.3 
0.2 


42.6 

1.8 

9.7 

15.7 

15.5 

53.0 

26.1 

12.8 

8.8 

5.3 

4.3 
3.0 
1.1 
0.2 


36.5 
2.6 
8.8 

15.4 
9.7 

60.1 
23.1 
18.5 
11.7 
6.8 

3.4 
2.6 
0.9 


32.2 




2.2 




10.5 




11.9 




7.6 




62.8 




21.6 




20.0 




14.7 




6.6 




5.0 




3.4 




1.6 













I Based upon the population whose age was reported. 



Table 23, on the following page, shows the per cent 
distribution, by broad age groups, of the male and 
female deaf and dumb population in 1910 for whom 
special schedules were returned in comparison with 
that of the general population, and also the number of 
males per 100 females in each group for the deaf and 
dumb returning schedules and the general population, 
respectively. The absolute numbers upon which the 
percentages for the deaf and dumb population are based 
are given in General Table 5 (p. 118), 

As would be expected, there is no very pronoimced 
difference in the age distribution of the two sexes 
among the deaf-mutes. The proportion of old people 
60 years of age or over was somewhat greater among 
females than among males (7 per cent as compared 
with 6,3 per cent) ; on the other hand, the proportion 



of children and of persons in the early or middle years 
of adult life was slightly larger in the case of males. 
These differences are probably due mainly to the 
greater longevity of females, as a result of wliich they 
include a larger number relatively of persons at the 
later ages than is the case with males. 

For the deaf and dumb returning schedules the 
ratios of males to females among those under 20 
years of age and from 20 to 59 years of age were 
practically identical (122.2 and 122.5 per 100, respec- 
tively) , The ratios for the several age groups xmder 20 
years also show on the whole a fairly close correspond- 
ence, but those for the 10-year groups comprising the 
years of early and middle adult life show some wide 
variations, for which it is difficult to accotmt on any 
other hypothesis than that they are the result of acci- 



30 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



dent or errors in age returns. Among those 60 years of 
age or over, however, the ratio of males to females was, 
by reason of the greater longevity of females, much 
lower than at the earlier ages, being only 109.6 to 100; 
the number decreased with each successive age group, 
until among those 80 years of age or over there was 
Qn excess of females. 



Table 23 


PEE CENT DISTKIBUTION OF POPULATION 
OF THE UNITED STATES: 1910.' 


NUMBER OF MAIJSS 

PEB 100 fe- 
males: 1910. 


AGE OBOXTP. 


Total. 


Deaf and dumb for 
whom special 
schedules were 
returned. 


Total 
.popula- 
tion. 


Deaf 
and 

dumb 
for 

whom 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


special 
sched- 
ules 
were re- 
turned. 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


106.0 


121 5 






Under 20 years 

Under 5 years... 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years... 
15 to 19 years... 

20 to 59 years 

20 to 29 years 

30 to 39 years 

40 to 49 years 

SO to 59 years 

Oyearsor over 

60 to 69 years 

70 to 79 years 

80 years or over.. 


41.2 

11.4 

10.4 

9.7 

9.6 

52.1 
18.7 
14.9 
10.9 
7.6 

6.7 
4.3 
1.9 
0.5 


42.9 
11.8 
10.8 
10.1 
10.2 

50.3 
18.9 
14.2 
10.2 
6.9 

6.8 
4.3 
2.0 
0.6 


37.4 

1.6 

9.7 

13.4 

12.7 

56.3 

20.1 

- 14.5 

las 

8.2 

6.3 
4.4 
1.6 
0.4 


37.1 

1.6 

9.7 

13.5 

12.3 

55.8 
19.2 
15.6 
13.6 

7.4 

7.0 
4.7 
1.9 
0.5 


101.6 
102.5 
101. S 
102.1 
99.8 

109.8 
104.9 
110.7 
113.1 
116.5 

104.2 
108.1 
100.5 
88.1 


122.2 
118.0 
121.6 
120.3 
125.4 

122.5 
127.3 
113.1 
120.3 
133.6 

109.6 
114.1 
103.1 
90.5 



> Based upon the population whose age was reported. 

General Table 4 (p. 116) shows for each geographic 
division the age distribution of the deaf and dumb for 
whom special schedules were retiimed in 1910, classi- 
fied according to race and nativity. In Table 24 the 
age distribution of each class is given by percentages 
for the United States as a whole. 



Table 24 



AGE GBOUP. 



Total. 



Under 20 years 

Under 5 years.. 

Sto9years 

10 to 14 years . . 
IS to 19 years.. 



20 to 59 years 

20 to 29 years. 
30 to 39 years. 
40 to 49 years. 
50 to 59 years. 



fiOyearsorover 

60 to 69 years... 
70 to 79 years... 
80 years or over. 



PEB CENT DISTRIBUTION OF DEAF AND DXTUB POPU- 
LATION OF THE UNITED STATES FOB 'WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910.1 



All 



100.0 



37.3 

1.6 

9.7 

13.4 

12.6 

56.1 
19.7 
15.0 
13.6 
7.9 

6.7 
4.5 
1.7 
0.4 



White. 



Total. 



100.0 



37.1 
1.6 
9.8 
13.3 
1Z4 

S6.1 
19.4 
15.0 
13.8 
7.9 

6.8 
4.6 
1.7 
0.4 



Native. 



100.0 



39.0 
1.8 
10.4 
13.9 
12.9 

S4.9 
19.9 
14.6 
12.8 
7.6 

6.1 
4.2 
1.6 
0.3 



Foreign^ 
bom. 



100.0 



20.9 
0.2 
4.8 
7.7 
8.1 

66.8 
14.9 
18.8 
22.4 
10.7 

12.3 
8.3 
2.9 
1.1 



Negro. 



100.0 



40.1 
0.8 
7.3 
16.4 
15. S 

55.4 
24.6 
13.8 
10.3 
6.6 

4.6 
2.3 
1.7 
0.6 



> Based upon the population whose age was reported. Per cent distribution of 
"Other colored" not shown, as base is less than 100. 

As would be expected, the foreign-bom white deaf- 
mutes are much older than those belonging to either of 
the native classes. Only 20.9 per cent, or one-fifth, of 
the deaf-mutes in this class who returned schedtiles 
were less than 20 years of age, while for the native 
whites and the Negroes the proportion was almost twice 



as great; the proportion 60 years of age or over among 
the foreign-bom whites, on the other hand, was 12.3 per 
cent, or about one-eighth, as compared with only 6.1 
per cent in the case of the native whites and 4.5 per 
cent in the case of the Negroes. The distribution of the 
native whites and the Negroes by broad age periods is 
approximately the same, the proportion imder 20 years 
of age being sUghtly smaller and the proportion 60 years 
of age or over shghtly larger for the former class than for 
the latter. When the detailed distribution is compared, 
however, certain differences appear, the native whites 
comprising a larger proportion of young children and of 
persons between the ages of 30 and 70 and a smaller pro- 
portion of persons in the second and third decades of 
life and of very old people than the Negroes. These 
differences in age are explained in part by the differ- 
ences in the age constitution of the several classes in 
the general population; but that this is not a com- 
plete explanation is made evident by the circumstance 
that among the deaf and dumb the proportion of 
children 5 to 9 years of age is higher and the proportion 
of old people 70 years of age or over lower for native 
whites than for Negroes, whereas in the general popu- 
lation the reverse is the case. In this connection 
accoimt must be taken of the possibility that the 
degree of completeness in the returns for the different 
ages may vary much more widely for some races than 
for others, a factor which woxild be most hkely to in- 
fluence the figures for the earhest and latest age 
groups. In particular, it seems very probable that the 
much higher proportion of children 5 to 9 years of age 
shown for the native whites as compared with the 
Negroes is due to a much more complete return of 
children of this age for the former class than for the 
latter; as has already been stated, a number of insti- 
tutions for the deaf appear to have made special efforts 
to see that schedules were sent in for their pupils, 
most of these institutions being in states where 
Negroes formed a relatively small proportion of the 
popidation and consequently having few, if any, Negro 
pupils, or else, if in states with a large Negro popula- 
tion, receiving white pupils exclusively. 

Table 25 gives the median age of the deaf and dumb 
population in 1910 for whom special schedules were 
returned, classified according to race, nativity, and sex, 
in comparison with that of the total population. 

The median age of the foreign-bom whites was 
practically the same for the deaf and dumb as for the 
total population (37.6 and 37.1 years, respectively), 
and in the case of the deaf and dumb was about 12 
years greater than that for the other race and nativity 
classes. The median age of the deaf and dumb was 
lowest (23.3 years) among the Negroes, while among 
the native whites it was 25 years; the figure in both 
cases was somewhat higher than that for the general 
population of the same race and nativity. The me- 
dian for the "Other colored" was the same as that for 
the native whites. 



AGE. 



31 



Table 25 


MEDIAN age: 1910.> 


RACK AND NATIVITT. 


Total population of the 
United States. 


Deal and dumb for whom 
special schedules were 
returned. 




Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


All classes 


24.0 


24.6 


23.5 


26.1 


25.7 


26.5 






White 


24.4 


24.9 


23.9 


26.3 


26.0 


26.8 






Native 


21.4 
37.1 

21.0 


21.5 
36.7 

21.5 


21.3 
37.6 

20.6 


25.0 
37.6 

23.5 


24.8 
37.1 

23.2 


25.4 


Foreign-bom 


38.4 


Colored 


23.8 






Negro 


20.8 
26.3 


21.1 
29.0 


20.6 
19.8 


23.3 
25.0 


23.0 
25.6 


23.8 


Other colored 


24.4 



1 Based upon the population whose age was reported. 

While a comparison of the age distribution of the 
total deaf and dumb population with that of the general 
population without distinction of race or nativity has 
little value in connection with the question of the 
longevity of the deaf and dtunb on account of the dis- 
turbing influence of immigration upon the age dis- 
tribution pf the general population, some light may be 
obtained on this subject by making such a comparison 
for the native classes. Table 26 therefore compares 
the per cent distribution by age in 1910 of the general 
population and the deaf and dumb returning schedules 
for the native whites and the Negroes. The com- 
parison is limited to those 10 years of age or over, 
for the reason that after that age few people become 
deaf-mutes and also because there is ground for the 
belief that the degree of completeness in the returns 
for the races may vary somewhat more widely in the 
case of children under 10 than for the later ages. 



Table 26 



AC! GSOVP. 



10 years or over. 



10 to 14 years. 
15 to 19 years. 
20 to 24 years. 
25 to 29 years. 

30 to 34 years. 
35 to 39 years. 
40 to 44 years.. 
45 to 49 years. 

50 to 54 years. 
55 to 59 years.. 
60 to 64 years. 
65 to 69 years. 



70to 74 years... 
75 to 79 years... 
80 to 84 years. . . 
85 years or over. 



PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OP POPTJLATION 
OF THE tJNlTED STATES 10 YEARS OF 
AGE OR over: 1910.1 



Native white. 



Total. 



100.0 



14.9 
14.3 
12.9 
11.0 

9.4 

8.5 
6.8 
5.7 

5.2 
3.7 
2.8 
2.1 

1.4 

0.8 
0.4 
0.2 



Deaf and 
dumb 

for whom 
special 

schedules 
were 

returned. 



100.0 



15.8 
14.7 
12.6 
10.1 

7.8 
8.9 
7.8 
7.0 

5.2 
3.5 
2.7 
2.1 

1.1 
0.7 
0.2 
0.1 



Negro. 



Total. 



100.0 



15.9 
14.6 
14.1 
12.1 

9.2 
8.7 
6.2 
5.3 

4.5 
2.9 
2.6 
1.7 

1.1 
0.6 
0.4 
0.3 



Deaf and 
dumb 

for whom 
special 

schedules 
were 

returned. 



100.0 



17.8 
17.0 
16.3 
10.5 

7.1 
8.0 
6.S 
4.7 

6.3 
1.8 
1.3 
1.1 

1.1 
0.7 
0.3 
0.3 



> Based upon the population whose age was reported. 



Both among the native whites and the Negroes the 
proportion of old people 60 or over is higher in the 
general population 10 years of age or over than 
among the deaf and dumb of the same age, the per- 
centages being 7.7 and 6.9, respectively, for the 
former class and 6.6 and 4.9, respectively, for the latter. 
The figures thus suggest that the deaf and dumb do 
not have so great an expectation of life as those who 
possess their normal faculties, although, owing to the 
incompleteness of the returns for the former class, a 
certain amount of caution should be exercised in mak- 
ing any deductions. (For a further discussion of this 
subject, see section on age when hearing was lost, 
p. 49.) 

General Table 5 (p. 118) shows for the United States 
as a whole the age distribution of the deaf and dximb 
in 1910 for whom special schedules were returned,' 
classified according to race and nativity, with dis- 
tinction of sex. Table 27 gives the per cent distribu- 
tion by age of the male and female deaf and dumb for 
whom schedules were returned in each of the main 
race and nativity classes. 



Table 27 


PER cent DISTRIBUTION OP DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 
OF THE UNITED STATES FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES 

WERE returned: W10.» 


AGB GROUP. 


All classes. 


White. 


Negro. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Native. 


Foreign-bom. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






Under 20 years 

Under5 years 

6 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years 

15 to 19 years 

ao to 59 years 


37.4 

1.6 

9.7 

13.4 

12.7 

56.3 
20.1 
14. S 
13.6 
8.2 

6.3 
4.4 
1.6 
0.4 


37.1 

1.6 

9.7 

13.5 

12.3 

66.8 
19.2 
15.6 
13.6 
7.4 

7.0 
4.7 
1.9 
0.5 


38.9 
1.8 
10.3 
13.7 
13.1 

55.3 
20.4 
14.1 
13.0 
7.8 

5.9 
4.1 
1.4 
0.3 


39.0 
1.8 
10.4 
14.1 
12.7 

54.5 
19.2 
15.2 
12.6 
7.4 

6.5 
4.3 
1.8 
0.4 


23.0 
0.4 
6.3 
8.5 
8.7 

65.3 
14.4 
18.4 
20.4 
12.0 

11.7 
7.8 
2.8 
1.2 


18.3 

6.7 
7.3 

68.7 
15.5 
19.3 
24.8 
9.1 

13.0 
8.9 
3.0 
1.1 


40.7 

0.9 

7.6 

17.1 

15.2 

65.3 

24.8 

13.1 

9.7 

7.8 

4.0 
2.1 
1.7 
0.2 


39.3 

0.6 

7.0 

15.5 

16.1 

65. 5 


20 to 29 years 

30 to 39 years 

40 to 49 years 

50 to 59 years — '.. 

60 years or over 

60 to 69 years 

70 to 79 years 

80 years or over.... 


24.4 
14.7 
11.2 
5.2 

5.2 
2.5 
1.7 
1.0 



> Based upon the population whose age was reported. Per cent distribution of 
"Other colored" not shown, as bases are less than 100. 

The most pronoimced difference in the age distri- 
bution of the two sexes is shown for the foreign-bom 
whites, among whom the percentage under 20 was 
substantially higher for males than for females and 
the percentage in each of the two broad periods into 
which adult life is divided, lower. The higher per- 
centage of old people among females may bo due in 
part to their greater longevity; but it is difficult to 
believe that so wide a difference between the sexes in 
respect to the proportion of children actually exists. 
It appears likely that the age distribution of the 
foreign-bom white deaf-mutes for whom schedules 



32 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



were returned differs somewhat, for at least one of the 
sexes, from the actual age distribution of all foreign- 
bom white deaf-mutes. Just why this should be so 
is, however, not easy to explain, although there is 
reason to believe that a larger number relatively of the 
male than of the female children in this class of the 
population were attending schools for the deaf, a cir- 
cumstance which, in view of the fact that several 
institutions for the deaf made a very full return of the 
schedules sent out to their pupils, would cause the 
number of children for whom schedules were returned 
to be somewhat greater relatively among the males 
than among the females. 

The native whites show practically no difference in 
the age distribution of the male and female deaf- 
mutes for whom schedules were returned, the propor- 
tions under 20 being practically identical, the pro- 
portion from 20 to 59 slightly higher for males, and 
that 60 or over slightly higher for females. The dif- 
ferences for the Negroes are also not material; the pro- 
portion under 20 was somewhat larger and that 60 or 
over somewhat smaller for males than for females, 
while the proportions between 20 and 60 were prac- 
tically the same. 

MARITAL CONDrriON. 

Table 28 shows the distribution, according to marital 
condition, of the male and female deaf and dumb popu- 
lation 15 years of age or over for whom special sched- 
ules were returned, in comparison with that of the 
total population of the same age. 

Of the deaf and dumb males 15 years of age or over 
in 1910 for whom schedules were received, less than 
one-third (31.8 per cent) were married, widowed, or 
divorced, and of the females only a Httle more than 
two-fifths (41.4 per cent). A comparison of these 
percentages with the corresponding proportions for the 
total population brings out clearly the extent to which 
their defect acts as a'bar to the marriage of deaf-mutes, 
the percentage married, widowed, or divorced for 
males in the total population being nearly twice and 
that for females one and three-fourths times as great 
as among the deaf-mutes included in the tabulation. 
The differences between the two sexes among the deaf 
and dumb in respect to marital condition are of much 
the same character and due to much the same causes 
as those in the case of the general population. Thus 
the proportion who were or had been married at the 



date of the census was somewhat higher for females 
than for males, in part because females as a rule marry 
earlier than males and in part because of the excess 
of males, as it is probable that in the great majority 
of cases deaf-mutes do not marry normal persons.* 
Similarly the higher proportion of widowed among 
females than among males is mainly due to the fact 
that men usually marry at a later age than women, 
so that the marriage relation is more often broken by 
the death of the husband than by the death of the 
wife, while it is also probable that widowers remarry 
to a somewhat greater extent than widows. 



Table 28 


POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES 16 
YEABS OF AGE OK OVEE: 1910.1 


MABITAL CONDITION. 


Total. 


Deaf and dumb 

for whom special 

schedules were 

returned. 




Number. 


Per 

cent 

distri- 

butlon.« 


Number. 


Per 

cent 
distri- 
bution.' 




UALK. 


Total 


32,425,805 


100.0 


7,925 


load 


Single 

Harried, widowed, or divorced 

MaiTied 

Widowed 

Divorced 

Uarltal condition not reported 


12,550,129 

19,720,152 

18,092,600 

1,471,390 

156,162 

155,524 


38.9 

61.1 

56.1 

4.6 

0.5 


5,388 

2,517 

2,326 

162 

29 

20 


68.2 

31.8 

2B.4 

2.0 

0.4 








FEMALE. 


Total 


30,047,325 


100.0 


6,506 


100.0 






Single 


8,933,170 

21,045,983 

17,684,687 

3,176,228 

185,068 

68,172 


29.8 
70.2 
59.0 
10.6 
0.6 


3,806 

2,686 

2,315 

351 

20 

14 


68.6 

41.4 

35.7 

5.4 

0.3 


Married, widowed, or divorced 

Married 


Widowed 


Divorced 


Marital condition not reported 









I Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

* Based upon the population whose marital condition was reported. 

Table 29 gives the distribution, according to marital 
condition, of the deaf and dumb population in the 
principal foreign coimtriea for which statistics are 
available. 

' E. A. Fay, in his inveetigations concerning the results of mar- 
riages of the deaf, found that out of 4,136 marriages for which infor- 
mation was received on this point, in 3,242, or more than three- 
fourths (78.4 per cent), husband and wife both were deaf. (See 
Fay: Marriages of the Deaf in America, Washington, 1898, p. 24.) 

Of 4,220 married persons totally deaf from early childhood (under 
5 years of age) for whom schedules were returned at the census of 
1900 and who answered the inquiry as to deaf relatives, 3,182, or 
three-fourths (75.4 per cent), reported that they had deaf husbands 
or wives. 



MARITAL CONDITION. 



33 



Table 29 



AMXBICi.. 



Canada 

United States: 

Continental United States ' . 

Hawaii 

Porto Kioo 



EUBOPE. 



Bulgaria 

TJenmark' 

England and Wales*. , 

France 

Germany 

Prussia 

Saxony 

Netherlands 

Russia (European) i*. 

Serbia 

Sweden 



Asu. 
Russia (Asiatic) " 

ATEICA. 

Union ol South Africa 

Cape sf Good Hope 

Natal 

Orange Free State 

Transvaal 

Australasia.. 

Commonwealth of Australia i'. 

New South Wales 

Queensland 

South Australia 

Tasmania . .r. 

Victoria 

Western Australia 



Year. 



Amebica. 



Canada 

United States: 

Continental United States '. 

Hawaii 

Porto Rico 

EtTEOPE. 

Bulgaria 

Denmark » 

England and Wales ' 

France 

Germany 

Prussia 

Saxony 

Netherlands 

Russia (European) " 

Serbia 

Sweden 

Asu. 

Russia (Asiatic) >• 

AFRICA. 

Union«of South Africa 

Cape of Good Hope 

Natal 

Orange Free State 

Transvaal 



AUSTRALASU. 

Commonwealth of Australia -'. , 

New South Wales 

Queensland 

South Australia 

Tasmania 

Victoria 

Western Australia 



1911 

1910 
1910 
1910 



1905 
1911 
1911 
1901 
1900 
1910 
1910 
1909 
1897 
1900 
1900 



1897 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 

1910 
1910 
1910 



1905 
1911 
1911 
1901 
1900 
1910 
1910 
1909 
1897 
1900 
1900 



1897 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION. 



Total. 



2,491 

10,507 

32 

395 



2,381 

973 

8,167 

10,763 

26,368 

18,659 

1,349 

1,228 

60,524 

2,598 

2,950 



9,055 



1,475 
780 
230 
148 
317 



330 
160 
134 

54 
280 

40 



2,093 

8,646 

26 

361 



1,717 

820 

6,955 

8,751 

22,382 

16,145 

1,091 

1,077 

49,032 

1,569 

2,349 



5,902 



923 

547 



126 
182 



854 
310 

97 
112 

44 
255 

36 



Number. 



Single. 



Married, widowed, or divorced. 



Total. 



Married. 



Wid- 
owed. 



Di- 
vorced. 



Marital 
condition 
not re- 
ported. 



Percent of total.i 



Single. 



Married, widowed, or divorced. 



Total. 



Married. 



Wid- 
owed. 



1,792 

•7,970 

25 

377 



1,815 

695 

6,362 

6,683 

22,268 

« 14,347 

960 

996 

(") 

1,707 

2,599 



(") 



1,231 
674 
208 
122 
227 



835 
278 
145 
107 

47 
224 

34 



687 

2,517 
7 
15 



566 

278 

1,805 

1,002 

4,067 

4,312 

389 

232 

(■') 

891 

351 



(") 



240 
106 
21 
26 
87 



153 
47 
13 
27 

5 
55 

6 



2,326 
5 
13 



462 
251 

1,603 
842 

3,650 

3,977 
358 

(») 

11,675 
680 
328 



1,950 



219 
96 
19 
22 
82 



139 
42 
12 
25 

4 
51 

5 



162 
1 
2 



21 

202 

"160 

372 

282 

30 

ru) 

(») 
200 
22 



(») 



(') 

(10) 



15 
'6 



(") 
(") 



(") 



12 

20 

"i's 



" 3,078 
33 



72.3 

8 76.0 
(0 
95.4 



76.2 
71.4 
77.9 
87.0 
84.6 

3 76.9 
71.2 
81.1 

(») 
65.7 
88.1 



(14) 



83.7 
86.4 
90.8 
82.4 
72.3 



S4.5 
85.5 
91.8 
79.9 

W 
80.3 

(*) 



27.7 

24.0 
(*) 
3.8 



23.8 
28.6 
22.1 
13.0 
15.4 
23.1 
28.8 
18.9 
(") 
34.3 
11.9 



(») 



16.3 
12.6 
9.2 
17.6 
27.7 



U.5 
14.5 
8.3 
20.1 
(*) 
19.7 
(*) 



23.8 

22.2 
(') 
3.3 



19.4 
35.8 
19.6 
11.0 
13.9 
21.3 
26.5 

(12) 

19.3 
26.2 
11.1 



21.5 



14.9 
12.3 
8.3' 
14.9 
26.1 



14.1 

12.9 
T.6 

18.7 
(*) 

18.3 
W 



1,516 

•5,946 

18 

314 



1,413 


304 


594 


226 


5,256 


1,699 


4,892 


819 


19,470 


2,877 


•12,824 


3,321 


769 


322 


842 


235 


(») 


(») 


1,011 


558 


2,122 


227 



00 



803 
494 
57 
116 
136 



665 
244 
80 
87 
40 
184 
30 



572 

2,686 

8 

36 



(») 



114 
52 
11 
10 
41 



182 

64 

15 

24 

4 



472 

2,315 

5 

21 



238 

196 
1,393 

582 
2,255 
2,700 

268 
(U) 

2,271 
380 
199 



741 



148 
53 
13 
21 

2 
54 

5 



100 

351 

2 

14 



58 

22 

306 

10 237 

585 

582 

48 



(»). 



172 
28 



(") 



(») 



8 
'8 



t^ 



(») 



5 
14 

Vii 



18 3,040 
35 



72.6 

•68.9 
(•) 
87.0 



82.3 
72.4 
75.6 
85.7 
87.1 
•79.4 
70.5 
78.2 

(14) 

64.4 
90.3 



(») 



87.6 
90.5 
(«) 
92.1 
76.8 



78.5 

79.2 
(<) 

78.4 
0) 

72.7 
(*) 



27.4 

31.1 
(*) 
10.0 



17.7 
27.6 
24.4 
14.3 
12.9 
20.6 
29.5 
21.8 
(») 
35.6 
9.7 



CO 



12.4 
9.5 
(0 
7.9 

23.2 



21.5 
20.8 
(0 
21.6 

(0 
27.3 

(0 



22.6 

26.8 
(0 
5.8 



13.9 
23.9 
20.0 
10.2 
10.1 
16.7 
24.6 

CO 
4.6 
24.2 
8.5 



12.6 



9.4 
7.5 

(0 
4.8 

16.9 



17.5 

17.2 
(0 

18.9 
(0 

21.3 

(0 



» In calculating these percentages, persons whose marital condition was not reported have been excluded from the total. 

• Includes only deaf and dumb returning special schedules. 

« Includes all deaf and dumb persons reported as under 15 years of age. 

* Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 
5 Consensually married. 

' Exclusive of Faroe Islands. 

' Includes deaf and dumb persons legally separated. 

' Figures include persons returned simply as dumb. 

» Divorced persons # ere not reported separately. 

10 Divorced deaf and dumb persons are included with the widowed. 

" mS® "°''* reported " class includes 1,982 males reported from institutions. 

" The marital condition ol the married, widowed, and divorced was not reported separatdy . 

13 Includmg Poland, but exclusive of Finland. 

1* The marital condition returns for the deaf and dumb diflerentiated only the married and the not married. 

IS Loss than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

i« Caucasus, Siberia, and Central Asia. 

" Exclusive of full-blooded aboriginals. 

>• The "not reported" class includes 2,329 females reperted fr«m institutions. 

50171°— 18 3 



4.0 

1.5 
(0 
0.5 



3.7 
2.2 
2.5 
i»2.1 
1.4 
1.5 
2.2 

^^ 
7.7 
0.7 



CO 



1.4 
1.3 
0.9 
2.7 
1.6 



1.3 
1.5 
0.6 
1.5 

^l4 



4.8 

4.1 
(0 
3.9 



3.4 
2.7 
4.4 
"4.1 
2.6 
3.6 
4.4 

f^ 
11.0 
1.2 



CO 



3.1 
2.0 
(0 
3.2 
6.2 



3.9 

3.2 
(0 

2.7 
(0 

5.9 
(0 



Di- 
vorced. 



(0 



0.3 



0.6 
'0.6 
(0 

(10) 

0.2 
0.3 
0.1 

CO 

^'\ . 

0.4 

CO 



CO 



0.1 



(0 



(•)- 



0.2 
^0.3 



o.s 

'1.0 

(0 

(10) 

0.2 
0.2 
0.5 

0.4 



CO 



0.1 
0.3 



34 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



General Table 6 (p. 119) shows, for each geographic 
division and state, the distribution according to 
marital condition of the male and female deaf and 
dumb population 15 years of age or over in 1910 for 
whom special schedules were returned. 

General Table 7 (p. 120) distributes according to 
marital condition the male and female deaf and dumb 
population 15 years of age or over in 1910 for whom 
special schedules were returned in each race and 
nativity class. Table 30 shows the per cent distri- 
bution by marital condition for each race and nativity 
class. 

Both for males and for females the proportion 
married, widowed, or divorced was higher for the 
foreign-bom whites than for any other of the race and 
nativity classes shown in the table, which is due of 
course to the somewhat greater age of this class. 
The proportion among the Negroes, on the other hand, 
was strikingly low, less than one-sixth (15.2 per cent) 
of the males and less than one-fourth (22.9 per cent) 
of the females being married, widowed, or divorced, 
as compared with corresponding percentages of 32.9, 
or about one-third, and 42.5, or more than two- 
fifths, for the whites. This wide difference between 
the percentages for the two races is probably to be 
explained by the fact that deaf-mute children are 
not sent to schools for the deaf to the same extent 
among the Negroes as among the whites arid conse- 
quently suffer from a much greater handicap as regards 
matrimony through ignorance of the customary 
means of communication and lack of acquaintance 
with others of their class, and in the case of males 



also by reason of their position of economic depend- 
ence. 



Table 30 


PEE CENT DISTRIBUTION OP TUK DEAP AND DUUB 
POPULATION 16 TEARS OP AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1810.' 


MASITAL CONDITION. 


All 

classes. 


White. 


Colored.* 




Total. 


Native. 


Foreign- 
born. 


Total. 


Negro. 




MALE. 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






Single 


68.2 

31.8 

29.4 

2.0 

0.4 


67.1 

32.9 

30.5 

2.0 

0.4 


67.8 

32.2 

29.9 

2.0 

0.4 


62.2 

37.8 

34.9 

2.4 

0.6 


85.0 
15.0 
12.7 
2.4 


84.8 


Married, widowed, or divorced. 
Married 


15.2 
12.9 


Widowed 


2.3 














FEMALE. 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






Single 


58.6 

41.4 

35.7 

5.4 

0.3 


57.5 

42.5 

37.0 

5.2 

0.3 


58.2 

41.8 

36.6 

4.9 

0.3 


52.0 

48.0 

39.9 

7.8 

0.3 


76.1 

23.9 

15.0 

7.9 

1.0 


77.1 


Married, widowed, or divorced. 
Married 


22.9 
14.3 


Widowed 


7.5 




1.1 







1 Percentages are based upon the number whose marital condition was reported, 
including the small number whose age was not reported. 
» Per cent distribution of "Other colored" not shown, as bases are less than 100. 

General Table 8 (p. 120) shows the distribution ac- 
cording to marital condition of the male and female 
deaf and dumb population 15 years of age or over in 
1910 for whom special schedules were returned, by ago 
groups. In Table 31 the per cent distribution by 
marital condition for each sex is given for certain 
broad age groups in comparison with that of the total 
population of the same age and sex. 



Table 31 



AGE GROUP AND CLASS OP POPULATION. 



15 years or over: ' 
Total population 
Deaf and dumb'.. 

15 to 19 years: 

Total population 

Desrf ana dumb ' 

20 to 24 years: 

Total population 

Deaf and dumb* 

25 to 29 years: 

Total population 

Deaf and dumb ' 

30 to 34 years: 

Total population 

Deaf and dumb ' 

35 to 44 years: 

Total population 

Deaf ana dumb' 

45 to 54 years: 

Total population 

Deaf and dumb * 

55 to 64 years: 

Total population 

Deaf and dumb' 

65 years or over: 

Total population 

Deaf and dumb' 



Single. 



38.9 
68.2 



98.8 
99.9 

7b. 3 
95.5 

42.9 
79.9 

26.1 

eas 

16.7 
47.6 

11.2 
44.4 

8.4 
48.0 

6.2 

4&3 



PER CENT OP total: 1910.1 



Male. 



Married, widowed, or divorced. 



Total. 



61.1 
31.8 



1.2 
0.1 

24.7 
4.5 

57.1 
20.1 

73.9 
39.2 

83.3 
52.4 

88.8 
55.6 

91.6 
52.0 

93.8 
51.7 



Married. 



56.1 
29.4 



1.2 
0.1 

24.1 
4.4 

55.6 
19.6 

71.6 
38.6 

79.4 
49.7 

81.6 
52.4 

79.1 
45.9 

65.9 
36.3 



Wid- 
owed. 



4.6 
2.0 



(') 



0.4 



1.1 

a4 

1.8 

as 

3.2 
2.0 

6.4 
2.7 

11.7 
5.3 

27.2 
14.7 



Di- 
vorced. 



0.5 
0.4 



(') 



0.1 

ai 



0.4 

ai 



0.5 

a3 



0.7 

a7 



0.8 

as 



as 
as 



a7 
a 7 



Female. 



29.8 
5a6 



88.3 
98.9 



48.5 
81.5 



25.0 
56.2 



16.2 
44.0 



11.4 
4a3 



8.6 
4a8 



7.1 
46.1 



6.3 

46.8 



Married, widowed, or divorced. 



Total. 



70.2 
41.4 



11.7 
1.1 



51.5 
18.5 



75.0 
43.8 



83.8 
56.0 



88.6 
59.7 



91.4 
59.2 



92.9 
53.9 



93.7 
53.2 



Married. 



59.0 
35.7 



11.4 
1.1 

49.8 
17.8 

71.9 
4Z1 

79.1 
54.0 

80.2 
55.3 

74.9 
5a6 

62.2 
37.9 

35.1 
21.2 



Wid- 
owed. 



lae 

5.4 



a 2 



1.2 

a 5 

2.4 
1.5 

3.9 
1.8 

7.5 
3,7 

15.7 
8.2 

3a 1 
15.6 

58.2 
31.7 



Di- 
vorced. 



a 6 
a3 



ai 



a5 
a2 

a7 
ai 

as 
a2 

a9 
a7 

as 
a4 

0.6 
0.4 

a4 
as 



> Based upon the population whose marital condition was reported. 

* Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

' Deaf and dumb for whom special suiedules were returned only. 

* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 



35 



This table reveals the interesting fact that whereas 
both for males and females the percentage who were or 
had been married increases in the general population 
with each succeeding age group down to the latest 
ages, it shows a falling oflf in the latest age groups 
among the deaf and dumb. Among the male deaf- 
mutes who returned schedules the percentage married, 
widowed, or divorced was highest (55.6) in the case of 
those 45 to 54 years of age;' for those from 55 to 64 
years of age it was only 52, and for those of 65 or over 
51.7. The decrease in the latest age period is even 
more pronounced for females, for whom the per- 
centage married, widowed, or divorced was highest 
(59.7) in the age group "35 to 44 years," from which 
it dechned to only 53.2 for those 65 or over. These 
figures would appear to indicate that deaf-mutes are 
marrying to a somewhat greater extent at the present 
time than in the past, as otherwise the percentage who 
were or had been married would have increased with 
increasing age. This seems in fact not improbable, 
as any increase in the relative number of deaf-mutes 
attending a school for the deaf, such as has in all 
likelihood taken place during recent years, would as 
a result of the increased facility of communication 
with others and greater economic independence 
obtained through the training received at such schools 
tend to encourage and increase matrimony among 
this class of the population. Moreover, while com- 
parisons with prior censuses for the United States 
are of no value by reason of- the changes from census 
to census in the scope of the statistics, such compari- 
sons for foreign coxmtries seem to show that there has 
actually been a very pronounced increase in the 
extent to which deaf-mutes marry. The figures for 
Prussia are especially striking in this connection. At 
the census of the deaf and dumb taken in that country 
in 1880, only 13 per cent of the males 15 years of age or 
over and 8.9 per cent of the females were or had been 
married, while 30 years later, at the census of 1910, 
the percentage for males had more than doubled, and 
that for females had about trebled, the figures being 
29.8 and 26.2, respectively. The much greater rela- 
tive increase in the percentage for females accords 
with the figures in Table 31, where the decrease in the 
percentage married, widowed, or divorced in the later 
age groups is shown to be distinctly more pronounced 
for females than for males. This suggests that there 
has been a greater increase relatively in the education 
of female deaf-mutes than of males, as indeed appears 
to be the case. 

AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 

Swmmary. — Table 32 shows the distribution, ac- 
cording to age when hearing was lost, of the deaf and 
dumb population of the United States for whom 
special schedules were returned. 

Of the 19,153 deaf-mutes for whom special schedules 
were received, 7,533, representing 39.3 percent, or about 
two-fifths, of the total, stated that their deafness was 



congenital. Of those whose deafness was acquired, 
by far the greater number (9,254, representing 84.2 
per cent, or somewhat more than five-sixths) lost their 
hearing during the first five years of life, this class in 
fact constituting nearly one-half (48.3 per cent) of 
all deaf-mutes for whom schedules were returned. 
Only 1,594 persons, or 8.3 per cent of the total num- 
ber returning schedules, lost their hearing between 
the ages of 5 and 9, and only 140, or 0.7 per cent of the 
total, after reaching the age of 10. The total number 
who reported that they became deaf after reaching 
the age of 8, by which time the faculty of articulate 
speech is usually completely developed, was only 
247. These were all persons who, probably by reason 
of their deafness, had entirely lost the power of 
speech as an effective means of communication, since, 
as already stated, a person who lost his hearing after 
reaching this age and was able to communicate 
effectively with others by means of speech, having 
presumably acquired the faculty of speech before he 
became deaf, was not, properly speaking, a deaf- 
mute, and therefore did not come within the scope of 
this report. 



Table 33 


DEAF AND DUMB POPUTiATtON FOB WHOM SPEaAL 
SCHEDULES -WEBE EETUBNED: 1910. 


AGE ■WHEN HEAKING WAS 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Males 
per 100 

fe- 
males. 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 


Total 


19,153 


100.0 


10,507 


100.0 


8,646 


100.0 


121.5 






Deafness congenital 

Deafness acquired i 


7,533 
11,620 


39.3 
60.7 


4,028 
6,479 


38.3 
61.7 


3,505 
5,141 


40.5 
59.5 


114.9 
126.0 


At age of— 

Less than 1 year. 
lyear 


9,254 
1,628 
2,375 
2,606 
1,572 
959 

114 

1,594 

714 

454 

319 

73 

34 

140 

632 


48.3 
8.5 
12.4 
13.6 
8.2 
5.0 

0.6 
8.3 
3.7 
2.4 
1.7 
0.4 
0.2 
0.7 
3.3 


5,160 

898 

1,325 

1,433 

869 
678 

57 

907 

391 

262 

194 

41 

19 

84 

328 


49.1 
8.5 
12.6 
13.6 
8.3 
5.5 

0.5 

8.6 
3.7 
2.5 
1.8 
0.4 
0.2 
0.8 
3.1 


4,094 

730 

1,050 

1,173 

703 

381 

57 

687 

323 

192 

125 

32 

15 

56 

304 


47.4 
8.4 
12.1 
13.6 
8.1 
4.4 

0.7 
. 7.9 
3.7 
2.2 
1.4 
0.4 
0.2 
0.6 
3.5 


126.0 
123.0 
126.2 




122.2 


Syears 


123.6 




151.7 


lE&ncy (exact 
age not re- 
ported) 

S to 9 years 


100.0 
132.0 




121.1 


6 years 


136.5 




155.2 


8 years 


128.1 




126.7 


10 years or over 

At age not reported.... 


150.0 
107.9 



1 Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

Among those who stated that their deafness was 
acquired, more persons lost their hearing during the 
third year of life than during any other single year, the 
number being 2,606, or nearly one-seventh (13.6 per 
cent) of the total number returning schedules and not 
quite one-fourth (23.7 per cent) of the number whose 
deafness was acquired. Those who had lost their 
hearing in the second year of life ranked next in this 
respect, and those who lost it during their first year 
third, closely followed by those losing it in the fom-th 
year. The number shows a steady decrease for each 
successive year of life after the third. 



36 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Extent of congemial deaf-mutism. — ^In connection 
with the statistics relating to age when hearing was 
lost presented in this and other tables it should be 
pointed out that figures showing the number whose 
deafness was congenital or was acquired during in- 
fancy, respectively, will always in all probability be 
more or less unrehable. The mechanism of hearing 
is so concealed from ordinary observation and the 
exercise of the various perceptive faculties is so 
largely a matter of training and experience that, 
barring the exceptional cases where some malforma- 
tion or special pathological condition exists which 
makes it immediately apparent that the child has a 
defective auditory apparatus, it is practically im- 
possible in the case of newly bom infants to differen- 
tiate the deaf from those who have normal hearing by 
any means short of a special medical examination. 
As the parents naturally assume that a child is bom 
in the possession of all its faculties, the existence of 
defective hearing is not usually suspected imtil the 
child reaches the age when most children begin to 
talk, ordinarily about the second year of life, or per- 
haps not even until it arrives at school age. This 
makes it possible for error in regard to the age when 
hearing was lost to arise in two ways. On the one 
hand, children who were actually bom with normal 
hearing but lost it during infancy are likely to be re- 
garded as congenitally deaf because so far as their 
parents have been able to perceive they have always 
been deaf; while, on the other hand, there wiU be a 
natural tendency, if the child has ever suffered from 
illness or accident, to attribute deafness to this 
cause, although as a matter of fact it was probably in 
many such instances congenital. * 

Another drcumstance affecting the accuracy of the 
returns as to the nature of the deafness is the fact that 
the impressions retained from the earliest years of hfe 
are at the best so fragmentary and imperfect that an 
adventitious deaf-mute may well beheve that he was 
deaf from birth, and so state, when inquiry is made of 
him as to his age when he lost his hearing. In addi- 
tion, the causes of deafness are in many cases so ob- 
scure that even a medical examination frequently 
fails to estabUsh whether or not the cause existed at 
birth. Moreover, as congenital deaf-mutes are not 
exempt from diseases of the ear, the presence in the 
ear of morbid conditions resulting from ear disease 
which would of themselves tend to produce deafness 
is not of itself an absolute proof that deafness was 

1 Cf. the following passage from the report on the deaf for 1900: 
'« * * * the fact that an infant is deaf is not discovered, or is 
not certainly known, until after he is 2 years of age. At or about 
the age of 2 most children begin to speak, but the deaf child does 
not. This epeediless condition attracts attention and he is then 
found to be also deaf. If during his infancy he has had some seri- 
ous illneBs, the deafness is naturally attributed to that; if not, the 
natural assumption is that he was bom deaf. It is probable that 
some of those reported deaf from birth really lost heanng in infancy 
after birth, and that some of those reported deaf from infancy after 
birth were really bom deaf."— 2%e Bimd and the Deaf: 1900, p. 72. 



adventitious rather than congenital. By reason of 
all the various factors above mentioned a considerable 
degree of caution must be exercised in any use of 
figures purporting to show the number of cases where 
deafness originated respectively dxiring the prenatal 
period and during the first years of hfe. 

In this connection considerable interest attaches to 
the results obtained from one of the inquiries on the 
schedule which under a resolution adopted by the 
Bundesrat of the German Empire in 1901 must be 
filled out for every deaf-mute child reaching school 
age. This inquiry asked for the age at which the 
child's deafness was first noticed by those about h im 
{zfwr Wahrnehmung der Umgebung gekommen) ; the star- 
tistics thus obtained for congenitally deaf-mute chil- 
dren of school age on January 1, 1902, or reaching 
school age between that date and June 30, 1905, 
inclusive, are given in Table 33. 



Table 3% 



AGE WHEN DEAFNSSS WAS FIBST NOTKED. 



Total.... 

Under 1 year.. 
lyear 

2 years 

3 years 

4 years 

Syears 

6 years 

7years 

8 years or over. 



CONGEmTAIiT DEAF- 
MUTE CHILDBEK or 
SCHOOL AGE IN GEK- 
MANT FOR WHOM THE 
AGE WHEK DEAFIfESS 
WAS FIEST NOTICED 

WAS bepobted: 

JAlfUAET 1, 1902- 
JUNE SO, 1905. 



Number. 



2,587 



1,235 

917 

273 

70 

26 

10 

2 

2 

2 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 



48.7 
86.1 
10.8 
2.8 
1.0 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



It will be seen that more than one-half of the con- 
genital deaf-mutes for whom figures are given had 
completed the first year of life before those about them 
had become aware of their deafness, while more than 
one-seventh had completed the second year. The 
average age when deafness was first noticed was 1.2 
years. It is obvious that if the discovery that a child 
is deaf is postponed for this length of time there is 
room for considerable uncertainty as to whether or not 
deafness was actually congenital, especially as it is 
probable that there are numerous instances where no 
medical examination is made. So diflB.cult, indeed, 
is any accurate segregation between the congenitally 
deaf and those losing their hearing after birth but 
during infancy that in the envimeration of the deaf 
and dumb in Germany made in connection with the 
census of 1900 the authorities made no attempt what- 
ever to ascertain the number of cases of congenital 
deafness, but called merely for a statement on the 
schedule as to whether or not the person enumerated 
had been deaf "since earliest youth" {seit friihester 
Jugend), this expression being intended to cover cases 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 



37 



where the defect had existed from infancy, or more 
specificaJly where hearing was lost prior to the 
completion of the second year of life.' 

There is, however, no question but that a very large 
proportion oi deaf-mutism is due to congenital causes, 
and the percentage of the deaf and dumb whose deaf- 
ness, was reported as congenital is even higher for the 
foreign coimtries having statistics on this subject 
than it is for the United States. This is brought out 
by Table 34, which shows for those coimtries for which 
figures are available the number and percentage re- 
ported as congenitally deaf among the deaf and dimab 
in the latest year for which returns are at hand. 

In every case the percentage reported as congeni- 
taEy deaf is higher for the coimtries shown in the table 
than for the United States, although in the case of the 
percentage for the inmates of institutions for deaf- 
mutes in Austria the difference is only slight (0.9). 
Among those outside of institutions for deaf-mutes in 
Austria four-fifths were reported as congenitally deaf; 
among those enumerated in Germany at the popula- 
tion census of 1900 the proportion was estimated as 
three-fourths (75.8 per cent); and among those enu- 
merated in Ireland at the census of 1911 the proportion 
was nearly as great (73.9 per cent). The most accu- 
rate figures are probably those for deaf-mute children 
of school age in Germany between January 1, 1902, 
and June 30, 1905, as the returns were in this case 
made out by physicians sjid were afterwards carefully 
revised so as to correct any apparent instances of im- 
proper classification.'' Of these children more than one- 
half were stated to be congenitally deaf, the propor- 
tion being 50.4 per cent for those who had been ad- 
mitted to institutions for deaf-mutes and 55.8 per 
cent for those who had not. Moreover, the proportion 
of the total number stating the age when hearing was 
lost who reported it as lost prior to the completion of 
the second year of life (including those bom deaf) for 
the United States was only 62.3 per cent, or somewhat 
more than three-fifths, whereas in Germany at the cen- 

* Cf. the following: "When studying deaf mutism it has been 
foimd convenient to distinguish between congenital and acquired 
deafness. The line which separates these two classes is never 
definite. Pathologically it is almost absent. With the exception 
of the rather small number of cases due to congenital malformations, 
the morbid appearances found in the ears of deaf mutes show nothing 
characteristic in this respect. Generally, unless helped by a 
clinical history, we should be unable, at a given autopsy, to say 
whether the deafness were congenital or acquired." — /. Kerr Love: 
Deaf Mutism, a Clinical and Pathological Study, Glasgow, 1896, 
p. 159. 

* The instructions relative to this re^osion were as follows: 

"At the beginning of the tabulation the figures under 'con- 
genital ' are to be completely corrected or supplemented by adding 
the figures for all cases in which the deaf-mut« child in question 
had a goiter (Kropf) * * * or in which one or more brothers or 
sisters were deaf-mutes * * * excluding the cases in which it 
is stated that the brothers or sisters became deaf during the same 
infectious disease (meningitis, scarlet fever, measles) * * * 

In the same way cases in which there has been destruction of 
the drum membrane are to be included as 'acquired.' " — ^Trans- 
lated from Die Ergebnisse derfortlaiifenden Statistik der Taribetummen 
u&trend der Jahr'e 1902 bis 1905 (in Mediiinal-statistische Mitteil- 
ungen aus dem Kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamte, Band XII, Heft 1, 
1908, p. 6.) 



sus of 1900 the proportion who were reported as deaf 
since earliest youth, which covers practically the same 
period of life, was 82.7 per cent, or about five-sixths. 
In view of these facts it seems doubtful whether the 
percentage shown for the United States in Table 32 is 
any above the true figure. 



Table 34 


Year. 


DEAF AND DVMB POPtlLATlOlf. 


COTOTtEY. 


Total. 


Congenitally deaf. 




Number. 


Percent 
of total. 


Austria: 

In institations for deaf-mutes 

Outside institutions for deaf-mutes . . . 
Germany: 


1906 
1906 

1900 
1902-5 
1902-5 

1911 


1,788 
27,751 

'45,554 

»6,996 

> 1,192 

3,145 


718 
22,426 

> 34, 549 

3,524 

665 

2,325 


40.2 

80.8 

75.8 


Children of school age in institutions 


50.4 


Children of school age outside institu- 
tions for deaf-mutes 


55.8 




73.9 







> Number reporting as to age when hearing was lost. 



3 Estimated. 



The reason for the low percentage congenitally deaf 
among deaf-mutes in the United States as compared 
with other countries, to which attention was also 
called in the report for 1890,^ is not altogether easy to 
determine. The fact brought out by a later table 
(Table 45) that the percentage congenitally deaf is high 
for the Negroes, among whom the relative number of 
deaf-mutes is low, and low for the whites, among whom 
the relative number of deaf-mutes is comparatively 
high, tends to suggest that the relatively low percentage , 
congenitally deaf among the deaf-mute population of 
the United States taken as a whole is due to a relar 
tively high frequency of adventitious deafness rather 
than to a relatively low frequency of congenital deaf- 
ness, although allowance must be made for the fact 
that the returns as to age when hearing was lost are 
in all probability less reliable for Negroes than for 
whites. Such a high frequency of adventitious deaf- 
ness woidd of course imply that the zymotic dis- 
eases which cause most of the acquired deaf-mutism 
are more prevalent in the United States than in the 
European coimtries for which figures are given. 
Whether this is actually the case can not be determined 
in the absence of complete mortahty or morbidity sta- 
tistics for the United States as a whole. It may, how- 
ever, be pointed out that the available figures tend 
to show that cerebrospinal fever, which is perhaps 
the chief cause of acquired deaf-mutism, is some- 
what more prevalent in the United States than in 

^ "The ratio of congenitally deaf per 1,000 of all deaf-mutes in 
the United States, namely, 415.81, is a low one as compared with that 
found in other countries. For example, this ratio was, in Scotland, 
in 1881, 503; in Ireland, in 1881, 809; in Prussia, in 1880, 568; in 
Bavaria, in 1858, 749; in France, in 1876, 753; in Belgium, in 1835, 
788; in Holland, in 1869, 665; in Norway, in 1886, 512; in Italy, in 
1871, 822; in Austria, in 1886, for those notin public institutions, 840; 
for those in pubUc institutions, 373; in Saxony, in 1880, 421; in 
Denmark, in 1886, 392." (Report on the Insane, Feeble-minded, 
Deaf and Dumb, and Blind in the United States at the Eleventh 
Census: 1890, p. 96.) 



38 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Europe. The average annual death rate from cerebro- 
spinal fever {Genickstarre) , for example, in Germany 
during the two-year period 1910-11 was only 0.4 per 
100,000 of the total estimated population, whereas the 
average annual reported death rate from cerebrospinal 
fever for the registration area of the United States for 
the same period, without including any estimate for 
cases comprised under the head of "cerebrospinal men- 
ingitis (undefined)" or "simple meningitis," was 0.7 
per 100,000, or nearly twice as great.* On the other 
hand, the death rate from scarlet fever, the disease 
ranking next in importance as cause of deafness, ap- 
pears to be lower for the registration area than for 
Germany and Austria, although higher than for 
Ireland, while the death rate from measles, also an 
important cause, is generally lower in the registration 
area than for the countries mentioned ; but it is impos- 
sible to state whether the showing would be as favor- 
able to the United States if figures were available for 
the country as a whole and the comparison co^ild be 
made for individual age groups. 

Another factor which may to some extent account 
for the low percentage of congenital deaf-mutism in the 
United States is the circumstance that its population 
comprises a large proportion of immigrants from other 
countries. Congenital deaf-mutism occurs to a very 
considerable extent in the offspring of consanguineous 
marriages, and such marriages are probably more fre- 
quent relatively in a population whose only growth is 
through natural increase than in one receiving large 
accessions from other countries. To put this in 
another way, of two countries which are alike as 
regards the incidence of the diseases causing adventi- 
tious deafness and which resemble each other in all 
essential respects, with the exception that the popula- 
tion of one is exclusively of native origin whereas 
that of the other comprises a large foreign element, 
the co.imtry comprising only native stock in its 
population should normally show the higher percent- 
age of congenital deaf-mutism for the reason that the 
number of consanguineous marriages would probably 
be greater. In view of this fact, it seems highly 
probable that the large volume of immigration which 
the United States receives has been an influential 
factor in reducing the percentage of congenital deaf- 
mutism as compared with other countries. 

Whether the proportion of congenital deaf-mutism 
is increasing or decreasing is a subject of considerable 
interest, but unfortunately the available statistics throw 

^ ^ Cf . also the following statement by a leading authority on deaf- 
mutism: 

<i * « » at least 60 per cent of American deafness is acquired 
and much of it is due to a disease which is almost absent from 
the British Empire — cerebroHspinal fever." — J. Kerr Love: Deaf 
MutUm, a Clinical and Pathological Study, Glasgow, 1896, p. 219. 

Both in England and Wales and in beland the average annual 
reported deatia rate from cerebrospinal fever during the four-year 
period 1910-1913 was 0.4 ^r 100,000 of the total poj)ulation; figures 
for Scotland are not available. For the registeation area of the 
United States for the same period the reported average annual rate 
was 1.4 per 100,000. 



no certain light on this question by reason of the changes 
from census to census in the application of the term 
" deaf and dumb." Such figures as are available are 
presented, however, in Table 35, which shows for each 
census from 1880 to 1910, inclusive, the percentage 
congenitally deaf among the deaf-mutes reporting. 



Table 35 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION OP THE 
UNITED STATES EEPOETINQ AOE WHEN 
HEARING WAS LOST. 


TEAE 


Total. 


Reporting deafness as 
congenital. 




Number. 


Percent 
ol total. 


1910' 


18,407 
37,361 
37,204 
22,473 


7,533 
14,474 
16,866 
12,155 


40 9 


1900 » 


38.7 


1890 » 


45 3 


1880* 


54 1 







1 Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned. 

' Deaf for whom special schedules were returned less than 8 years of age when 
hearing was lost. 

' Deaf persons unable to speak at all. 

» Deaf-mutes, exclusiye of those reported as 16 years of age or over when hear- 
ing was lost. 

This table shows a distinct decrease in 1910 as 
compared with 1880 in the proportion of deaf-mutes 
in the United States whose deafness was reported as 
congenital. Of the deaf-mutes reporting age when 
hearing was lost in 1880, more than one-half (54.1 per 
cent) were reported as congenitally deaf, as compared 
with only two-fifths (40.9 per cent) in 1910, although, all 
other things being equal, an increase in the percentage 
would have been expected, by reason of the fact that 
deaf persons reported as having lost their hearing be- 
tween the ages of 8 and 16 were included in 1880 but 
were excluded in 1910 unless they were totally deaf and 
without the power of speech as an effective means of 
communication. In particular, the fact that the per- 
centage was lower in 1890, when only deaf persons 
who were unable to speak were included, than in 1880, 
when the figures included deaf-mutes who had been 
taught to speak, would seem to indicate that there 
had been an actual decrease in the proportion of con- 
genital deafness, since normally a larger percentage 
of persons congenitally deaf, that is, who had lost their 
hearing before they had had an opportunity to acquire 
the faculty of speech, would be looked for in a group 
made up of persons who could not speak at aU than in 
one including some who could speak. The statistics 
of certain institutions for the deaf also seem to show 
that there has been a decrease in the relative number 
of their pupils who were congenitally deaf.* 

In spite of these facts, however, it would probably 
be well to exercise considerable reserve in accepting 
a decrease in the proportion of congenital deafness as 
an actually demonstrated fact. As compared with 
1900, the percentage whose deafness was reported as 
congenital in 1910 shows a slight increase, and it is 
doubtful whether the element of incomparability in 
the figures for the two censuses was sufficient to 

" Best: The Deaf, pp. 58, 59. 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 



39 



change an actual decrease m the percentage to an 
apparent increase. On the whole, there appears to 
be no very strong reason for believing that there has 
been during recent years any significant decrease in 
the relative amount of congenital deafness, A priori, 
an increase in the percentage congenitally deaf would 
have been looked for during the period covered by 
Table 35, since a decrease in the proportion of adven- 
titious deaf-mutism, which in the nature of things is 
much more easy of prevention than congenital deaf- 
ness, would normally accompany the increase in med- 
ical control over the contagious and infectious diseases 
which are the chief causes of this class of deaf -mutism 
and the increase in medical skiU in treating morbid 
conditions in the ear. It is indeed difficult to believe 
that any progress which may have been made towards 
preventing congenital deaf-mutism has been sufficiently 
great to produce so marked a falling off in the relative 
importance of congenital deaf-mutes as the table indi- 
cates, or, on the other hand, that there has been any 
considerable increase in the relative frequency of ad- 
ventitious deafness, especially when mortality statis- 
tics show that the death rate from the diseases to 
which such deafness is usually due has in general been 
tending to decrease over a period of years. 

As a matter of fact, the apparent decrease in 1910 
as compared with 1880 and 1890 in the percentage 
of deaf-mutes who w6re bom deaf is without question 
due ia part at least to a more accxirate differentia- 
tion between congenital and acquired deafness. In 
this connection the figures for the blind are of special 
significance. The percentage of the blind who were 
reported as suffering from congenital bhndness was 
considerably smaller in 1910 than ia 1880 (6.6 per cent 
as compared with 12.8 per cent) ; on the other hand, 
the proportion reported as losing their sight after birth 
but during the first year of Hfe was higher in 1910 than 
at the earlier census (5 per cent as compared with 2.4 
per cent), although the proportion losiag it in each 
of the other age periods under 15 years had decreased. 
In view of the great progress made since 1880 ia the 
prevention of blindness from ophthalmia neonatorum, 
which causes by far, the greater proportion of blind- 
ness occurring during the first year of life, it is very 
improbable that while all the other years of childhood 
have been decreasiag their relative contribution to the 
blind population this one year has increased its contri- 
bution. There is little doubt that the decrease ia the 
proportion reported as congenitally blind and the con- 
comitant iacrease in that reported as losing sight after 
birth but while less than 1 year of age to a consid- 
erable extent at least merely indicates that many 
persons who would formerly have been erroneously 
reported as blind from birth are now acctirately 
reported as having lost their sight in early iafancy. 

In view of the situation existing in regard to the 
blind, the question naturally arises as to how far such 
a condition may exist ia the case of deaf-mutes. 



Although the figures for 1910 and 1880 are not entirely 
comparable by reason of the lower limit of inclusion 
with regard to age when hearing was lost employed at 
the later census, most of the incomparability can be 
eliminated by confining the comparison to persons 
who lost their hearing before reachiag the age of 8. 
Such a comparison is made in Table 36, which shows 
the distribution by age when hearing was lost of the 
deaf-mutes reporting on this subject ia 1910 and 1880, 
respectively. 



Table 36 



AQE WHEN HEABma WAS LOST. 



Total 

Deafness congenital 

Deafness acquired 

At ^e of— 

Less than 1 year 

lyear 

2years 

Syears 

4years 

Syears 

eyears. 

Tyears. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION BEPOETED 
AS LESS THAN 8 YEABS OK AGE WHEN 
HEABINOWAS LOST. 



1910 



Number. 



18,160 



7,533 
10,627 



1,628 

2,375 

2,606 

1,572 

959 

714 

454 

319 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 



41.5 
58.5 



9.0 
13.1 
14.4 
8.7 
5.3 
3.9 
2.5 
1.8 



1880 



Number. 



21,182 



12,155 
9,027 



1,009 

1,275 

2,447 

1,569 

989 

806 

540 

392 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 



57.4 
42.6 



4.8 
6.0 
11.6 
7.4 
4.7 
3.8 
2.5 
1.9 



While the proportion reported as born deaf shows a 
very considerable decrease in 1910 as compared with 
1880, the proportion reported as losiag hearing in each 
year of life up to and including the sixth shows an in- 
crease. This increase is particularly marked in the 
case of those who lost their hearing in the first two 
years, persons who lost it while less than 1 year of 
age constituting 9 per cent of the total in 1910 as com- 
pared with only 4.8 per cent in 1880, and persons losing 
it while 1 year of age constituting 13.1 per cent in 
1910 and only 6 per cent in 1880. In contrast with 
these increases, the increase in the percentage for per- 
sons who lost their hearing at the age of 2, who ranked 
next in this respect, was only 2.8. As a result of these 
changes the fourth year of life, which in 1880 out- 
ranked every other year except the third in respect to 
the number of cases of acqxiired deaf -mutism originat- 
ing in it, had in 1910 dropped to fourth place, having 
been passed by the second and first years. When aU 
persons reported as losing their hearing prior to the 
completion of the second year of life (including those 
born deaf), a class corresponding practically to the 
"deaf since earliest youth" at the German census of 
1900, are taken together, the percentage shows com- 
paratively Uttle change, decreasing from 68.2 in 1880 
to 63.5 in 1910. 

The fact that by far the greater part of the increase in 
the proportion of persons whose deafness was reported 
as acquired occurred among -those who lost their hear- 
ing during the first two years of life would seem to 
bear out what has already been said as to the proba- 



40 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



bility that the apparent decrease in the relative amount 
of congenital deaf-mutism is in large part the result of 
a more accurate differentiation between congenital 
and acquired deafness, as a residt of which many per- 
sons in 1910 were correctly reported as having lost 
their hearing within the first two or three years of life 
who would formerly have been incorrectly reported as 
congenitally deaf. If this is not the case, there has 
been a marked change not only in the percentages of 
persons whose deafness was respectively congenital 
and acquired but also in the distribution with regard 
to age when hearing was lost of those whose deafness 
was acquired, as is brought out somewhat more clearly 
by the following table. 



Table 37 



AGE 'WHEN HEAJUNO WAS LOST. 



Total- 
Under 1 year 

lyear 

2yeais 

Syears 

4years 

Syears 

eyears 

7yeais 



PER CENT DISTRIBUTION 
OF DEAF AND DUUB 
POPULATION REPORT- 
ING HEARINQ AS LOST 
AFTER BIRTH BUT 
■WBEN LESS THAN 8 
TEARS OF AGE. 



1910 



100.0 



15.3 

22.3 

24.5 

14.8 

9.0 

6.7 

4.3 

3.0 



1880 



100.0 



11.2 

14.1 

27.1 

17.4 

11.0 

8.9 

6.0 

4.3 



Of the deaf-mutes in 1880 reported as suffering from 
acquired deafness who had lost their hearing before 
reaching the age of 8 years, only one-foiu-th (25.3 per 
cent) had lost it diuiog the first two years of life, as 
compared with 37.7 per cent, or considerably more than 
one-third, in 1910. That there has actually been any 
such pronounced change appears doubtful, as it seems 
hardly probable that the changes in conditions which 
have affected the incidence of adventitious deafness, 
such as the increased control over communicable 
disease, have affected the different ages of childhood to 
such an unequal extent as the figures would indicate. 
On the whole, it seems reasonably certain that a more 
accurate segregation between congenital and acquired 
deafness, is the most important factor in the changes 
shown in Table 36 with respect to age when hearing 
was lost. 

It is, nevertheless, not impossible that there may 
actually have been a slight decrease in the proportion 
congenitaUy deaf and a corresponding increase in the 
proportion adventitiously deaf; iadeed the fact that the 
proportion shown in Table 36 as losing their hearing 
at every year of age up to and including 5 was higher in 
1910 than ia 1880 suggests very strongly that this was 
the case. Even in considering these figiu-es, however, 
it must be kept in mind that differences in the meth- 
ods employed and in the accuracy of the enumeration 
at the respective censuses may have affected consider- 
ably the distribution with regard to age when hearing 
was lost. In view of this uncertainty, it will prob- 



ably be advisable to await the results of another census 
before accepting a decrease in the relative amoxmt of 
congenital deaf-mutism as conclusively estabhshed. 

Relative risk of deaf-^mutism at different ages. — ^In 
connection with statistics as to age when hearing was 
lost by the deaf-mute population on any given date, 
it jnust be remembered that they do not necessarily 
indicate the relative numbers who wiU lose their hear- 
ing at the difiFerent ages during any given year. In 
the first place, the deaf-mute population at any given 
date represents the acciunulation of the greater part 
of a centiuy, during which period the relative incidence 
of congenital and adventitious deafness, as well as that 
of adventitious deafness at the different ages, may 
have changed, and in the former instance at least 
probably has changed, so that the distribution at any 
given date wiU to a considerable extent be merely 
the composite result of aU the tendencies existing 
throughout a long period of tune. Another factor of 
importance in this connection is the circumstance that 
there is reason to beUeve that the death rate of the 
congenitaUy and the adventitiously deaf, and also of 
the adventitiously deaf who lost their hearing at 
different ages, varies more or less, so that the pro- 
portions who lost their hearing at different ages in the 
deaf-mute population on any given date will neces- 
sarily differ in greater or less degree from the corre- 
sponding proportions in the population becoming 
deaf-mutes during any stated period of time. For 
these reasons the distribution according to age when 
hearing was lost of the total deaf-mute population 
retimiing schedules at the census of 1910 affords no 
conclusive indication of the relative risk of deafness 
at the different ages. 

An approximate indication of the relative risk at the 
different ages at the present time may, however, be ob- 
tained by comparing the ratios between the nimiber 
who lost their hearing at each year of age among the 
deaf-mutes 10 to 14 years of age in 1910 for whom spe- 
cial schedules were retimied, who constituted the yoimg- 
est age group among the deaf and dumb which was not 
likely to receive further accessions, and the general pop- 
ulation in 1910 of the age corresponding to that at which 
hearing was lost. Such a comparison is made in Table 
38, which is restricted to those who lost their hearing 
when less than 8 years of age, as persons who lost their 
hearing after reaching that age were included in the tab- 
ulation only in the comparatively few instances where 
they had entirely lost the power of speech as an effect- 
ive means of communication. It must be distinctly 
borne in mind that the ratios shown in the table 
do not represent the actual risk of deafness at the re- 
spective ages; their significance lies mainly in the fact 
that they afford a general indication of the relative 
magnitude of this risk during the different years of 
childhood considered in comparison with each other. 

From this table it appears that the risk of ad- 
ventitious deafness which will ultimately result in 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, 



41 



deaf-mutism is highest during the first three years of 
life, the second year leading in this respect by a sub- 
stantial margin, the third year ranking next, and the 
first year third. After the third year of Hfe there is 
a sharp decrease, and after the fourth year another 
considerable decrease appears, which is followed by a 
slow and steady decrease throughout the remainder 
of the age period covered by the table. 



Table 38 



YEAS OF Age. 



Under 8 years 

TJnderlyear 

lyear 

2 years 

3years 

4 years 

Syears 

6years 

7years 



General popula- 
tion of specified 
age: 1910. 



16,654,822 



2,217,342 
1,976,472 
2,166,492 
2,156,141 
2,114,917 
2,035,398 
2,033,834 
1,954,226 



ADVENTITI0U3 DEAF- 
UCTES 10 TO U YEABS 
OF AGE FOR 'WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDtJLES 
■WERE RETURNED RE- 
PORTING HEARING A3 
lOST AT SPECIFIED 
age: 1910. 



Total. 



1,384 



262 

385 

325 

185 

88 

66 

45 

28 



Per 100,000 



population 

of specified 

age. 



8.3 



11.8 
19.5 
15.0 
8.6 
4.2 
3.2 
2.2 
1.4 



The smallness of the ratios for the later ages shown 
in the table is of course due in part to the fact that 
many children who have reached the age of 5 or 6 before 
becoming deaf have ah^ady learned to speak fairly well. 
The most important factor, however, in determining 
the relative risk at the different ages appears to be the 
relative incidence of the diseases of childhood which 
are responsible for the majority of cases of acquired 
deaf-mutism. So far as can be determined from 
mortality statistics, which constitute practically the 
sole basis of information on this subject, the incidence 
of these diseases is highest during the earliest years 
of life. This is brought out by the following table, 
which shows for the three-year period 1911-1913 
the average annual death rate at the diflFerent ages 
among children under 10 years of age in England and 
Wales from the five diseases which are most largely 
responsible for acqxiired deaf-mutism. 



Table 39 


AVERAGE ANNUAL DEATH KATE OP CHILDREN UN- 
DEB 10 TEARS OF AGE PEE 100,000 LIVINQ AT THE 
SAUE AGE IN ENGLAND AND WALES: 1<11-1»13.> 


CAUSE or death. 


Total. 


At age of— 




Lesstlian 
lyear. 


lyear. 


2 to 4 
years. 


5 to 9 
years. 


Five specified causes 


276.2 


459.5 


823.8 


310.1 


101.8 


Measles 


155.9 
22.2 
53.9 
42.3 
1.9 


283.2 

8.0 

23.2 

144.8 
0.3 


635.4 

26.5 

65.1 

96.1 

0.7 


164.3 
35.8 
75.5 
32.8 
1.8 


24.4 


Scarlet fever 


16.2 




45.2 


MBTiinrftis 


13.6 


Typhoid fever 


2.5 







1 The mortality under 1 year of age is calculated per 100,000 births; that at 
other ages per 100,000 living at each age. 

The aggregate death rate from the five causes shown 
in the table was much higher for the second year of 



hfe than for any other year or group of years; this is 
also the year of life for which the greatest relative 
risk of deaf-mutism is shown in Table 38. The first 
year of life ranks second in respect to the death rate 
from the five specified causes combined, although in 
Table 38 it occupies third place, the third year of 
life ranking next to the second in regard to relative 
risk of deafness. In the main, however, there is a 
sufficiently close correspondence between the varia- 
tions in the relative death rate at the different ages 
from the five causes specified in the table and those 
in the relative risk of deafness as shown in Table 38 
to justify the conclusion that there must be a close 
relation between the incidence of deafness at the 
different ages and the incidence of the diseases for 
which death rates are given in Table 39. 

Figures as to age when hearing was lost by indi- 
vidual years are not available for any foreign country. 
It is probable, however, that the returns as to age when 
deafness was first noticed for deaf-mute children of 
school age in Germany, to which reference has already 
been made, are, so far as concerns children whose deaf- 
ness was acquired, reasonably comparable with those 
for age when hearing was lost for the United States, 
as the tendency in reporting age when hearing was 
lost wotild be to identify this age with that when 
deafness was first perceived. A comparison of these 
statistics with those for the United States is given in 
Table 40. The figures for the United States are con- 
fined to persons from 5 to 19 years of age at the date 
of enumeration, as this period of life corresponds 
approximately to that covered by the statistics for 
Germany, and only persons who lost their hearing 
before reaching the age of 7 are included for both 
coimtries, as in Germany the presxmiption appears 
to have been that most children losing their hearing 
after that age had fuUy developed their power of 
speech. 



Table 40 



AGE WHEN HEABINQ WAS LOST 
OR WHEN DEAFNESS WAS FIRST 
NOnCED.l 



Total. 



Under! year. 

1 year 

2 years 

3years 

4years 

Syears 

6 years 



DEAF AND DUMB FOPU- 
LATIOK OF THE 
UNITED STATES FROM 
6 TO 19 YEARS OF AGE 
FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDin.ES WERE 
RETURNED EEPORT- 
INQ HEARING AS LOST 
AFTER BIETH BUT 
WHEN LESS THAN 7 
YEARS OF age: 1010. 



Number. 



3,453 



672 
976 
826 
449 
250 
176 
104 



Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 



19.5 

28.3 

23.9 

13.0 

7.2 

5.1 

3.0 



DEAF AND DUMB CBII^ 
DBEN OF SCHOOL AGE 
IN GERMANY WHOSE 
DEAFNESS WAS RE- 
PORTED AS ACQUIRED 
WHEN LESS THAN 7 

YEARS OF age: :ian- 

UARY 1, IDW-JUNB 80, 
1906. 



Number. 



3,979 



785 
,498 
852 
419 
202 
136 
87 



Percent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 



19.7 

37.6 

21.4 

10.5 

5.1 

3.4 

2.2 



I Figures for United States represent age when hearing was lost; those for 
Germany age when deafness was nirst noticed. 

The distribution for the two countries differs to 
some extent. Both in Germany and in the United 



42 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



States the largest group is that comprising children 
who lost their hearing, or whose deafness was first 
noticed, during the second year of hfe; the proportion 
was, however, distinctly higher for the former country 
than for the latter, the figures being 37.6 per cent, or 
considerably more than one-third, in Germany, and 

28.3 per cent, or somewhat more than one-fourth, in 
the United States. In both countries also those who 
lost their hearing or whose deafness was first noticed 
at the age of 2 rank next in importance; but in this 
instance the proportion was somewhat the higher in 
the United States (23.9 per cent, as compared with 

21.4 per cent for Germany), and for each of the suc- 
ceeding ages shown in the table it was also distinctly 
higher in the United States. The percentage who lost 
their hearing when less than 1 year of age was prac- 
tically the same. While it is somewhat difficult to 
explain the relatively greater incidence at the earliest 
ages which is shown for Germany, it may be noted 
that meningitis, which according to mortality returns 
has its greatest incidence during the first two years 
of life, appears to be somewhat more important as a 
cause of deafness in Germany than in the United 
States, although owing to the unsatisfactory character 
of the retimis as to cause for the latter country, a 
certain degree of caution has to be employed in any 
consideration of them. 

Comparison by sex. — When the distribution of male 
and female deaf-mutes according to age when hearing 
was lost, as shown in Table 32, is compared, the princi- 
pal difference appears in the case of those reported as 
having been deaf from birth, who constituted a 
slightly larger proportion of the total for females than 
for males, 40.5 per cent as compared with 38.3 per 
cent. On the other hand, the percentage in each of 
the three main groups with respect to age when 
hearing was lost into which those whose deafness was 
acquired are divided was slightly greater for males 
than for females. These differences are reflected in 
the ratios of males to females among those losing their 
hearing at the different ages. Among those who 
reported their deafness as congenital there were 114.9 
males to each 100 females, as compared with 126 to 
100 among those whose deafness was acquired. The 
ratio, moreover, tends to increase with the age at 
which hearing was lost, being higher among those 
who lost their hearing during the second quinquen- 
nium of life than among those who lost it in the first, 
and still higher among those who lost it after the 
completion of the second quinquenniiun, although the 
figures for the individual years fluctuate considerably. 

That this lower percentage of congenital deafness 
among male than among female deaf-mutes is a phe- 
nomenon by no means confined to the United States 
will be seen from Table 41, which shows for those 
foreign countries for which statistics are available the 
percentage of male and of female deaf-mutes, respec- 
tively, reported as congenitally deaf. 



Table 41 


Year. 


DEAF AND DtTMB POPULATION. 




Male. 


Female. 




Total. 


Congenitally 


Total. 


Congenitally 




^eaf. 


deaf. 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of 

total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of 

total. 


Austria: 

In institutions for deaf- 
mutes 


1906 
1906 

190« 

1902-5 
1911 


980 
15,529 

13,854 

1649 
1,751 


376 
12,597 

1,856 

353 
1,280 


38.4 
81.1 

48.2 

54.4 
73.1 


808 
12,222 

«3,142 

1543 
1,394 


342 
9,829 

1,668 

312 
1,045 


42.3 


Outside institutions for 
deaf-mutes 


80.4 


Germany: 

Children of school age 
in institutions for 


53.1 


Children of school age 
outside institutions 

for deaf-mutes 

Ireland 


57.5 
75.0 







1 Number reporting as to age when hearing was lost. 

In practically every instance the table shows a 
higher percentage congenitally deaf among female 
deaf-mutes than among male, the only exception 
being deaf-mutes outside of institutions for deaf- 
mutes in Austria, among whom the percentage is 
slightly higher for males. The difference is especially 
pronounced in the case of the deaf-mute children of 
school age in Germany, the statistics for whom are 
probably the most accurate of any given in the table 
by reason of the fact that the Returns were made by 
physicians. This rather general tendency towards a 
higher percentage of acquired deafness among male 
deaf-mutes suggests that the excess of males which 
has already been noted as a general characteristic of 
this class of the population has its origin very largely 
in conditions related to the incidence of adventitious 
deafness. As a matter of fact mortahty statistics 
show that the death rates from meningitis, measles, 
and scarlet fever, the diseases of childhood most fre- 
quently resulting in deafness, are higher for male 
children than for female, the difference in the case of 
the two diseases first mentioned being marked. This 
would seem to indicate that males offer less resistance 
to these diseases than do females, and it is not 
improbable that this greater susceptibility may mani- 
fest itself not merely in a greater mortality but also 
in a greater predisposition to unfortunate sequelae 
such as deafness. If this is actually the case, it would 
of course tend to make the number adventitiously 
deaf somewhat larger relatively among males than 
among females. Another possible factor is the circum- 
stance that the diseases ordinarily occasioning deafness 
appear to occur at a somewhat earlier age among males 
than among females, so that even if the actual inci- 
dence of these diseases was the same for the two sexes 
the number losii^ their hearing before acquiring the 
power of speech would be somewhat greater for males 
than for females. 

Comparison hy geographic divisions. — General Table 
9 (p. 121) shows for each geographic division and state 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 



43 



the distribution according to age when hearing was 
lost of the deaf and dumb population in 1910 for whom 
special schedules were returned. Table 42 shows for 
each division the per cent distribution based upon 
the figures in General Table 9. 

The various divisions differ considerably from each 
other with regard to the percentage of the deaf and 
dumb returning schedules whose deafness was respec- 
tively congenital and acquired. In the South At- 
lantic division considerably more than one-half (55.5 
per cent) of those returning schedules reported that 



they had been born deaf, and the proportion was also 
in excess of one-haK (51.2 per cent) in the East South 
Central division, while in the West South Central 
division it was 46.1 per cent, or considerably more 
than two-fifths, as compared with a percentage of 
only 38.2 for New England, which ranked next. In 
the Pacific division, on the other hand, the propor- 
tion reporting themselves as born deaf was only 29.1 
per cent, or less than one-third, and it also fell below 
one-third in the Mountain, West North Central, and 
East North Central divisions. 



Table 42 


PEE CENT DISTRIBUTION OF 


DEAF AND 


DUMB POPULATION 
ketubned: UIO. 


FOB WHOM SPECIAL 


.SCHEDULES WEBB 


AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 


United 
States. 


New 
England 
division. 


Middle 
Atlantic 
division. 


East 

North 

Central 

division. 


West 

North 

Central 

division. 


South 
Atlantic 
division. 


East 

South 

Central 

division. 


West 

South 

Central 

division. 


Mountain 
division. 


Pacific 
division. 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






Deafness congenital 


39.3 
60.7 


38.2 
61.8 


35.4 
64.6 


33.1 
66.9 


32.9 
67.1 


55.5 
44.6 


51.2 
48.8 


46.1 
53.9 


3Z4 
67.6 


29.1 


Peafness ftcntiirfld ^ , . . . 


70.9 


At age M— 

Ti(\ss than S yfiars. . . 




48.3 
8.5 
12.4 
13.6 
8.2 
5.0 
0.6 

8.3 
3.7 
2.4 
1.7 
0.4 
0.2 
0.7 

3.3 


50.0 
7.9 
12.0 
14.6 
9.9 
5.5 
0.2 

7.3 
4.5 
1.3 
1.0 
0.3 
0.3 
0.4 

4.1 


50.3 
7.3 
12.6 
15.1 
9.1 
5.8 
0.4 

9.8 
•■ 4.3 
3.1 
1.9 
0.4 
0.1 
0.6 

3.9 


53.8 
8.9 
13.0 
15.5 
9.5 
5.7 
1.2 

9.1 
4.5 
2.3 
1.9 
0.3 
0.1 
0.7 

3.3 


54.7 
9.6 
14.9 
18.0 
8.3 
5.4 
0.5 

8.2 
3.4 
2.6 
1.7 
0.4 
0.1 
0.8 

3.4 


33.2 
6.7 
9.2 
8.1 
5.7 
2.8 
0.7 

6.8 
2.7 
1.8 
1.4 
0.5 
0.3 
1.2 

3.3 


37.4 
8.4 

10.3 
9.2 
5.4 
3.9 
0.3 

7.3 
3.2 
2.3 
1.2 
0.4 
0.3 
0.8 

3.3 


44.5 
10.2 
11.8 
11.3 
6.9 
4.0 
0.2 

6.9 
2.6 
1.9 
1.7 
0.4 
0.3 
0.7 

1.9 


59.4 
13.1 
14.2 
15.3 
9.7 
6.8 
0.3 

6.5 
2.6 
1.4 
2.6 


59.4 


Less thsm 1 year 


9.6 


1 year , 


16.0 




16.5 


3 years 


10.2 


4 years 


6.5 


Infancy (exact agfl not reported) . . . 


0.5 




8.8 


5years 


4.1 


6 years 


2.8 


7 years 


1.7 


8 years 


0.2 


9 years .'. 






10 years or o'^er 


0.3 
1.4 


0.7 


At age not reported 


2.1 







1 Includes those for whom the age when 

A precise explanation of the differences just referred 
to is diJBGicult to give, and they probably result from 
a variety of factors. The theory has been advanced 
that newly settled regions are likely to have fewer con- 
genital deaf-mutes than regions of older settlement, 
on the ground that the influence of consanguineous 
marriages has not yet had time to manifest itself, and 
there is some probability that this may actually be 
the case. In this connection it may be pointed out 
that the three southern divisions, in which the per- 
centage of congenital deaf-mutes is much higher than 
in any of the other divisions, contain a much smaller 
number of migrants from other countries and states 
than the other divisions, so that it is in these divi- 
sions that the influence of consanguineous marriages in 
producing deaf -mutism would be expected to be most 
pronounced. On the other hand, the western divi- 
sions, which show the lowest percentage of congenital 
deaf-mutism, comprise a larger number relatively of 
migrants in their population than the other divisions. 

Differences in the prevalence, either at the present 
time or ia the past, of the various diseases which con- 
stitute the chief causes of acquired deaf-mutism also 
account in part for the differences in the percentage of 
congenital cases among the deaf-mutes of the respec- 
tive divisions. In the southern divisions, moreover, 
the presence of a large Negro population is to some 



hearing was lost was not reported. 

extent responsible for the high percentage who stated 
that they were bom deaf among the deaf and dumb 
returning special schedules, as the percentage congen- 
itally deaf is much higher among Negroes than among 
whites, probably in part by reason of the apparently 
lesser susceptibility of members of the former race to 
certain important causes of adventitious deafness. 
Even for the whites in these divisions, however, the per- 
centage congenitaUy deaf appears to be considerably 
above the average. Figures on this point for 1910 or 
1900 are unfortunately not available; Table 43, how- 
ever, shows for each geographic division the per- 
centage of the white and colored deaf and dumb 
population in 1890 who reported that they were con- 
genitaUy deaf. 



Table 43 

DIVISION. 


PER CENT CONGENITALLY DEAF 
AMONG DEAF AND DUMB POPU- 
LATION: 1890.1 




Total. 


White. 


Colored. 


United States 


45.3 


43.7 


65 4 








44.6 
42.0 
37.3 
36.9 
61.4 
60.7 
53.3 
41.6 
37.3 


44.5 
41.9 
37.2 
36.7 
59.6 
58.4 
50.4 
41.6 
37.2 


54.2 
55.2 
49.5 
50.0 
66.6 
68.4 
65.4 
SO 


Middle Atlantic 


East North Central 


West North Central . . . 


fln^th Atlnnt.in 


East South Central.. 


West South Central 




Pacific 


eao 





1 Based upon the population (or whom the age when hearing was lost was 
reported. * ' 



44 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



In each of the three southern divisions in 1890 more 
than one-half of the deaf and dumb whites for whom 
the age when hearing was lost was indicated were 
reported as bom deaf, the proportion being nearly 
three-fifths (59.6 per cent and 58.4 per cent, respec- 
tively) in the South Atlantic and East South Central 
divisions. In New England, on the other hand, 
which shows the highest percentage congenitally deaf 
for the whites outside of the South, the proportion was 
only 44.5 per cent, or somewhat more than two- 
fifths. The difference between the percentages for the 
two races was, in fact, smallest in the South Atlantic 
division. Thus the high percentage of congenital 
deafness shown for the three southern divisions in 
Table 42 would appear to be due in the main to con- 
ditions affecting both races. 

That the differences between the divisions as re- 
gards the relative amount of congenital and acquired 
deafness among the deaf-mutes in their population 
reflect conditions which have existed for a consider- 
able period of time is brought out by Table 44, which 
shows for 1910, 1900, and 1890 the percentage re- 
ported as congenitally deaf in the deaf and dumb 
population of each geographic division. 



Table 44 

DIVISION. 


PER CENT CONGENI- 
TALLY DEAF AMONG 
DEAF AND DOTIB POP- 
ULATION.' 


BANK IN PEB- 
CENTAGE. 




1910 » 


1900 » 


1890 • 


1910' 


1900> 


ism 


United States 


40.9 


38.7 


45.3 










39.9 
• 37.0 
34.7 
34.2 
67.9 
53.1 
47.1 
32.9 
29.9 


35.6 
34.5 
31.7 
31.8 
54.9 
51.4 
47.5 
33.6 
32.8 


44.6 
42.0 
37.3 
36.9 
61.4 
60.7 
53.3 
41.6 
37.8 


4 
5 
6 
7 
1 
2 
3 
8 
9 


4 
6 
9 
8 
1 
2 
3 
6 
7 


4 


Middle Atlantic 


5 


Vitutt North Central 


7 


West North Central 


9 


Sniith Atlantic . 


1 




2 




3 




6 


Fflciflc 


8 







1 Based upon the population for whom the age when hearing was lost was 
definitely reported. , . , ,, , ^ , , ,. j , 

• Fieures relate to deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were 

> Figures relate to deaf population for whom special schedules were returned less 
than 8 years of age when hearing was lost. 

< Figures relate to deaf who were unable to speak. 

At all three censuses the percentage congenitally 
deaf was much higher in the three southern divisions 
than in any of the others, the rank of these three divi- 
sions in fact being the same in each year. At aU three 
censuses, moreover, the percentage in the four northern 
divisions (the New England, Middle Atlantic, East 
North Central, and West North Central) showed, with 
one shght exception in 1900, a progressive decrease 
from east to west, the rank of the two most easterly 
divisions (the New England and Middle Atlantic) also 
being the same in each year. The only important dif- 
ference in the ranking at the three censuses on the basis 
of the percentage congenitally deaf among the deaf and 
dumb is in fact due to the circumstance that the per- 
centage shows a greater f aUing off relatively in the two 
most westerly divisions, the Mountain and Pacific, than 
in any of the others, both divisions outranking the 



West North Central division and the Mountain division 
also outranking the East North Central in 1890, while 
in 1910 they showed the lowest percentage of any of the 
divisions. Whether these differences, however, reflect 
actual changes in conditions or are explained by the 
differences in the scope and method of the enumeration 
at the two censuses it is impossible to determine. 

In comparing the distribution in respect to age when 
hearing was lost of the deaf and dimib in the respective 
geographic divisions, as shown in Table 42, the possi- 
bility must be considered that in addition to the factors 
already noted as probably contributing to differences 
in this distribution the accuracy in distinguishing 
between the congenitally and the adventitiously deaf 
may have varied more or less. In particular, it seems 
possible that this may to some extent explain the high 
proportion reported as congenitally deaf in the three 
southern divisions, as the returns for the Negroes, who 
constitute a large proportion of the population in these 
divisions, were in general less accurate than those for 
the whites, and it is probable that the most common 
form of inaccuracy in statistics as to age when hearing 
was lost lies in the improper reporting as bom deaf 
of persons who actually lost their hearing in early 
infancy. 

Comparison ly race and nativity. — General Table 10 
(p, 122) shows the distribution according to age when 
hearing was lost of the deaf and dumb in the various 
race and nativity classes in 1910 for whom special 
schedules were returned, classified by sex and broad 
age groups,. Table 45 shows for each race and nativity 
class the number and percentage who reported them- 
selves as congenitally deaf. 



Table 45 


deaf and dumb population fob 
whom speqal schedules webe 
betubned: 1910. 


BACE AND NATIVITT. 


Total.! 


Congenitally deaf. 




Number. 


Per cent 
of total. 


All classes 


19,153 


7,533 


39.3 






White 


18,016 


6,902 


38.3 






Native 


16,178 
1,838 

1,069 
68 


6,315 

587 

595 
36 


39.0 




31.9 


Negro 


55 7 


Another 


m 





1 Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
> Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 

This table indicates that there is a marked difference 
in the relative number of congenital cases among white 
and Negro deaf-mutes, since 55,7 per cent,- or consid- 
erably more than one-half, of the latter stated that 
they were bom deaf, as compared with only 38.3 per 
cent, or less than two-fifths, of the former. Although 
this difference may to some extent be explained by a 
less accurate distinction among the Negroes between 
congenital and acquired deafness, it is not improbable 
that the proportion of congenital deafness is actually 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 



45 



higher among Negroes than among whites, since 
Negroes are apparently less susceptible to certain of 
the diseases causing adventitious deaf-mutism than 
are the whites, and are, moreover, maialy concen-. 
trated in the South, where the percentage congenitaUy 
deaf is above the average even for whites. 

The proportion born deaf was higher among the 
native than among the foreign-born whites, the per- 
centages being 39, or nearly two-fifths, and 31.9, or 
less than one-third, respectively. It seems somewhat 
doubtful, however, whether there is actually so pro- 
nounced a difference between the two nativity classes 
in this respect, as in 1890 the percentage congenitally 
deaf among those for whom the age when hearingwas 
lost was reported was slightly higher for the foreign- 
bom than for the native whites (44.7 per cent as com- 
pared with 43.5 per cent) . In particular, there is some 
reason to beheve that the foreign-born whites re- 
turning schedides comprised a relatively large propor- 
tion of children attending schools for the deaf, for 
whom the segregation between congenital and ac- 
quired deafness was in all probabUity more accurately 
made than for the population at large. 

Table 46 shows the distribution according to age 
when hearing was lost of the deaf and dumb in the 
various race and nativity classes in 1910 who reported 
that their deafness was acquired. 



Table 46 



AGE WHEN HEAEDfO WAS LOST. 



Total.. 



Cnder 5 years 

Under 1 year 

lyear 

2 years 

3 years 

4 years 

Infancy (exact age not reported ) 

5 to 9 years 

5 years 

6 years 

7 years 

8 years 

9 years 

10 years or over 

Age not reported 



Total.. 



Under 5 years 

Under 1 year 

lyear , 

2 years 

3 years 

4 years 

Infancy (exact age not reported) 

5 to 9 years 

5 years 

6 years 

7 years 

8 years 

9 years 

10 years or over 

Age not reported 



DEAP AND DUMB POPtJLATION FOR WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE KETCBNED 
WHOSE DEAFNESS WAS ACQUmED: 1910.' 



All 



White. 



Native. 



Foreign- 
bom. 



Negro. 



All 
other. 



11.620 



9,254 

1,628 

2,375 

2,606 

1,572 

959 

114 

1,594 

714 

454 

319 

73 

34 

140 

632 



9,863 



8,030 

1,490 

2,115 

2,259 

1,284 

781 

101 

1,239 

560 

352 

254 

50 

23 

89 

505 



1,251 



917 

95 

200 

271 

207 

136 

8 

240 

115 

66 

43 

14 

2 

19 

75 



474 



287 

42 

57 

68 

74 

41 

5 

110 

37 

36 

20 

8 

9 

27 

50 



32 



20 
1 
3 

8 
7 
1 



PEE CENT DISTKIBUTION. 



100.0 



79.6 

14.0 

20.4 

22.4 

13.5 

8.3 

1.0 

13.7 

6.1 

3.9 

2.7 

0.6 

0.3 

1.2 

5.4 



100.0 



81.4 

15.1 

21.4 

22.9 

13.0 

7.9 

1.0 

12.6 

6.7 

3.6 

2.6 

0.5 

0.2 

0.9 

5.1 



100.0 



73.3 

7.6 

16.0 

21.7 

16.5 

10.9 

0.6 

19.2 

9.2 

5.3 

3.4 

1.1 

0.2 

1.5 

6.0 



100.0 



60.5 

8.9 

12.0 

14.3 

15. R 

8.6 

1.1 

23.2 

7.8 

7.6 

4.2 

1.7 

1.9 

5.7 

10.6 



(') 






> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
' Per cent distribution not shown, as base is less than 100. 



The three race and nativity classes for which per- 
centages are given in Table 46 show a marked differ- 
ence in the distribution according to age when hearing 
was lost for the adventitiously deaf. Of the native 
whites more than four-fifths (81.4 per cent) were less 
than 5 years of age when they lost their hearing, of 
the foreign-bom whites, less than three-fourths (73.3 
per cent), and of the Negroes only three-fifths (60.5 
per cent). On the other hand, nearly one-tenth (9.3 
per cent) of the Negroes lost their hearing after reach- 
ing the age of 8, when the power of speech is ordinarily 
fully developed, as compared with only 1.6 per cent for 
the native whites and 2.8 per cent for the foreign-bom 
whites. In the case of the Negroes it is probable 
that children losing their hearing after acquiring the 
faculty of speech ' are not as likely to be sent to 
a school for the deaf as are white children who become 
deaf, and hence in a larger number of cases eventually 
lose the faculty of speech which they had previously 
acquired. It is possible, furthermore, that children 
losing their hearing during the first year or two of life 
are reported as bom deaf among the Negroes to a 
much greater extent than among the whites. The 
low percentages of persons reported as losing their 
hearing in infancy for the foreign-bom whites, when 
taken in conjunction with the low percentage of con- 
genital cases, suggest the possibUity that persons 
having deaf-mute children are somewhat less likely to 
migrate to another country than those whose children 
are aU normal. 

Table 47 shows the number reported as bom deaf 
among the male and female deaf-mutes in 1910 for 
whom special schedules were returned, classified ac- 
cording to race and nativity. 



Table 47 


DEAP AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WEEE RETUENED: 1910. 




Male. 


Female. 


EACE AND NATIVITY. 


Total.' 


CongenitaUy 


Total.i 


Congenitally 
deaf. 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of 

total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of 

total. 




10,507 


4,028 


38.3 


8,646 


3,505 


40.5 






White 


9,888 


3,690 


37.3 


8,128 


3,212 


39.5 






Native 


8,855 
1,033 

584 
35 


3,368 
322 

320 
18 


38.0 
31.2 

54.8 
(') 


7,323 
805 

485 
33 


2,947 
265 

275 
18 


40.2 


Foreifin-bom . . 


32 9 




66.7 


All other 


(») 





' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
' Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 

In each class for which the percentages are shown 
in the table the proportion reported as born deaf was 
higher for females than for males, the difference in the 
percentage being greatest (2.2) for the native whites 
and least (1.7) for the foreign-bom whites. 

Comparison according to age at enumeration. — Gen- 
eral Table 10 (p. 122) shows the distribution according 



46 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



to age when hearing was lost of the deaf and dumb 
population in the different race and nativity classes 
in 1910 for whom special schedules were returned, 
classified broadly according to age at enumeration. 



Table 48 shows the per cent distribution according to 
age when hearing was lost of all deaf-mutes in 1910 
for whom special schedules were returned, classified 
according to age at enumeration. 



Table 48 



AGE AT ENUMEKATION. 



PER CENT OF TOTAL DEAF AND DUMB POPOT.ATION IN 1910 FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED WHOSE 

DEAFNESS WAS— 



Congeni- 
tal. 



Acquired.' 



Total. 



At less than 5 years of age. 



Total. 



Less than 
1 year. 



lyear. 



2 years. 



3 years. 



4 years. 



Infancy 
(exact 
age not 
report- 
ed). 



At 5 to 
9 years 
01 age. 



At 10 
years of 
age or 

over. 



At age 
not re- 
ported. 



All ages 2. 

Under 5 years. . 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years. . . 
15to 19 years... 

20to 24 years... 
25 to 44 years... 
45 to 64 years... 
65 years or over 



39.3 



48.3 



8.5 



12.4 



13.6 



8.2 



5.0 



0.6 



8.3 



0.7 



3.3 



61.7 
47.6 
41.2 
43.3 

41.4 
33.8 
36.2 
42.0 



38.3 
52.4 
58.8 
56.7 

58.6 
66.2 
63.8 
58.0 



35.3 
45.5 
49.4 
46.4 

49.6 
52.6 
45.9 
37.4 



10.2 
9.2 

10.2 
9.9 

10.8 
8.3 
5.7 
3.4 



16.2 
13.8 
15.0 
13.9 

13.5 
12.2 
9.1 
6.6 



6.6 
11.6 
12.7 
11.9 

13.5 
15.9 
13.9 
11.3 



1.3 

6.7 
7.2 
5.8 

7.2 
9.6 
10.4 
8.3 



3.4 
3.4 

4.1 

4.1 
6.3 
6.1 
7.2 



1.0 
0.8 
0.9 
0.6 

0.5 
0.3 
0.7 
0.6 



2.8 
5.5 
6.7 

5.6 
10.2 
13.2 
11.3 



0.2 

0.2 
0.7 
1.9 
3.5 



3.0 
4.2 
3.9 
3.3 

3.2 
2.7 
2.8 
5.S 



' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
' Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. 
8 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



The proportion reported as bom deaf differs con- 
siderably in the different age groups. As would be 
expected, it was highest (61.7 per cent, or more than 
three-fifths) among those who were less than 5 years 
old at the date of the census, and next highest for the 
age group "5 to 9 years" (47.6 per cent, or somewhat 
less than one-half) ; the prominence in this respect of 
these two groups of course results from the fact that 
they have not yet made their full contribution to the 
nimiber of the adventitiously deaf. In the next three 
age groups, comprising persons from 10 to 24 years 
old, the proportion was a little in excess of two-fifths; 
among those from 25 to 44 years of age, however, it 
was only one-third (33.8 per cent), but it increased in 
each of the two following age periods, imtil among 
those 65 or over it was approximately the same as 
among those from 10 to 24 (42 per cent, or more 
than two-fifths). 

The table reveals some interesting differences in the 
relative importance of the different classes of the ad- 
ventitiously deaf on the basis of age when hearing was 
lost among the various groups with respect to age at 
enumeration. Persons who lost their hearing during 
the first five years of life show a very pronounced de- 
crease in relative importance in the latest ages, form- 
ing 52.6 per cent, or more than one-half, of those from 
25 to 44 years of age, but only 37.4 per cent, or consid- 
erably more than one-third, of those 65 or over. This 
same tendency is also shown for those who lost their 
hearing in each of the first four years of life; in fact 
those reported as losing their hearing during the first 
year formed a smaller proportion of the total in each suc- 
cessive age group after the age of 24, and those reported 
as losing it in the second year a smaller proportion in 
each group after the age of 14. In the case of later 



groups with respect to age when hearing was lost, how- 
ever, the proportion tends on the whole to increase in 
the successive groups with respect to age at enumera- 
tion. The contrast between the relative importance 
at the different ages of the different groups with re- 
spect to age when hearing was lost is brought out by 
Table 49, which shows the percentage each group rep- 
resented of the deaf and dumb in 1910 who reported 
their deafness as acquired and were respectively 10 to 
14 years of age and 65 years of age or over at the date 
of the enumeration. 



Table 49 



AGE WHEN HEASINO WAS LOST. 



Total. 



Under 5 years'... 

Under lyear. 

lyear 

2years 

Syears 

4years 

5 to 9 years 

10 years or over... 



PER CENT DISTRIBUTION 
OP DEAF AND DUMB 
POPULATION FOE WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDULES 
WERE RETURNED 
WHOSE DEAFNESS WAS 

acquired: ino.i 



10 to 14 
years of age. 



100.0 



89.9 
18.6 
27.3 
23.0 
13.1 

6.2 
10.0 

0.1 



65 years of 
age or over. 



100.0 



71.6 
6.5 
12.7 
21.6 
15.9 
13.7 
21.6 
6.7 



> Based upon the population for whom the age when hearing was lost was reported . 
» Includes those reported as having lost their hearing in infancy but without 
statement as to the exact age. 

Persons who lost their hearing during the first year 
of hfe were nearly three times as numerous relatively 
among the deaf-mute children 10 to 14 years of age 
whose deafness was reported as acquired as among ad- 
ventitious deaf-mutes 65 years of age or over, while 
persons who' lost their hearing during the second year 
were more than twice as numerous relatively. Per- 
sons who lost it during the third year of hfe formed a 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 



47 



slightly larger proportion of the former class than 
of the latter; on the other hand, persons who lost 
it during the foTirth year were somewhat more 
nimierous relatively among the latter. The pro- 
portions who had lost their hearing during the fifth 
year of hfe and during the second qtiinquennium, 
however, were more than twice as great among those 
65 years of age or over as among children 10 to 14 
years of age, and the proportion whose deafness did 
not supervene imtil after the completion of the first 
decade of life was also much greater for the former 
than for the latter. 

The causes which produce these variations are 
more or less obscure and xmcertain, and to some ex- 
tent no doubt minor differences between the groups 
may be dismissed as accidental. There are, however, 
certain factors which deserve attention in this con- 
nection and which not improbably have an influence 
upon the distribution according to age when hearing 
was lost for deaf-mutes of the different ages. In part 
at least the variations under consideration probably 
reflect differences in the mortality rate for those 
whose deafness was respectively congenital and ac- 
quired, and for those who lost their hearing at the 
different ages. Those whose deafness is due to a 
congenital defect, and who are otherwise in the ma- 
jority of cases hkely to be entirely normal physically, 
may very well possess a higher degree of resistance to 
disease and have a greater expectation of life than those 
who lost their hearing as the result of one of the more 
serious diseases of childhood, which are liable not only 
to bring deafness in their train but also to leave latent 
weaknesses such as tend to reduce the power of re- 
sistance to future attacks of disease or even to become 
the starting point of new morbid processes that may 
have a fatal termination. 



The lower proportion who lost their hearing when 
5 years of age or over in the younger age groups as 
compared with the older may reflect an increase in 
the frequency with which children losing their hear- 
ing after they have acquired the faculty of speech 
receive instruction at schools for the deaf which 
enables them to retain their speech and consequently 
keeps them from entering the ranks of deaf-mutes; 
another factor which may be of importance in this 
connection is the great increase during the past three 
decades in the teaching of speech to the deaf. 
The progress of medical science toward a better con- 
trol of the communicable diseases of childhood, both 
as regards prevention and as regards method of treat- 
ment, would likewise tend to make the proportion 
whose deafness was acquired after reaching the age 
of 5 smaller in the yoimger age groups than in the 
older. The fact that, nevertheless, those who lost 
hearing in infancy or the earliest years of childhood, 
xmhke those who lost it after the age of 5, form 
an increasingly smaller proportion in the older age 
groups may be in part explained by the circumstance 
that during these early years meningitis, which is 
probably the most diflacult of control of any of the 
more important causes of deafness, has its greatest 
incidence; it is also probable that the diseases occa- 
sioning deafness have other sequelae likely to short- 
en life more often when they occxir in infancy than 
when they come later. Furthermore, the higher per- 
centages in the earlier years may represent an in- 
creased accuracy in the segregation between the 
congenitally deaf and those bom with normal hearing 
but losing it in the first year or two of hfe. 

Table 50 shows the age distribution of the deaf and 
dumb in 1910 for whom special schedules were re- 
tximed, classified according to age when hearing was lost. 



Table 50 



AOE AT EKXWEKATION. 



Allsges.. 

Under 6 years.. 

5to9years 

10 to 14 years... 
15 to 19 years... 

20 to 24 years.., 
25 to 44 years... 
45 to 64 years . . . 
65 years or over. 



PEE CENT DISTRIBUTION OP DEAT AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: IMO.' 



Total. 



100.0 



1.6 

9.7 

13.4 

12.6 

10.8 

30.9 

16.9 

4.2 



congem- 
tal. 



100.0 



2.5 
11.7- 
14.1 
13.8 

11.4 

26.6 

15.5 

4.5 



Deafness acquired.^ 



Total. 



100.0 



1.0 

8.4 

13.0 

11.7 

10.4 

33.7 

17.8 

4.0 



At less than 5 years of age. 



Total. 



Less than 
1 year. 



100.0 



1.2 

9.1 

13.7 

12.1 

U.l 

33.6 

16.0 

3.2 



100.0 



1.9 
10.5 
16.1 
14.7 

13.7 

30.1 

11.3 

1.7 



1 year. 



100.0 



2.1 
10.8 
16.2 
14.1 

11.8 

30.4 

12.4 

2.2 



2 years. 



100.0 



0.8 

8.2 

12.5 

11.0 

10.7 

36.1 

17.2 

3.5 



3 years. 



100.0 



0.3 

7.9 

11.8 

8.9 

9.4 
36.2 
21.4 

4.2 



4 years. 



100.0 



6.6 
9.2 
10.3 



38.7 

20.5 

5.9 



Infoncy 
(exact 
age not 
report- 
ed). 



100.0 



2.6 
12.3 
21.1 
13.2 

8.8 
16.7 
21.1 

4.4 



At 5 to 9 
years of 



100.0 



3.2 
8.9 
10.2 

7.3 
38.0 
26.8 

5.6 



At 10 

years of 

age or 

over. 



100.0 



a7 
4.3 

2.9 
28.1 
43.9 
2ai 



> Based upon the population whose age at enumeration was reported. 

' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



It will be observed that there are marked differences 
between the age distribution of the congenitally and 
that of the adventitiously deaf, and also in that of the 
different classes of the adventitiously deaf. The pro- 



portion of adults was much higher among those whose 
deafness was acquired, the percentage 20 years of age or 
over for this class being 65.9, or almost two-thirds, as 
compared with 57.9, or somewhat less than three-fifths 



48 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



for those who reported their deafness as congenital. 
As a result, the median age of the congenitally deaf 
was about 5 years less than that of the adventitiously 
deaf, the figures being 23.5 and 28.2 years, respec- 
tively. These differences are of course to some extent 
due to the fact that the congenitally deaf naturally 
comprise more young children relatively than the ad- 
ventitiously deaf; but the circumstance that the pro- 
portion between the ages of 10 and 24 was higher for the 
congenitally deaf, whereas the proportion between the 
ages of 25 and 64 was much higher for the advenlJi- 
tiously deaf, indicates that this is not the only factor. 
This is brought out somewhat more clearly by Table 51 , 
which shows the age distribution of the congenitally 
and adventitiously deaf, respectively, 10 years of age 
or over. 



Table 51 



AGE GEOXn?. 



10 years or over . 



10 to 14 years 

15 to 19 years 

20to 24 years.... 

23 to 44 years 

45 to 64 years 

es years or over. 



pek cent distkibution of deaf 
and dumb population 10 teaks 
of aoe ok ovek foe whom spe- 
qal schedules weke ee- 
tukned: i9io.> 



Total. 



100.0 



15.1 
14.2 
12.1 
34.8 
19.0 
4.7 



Congeni- 
tally deaf. 



100.0 



16.4 
16.1 
13.2 
31.0 
18.1 
5.2 



Adventi- 
tiously 
deat.« 



100.0 



14.4 
12.9 
11.5 
37.2 
19.6 
4.4 



1 Based upon the population whose age at enumetatlon was reported. 

' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

Of the congenitally deaf 10 years of age or over, 
nearly one-third (32.5 per cent) were under 20 years 
of age, as compared with a corresponding proportion 
of somewhat more than one-fourth (27.3 per cent) for 
the adventitiously deaf. On the other hand, persons 
from 25 to 64 years of age formed only 49.1 per cent of 
the congenitally deaf, as compared with 56.8 per cent 
of the adventitiously deaf. The proportion of old 
people 65 or over, however, was slightly higher among 
the congenitally deaf, the percentages being 5.2 and 
4.4, respectively. The median age, when the compari- 
son is confined to persons 10 years old or over, continues 
to be higher for the adventitiously than for the con- 
genitally deaf (31 as compared with 27.7 years). From 
these figures it is evident that even after the influence 
of the earlier age at which the congenitally deaf lost 
their hearing is eliminated, this class is distuictly a 
younger class than the adventitiously deaf. The 
factors which probably contribute to this result have 
already been suggested. In particular, it seems not 
improbable that the number of persons annually be- 
coming deaf-mutes from adventitious causes may be 
falling off relatively to the annual nimiber bom deaf, 
so that the former class is to an iacreasingly greater 
extent made up of the survivors from previous years. 
Another factor to be taken into consideration is the 
increase in the teaching of speech to the deaf, and 
also in the extent to which deaf children are sent to 



school, which results doubtless in preventing many 
childi'en from becoming deaf-mutes who formerly 
would liave become so. It is possible, also, that the 
adventitiously deaf are somewhat longer-lived than 
those whose deafness is congenital, but the fact brought 
out by Table 48 that the percentage congenitally deaf 
tends to increase in the later age groups makes this 
seem doubtfid, especially as the percentage of old 
people is, ag already noted, somewhat higher among 
the congenitally deaf than among those whose deaf- 
ness is acquired. 

The contrast in the age distribution of the adven- 
titiously deaf who lost their hearing at the different 
ages is even more marked than that in the distribution 
of those whose deafness was respectively congenita] 
and acquired. Thus of those who lost their hearing 
when less than 5 years of age, 19.3 per cent, or one- 
fifth, were 45 years of age or over; of those who lost it 
between the ages of 5 and 9 years, nearly one-third 
(32.5 per cent) ; and of those who lost it after the first 
decade of life, considerably more than three-fifths 
(64 per cent). Moreover, among those who lost their 
hearing during the first quinquennium of life, the pro- 
portion who were 45 or over increases with the age 
when loss of hearing occurred, being only 13 per cent, 
or about one-eighth, among those who lost it during 
the first year of life, as compared with 26.5 per cent, 
or more than one-fourth, among those who lost it 
during their fifth year. In particular, the propor- 
tion of old people 65 or over shows a regular in- 
crease in each successive age group on the basis of 
age when hearing was lost, being only 1.7 per cent 
among those who lost it dimng the first year of life, as 
compared with 5.6 per cent among those who lost it 
between the ages of 5 and 9, and 20.1 per cent among 
those who lost it after reaching the age of 10. While 
these differences are iasome measure due to the circum- 
stance that the relative nmnber of children necessarily 
decreases as the age when hearing was lost increases, 
the changes are so marked as to make it appear reason- 
ably certain that this was on the whole a minor factor. 
This is brought out somewhat more clearly by 
Table 52, which shows the median age of the adven- 
titiously deaf 10 years of age or over who lost their 
hearing at the different ages. 

It wiU be seen that even among those who were 10 
years of age or over at the date of eniimeration the 
median age increases steadUy with the age when hear- 
ing was lost, from 24.7 years in the case of those who 
were less than 1 year of age when hearing was lost 
to 49.7 years in the case of those who lost it at the 
age of 9 and 51.4 years ia the case of those who 
became deaf after the completion of the first decade 
of life. The increase in the median for the group 
comprising- persons who lost their hearing at the age 
of 2 as compared with those who lost it at the age 
of 1 is more than 5 years. The increases for the 
five succeeding groups are, however, comparatively 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 



49 



small, but the median for persoiis who lost their 
hearing at the age of 8 is about 10 years higher 
than that for persons who lost it at the age of 7. 



Table 62 



AGE WHEN HEABOra WA3 LOST. 



Total'. 



Under S years'... 

Under 1 year. 

lyear 

Zyears 

Syears 

4years 

6to9years 

Syears 

eyears 

Tyears 

Syears 

9 years 

10 years or over... 



MEUUN AGE or DEAF 
AND DUMB FOFU- 
LATIOK FOB WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDin-Ea 
WEBB BETVBNED 
WHOSE DEAFNESS 

WAS acquibed: 



Total. 



28.2 



26.7 
22.5 
22.9 
28.8 
31.5 
32.8 
35.8 
33.7 
35.6 
37.1 
47.0 
49.7 
51.4 



10 years of 
age or over. 



31.0 



29.8 
24.7 
26.0 
31.3 
33.8 
34.5 
36.6 
34.8 
36.3 
37.9 
47.0 
49.7 
51.4 



I Based upon the population whose age at enumeration was reported. 
' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
' Includes those reported as bayiog lost their hearing in infancy but without 
statement as to the exact age. 

The causes actually responsible for the differ- 
ences noted are probably to some extent the same as 
those which accoimt for the differences in the age 
of the adventitiously deaf as a class and that of 
the congenitally deaf; in particular, the increase 
in the extent to which deaf children are sent 
to school and in the teaching of speech, while 
having Uttle or no influence upon the number be- 
coming deaf-mutes as the result of loss of hearing in 
infancy or early childhood, would reduce the num- 
ber to an increasingly greater extent as the age when 
hearing was lost increased, and this reduction would 
affect principally persons who are stiU comparatively 
young, because the older people lived through the 
educational period of their lives at a time when 
speech was little taught. Consequently the later 
age groups with respect to age when hearing was 
lost necessarily woidd be made up to a greater 
extent relatively of old people — ^the sizrvivors from 
former years — ^than the earher groups. It is further- 
more not improbable that the adverse influence of the 
maladies causing adventitious deafness upon the 
expectation of life may be much greater where the 
illness occurs in infancy than where the child has 
attained a certain measure of growth. 

EVom what has previously been said it is apparent 
that the factors modifying the age distribution of the 
adventitious deaf-mutes as a class are so complex that 
a comparison of this distribution with that of the 
total population would be of uncertain value as a 
means of determining the relative longevity of the 
former class. • The influences affecting the age dis- 
tribution of the congenitally deaf and of the adven- 
titiously deaf who lost their hearing in infancy are, 
however, not so complex, so that a comparison with 

50171'— 18 i 



the age distribution of the general population should 
afford a fairly accurate indication of the general in- 
fluence of their defect upon their longevity. The 
means for such a comparison is given in Table 53, 
which shows the per cent distribution by age of the 
native population of the United States in comparison 
with that of the deaf and dumb population returning 
special schedules who reported themselves respectively 
as bom deaf and as having lost their hearing during 
the first and second years of life. On account of the 
deficiencies in the returns for the deaf and dumb 
under 5 years of age, the comparison is confined to 
the population 5 years of age or over. 



Table 53 



AGE AT ENVMEBATION. 



5 years or over. 



StoOyears , 

10 to 14 years 

15 to 19 years 

20 to 24 years.... 

25 to 44 years 

45 to 64 years 

65 years or over. 



PEE CENT DISTEIBtJTION OF POPtfLATION 
5 YEABS OF AGE OB OVEB: 1»10.' 



Native.' 



100.0 



13.9 
12.9 
12.4 
11.2 
30.8 
14.7 
4.1 



Deaf and dumb for whom 
special schedules were re- 
turned. 



Congenl- 
deaf. 



100.0 



12.0 
14.4 
14.2 
11.6 
27.3 
15.9 
4.6 



Under 1 
year of 

age when 
hearing 

was lost. 



100.0 



10.7 
16.4 
15.0 
14.0 
30.7 
U.5 
1.7 



lyear 
but un- 
der 2 
years of 
age when 
hearing 
was lost. 



100.0 



11.0 
16.6 
14.4 
12.0 
31.1 
12.7 
2.3 



1 Based upon the population whose age at enumeration was reported. 
> Comprises the native white, Negro, and Indian population. 

This table would seem to indicate that so far as the 
coi^enitally deaf are concerned their defect has little, 
if any, influence upon their expectation of life. The 
proportion in middle life or old age (45 years of age 
or over) was in fact higher for this class than it was 
for the total native population 5 years of age or over 
(20.5 per cent as compared with 18.8 per cent) and 
the percentage of old people (65 or over) was also 
slightly higher (4.6 per cent as compared with 4.1 per 
cent). On the other hand, the proportion 45 or over 
was distinctly lower among the deaf-mutes who lost 
their hearing durii^ the first or second year of life 
than it was in the population as a whole or among 
the congenitally deaf, the percentage being only 13.2, 
or a little more than one-e^hth, for those reporting 
their hearing as lost when less than 1 year of age, 
and 15, or more than one-seventh, for those who lost it 
in the second year of life. The difference in the per- 
centage of old people is also very marked, only 1.7 per 
cent of those who lost their hearing during the fitrst 
year of life and only 2.3 per cent of those who lost it 
during the second year being 65 years of age or over, 
as compared with percentages of 4.1 and 4.6, as already 
pointed out, for the total native population and the 
congenitally deaf, respectively. While allowance must 
be made for the possible influence of other factors, 
these figures tend very strongly to bear out the sugges- 



50 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



tion already made that the adventitiously deaf, at 
least those losing their hearing in infancy, are dis- 
tinctly shorter-Uved than those of nonnal hearing or 
even than the congenitally deaf. 

Tahle 64 shows the dktribution according to age 
when hearing was lost of the male and female deaf- 
mute population in 1910 for whom special schedules 
were returned, classified according to age at emmier- 
ation. 



Table 54 


PER CENT OF TOTAL DEAF AND DUMB POPUIA.TION IN 1910 
FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES -WERE RETURNED 
WHOSE DEAFNESS WAS— 




Con- 
genital. 


Acquired.' 


AGE AT ENUMERATION. 


Total. 


At less than 5 years of 
age. 


At 5 to 
9 years 
of age. 


At 10 
years 

of 
age 

or 
over. 




Total.' 


Less 

than 2 
years. 


2to4 

years. 




HALE. 


All ages* 


38.3 


61.7 


49.1 


21.2 


27.4 


8.6 


8 




69.1 
45.9 
38.4 
42.2 
40.2 
33.3 
35.7 
43.0 


40.9 
54.1 
61.6 
67.8 
69.8 
66.7 
64.3 
67.0 


38.4 
47.6 
61.5 
47.4 
50.0 
53.4 
45.5 
35.8 


30.5 
24.1 
26.6 
23.2 
24.1 
20.9 
14.2 
9.6 


7.3 
22.5 
24.1 
24.0 
25.6 
32.1 
30.5 
25.7 








3.2 
6.9 
7.0 
5.8 
10.2 
14.3 
12.3 




10 to 14 years 


0.1 


16 to 19 years 


0.3 


20 to 24 years 


0.3 


25to447ears 


0.7 


46 to 64 years 


2.1 




4.1 








FEUALE. 


A:iages» 


40.5 


59.5 


47.4 


20.6 


26.1 


7.9 


0.6 






TTndfiT 5 vears 


64.7 
49.6 
44. S 
44.7 
43.0 
34.4 
36.7 
40.9 


85.3 
60.4 
65.6 
65.3 
67.0 
65.6 
63.3 
69.1 


31.7 
43.0 
46.9 
45.1 
49.0 
61.6 
46.5 
39.1 


21.6 
21.8 
23.5 
24.8 
24.7 
20.0 
15.5 
10.5 


8.6 
20.7 
22.3 
19.2 
23.7 
31.3 
30.2 
27.8 








2.3 
6.0 
6.4 
5.4 
10.3 
11.9 
10.2 










0.2 


20to24years 


0.1 




0.7 




1.6 


65 years or over ......... 


2.9 







> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

> Includes those reported as ha-ring lost their nearing in Infancy but without 
■tatement as to the exact age. 

' Includes the small numher whose age at enumeration was not reported. 

The principal difference between the two sexes as 
regards the percentage congenitally deaf in the various 
age groups brought out by this table consists in the 
fact that whereas in the case of males the age group 
"16 to 19 years" shows a distinct increase in the 
percentage as compared with the preceding age group, 
in the case of females the percentages for the two 
age groups are practically the same. The increase 
in the percentage congenitally deaf shown for the 
oldest age group is also much more pronounced for 
males than for females. It wiU be observed that the 
excess of the percentage congenitally deaf for females 
over that for males decreases in general in the older 
age groups, until among those 65 or over the per- 
centage is higher for males than for females. This 
gradual disappearance of the excess in the percentage' 
for females is of course what would normally be ex- 
pected if the death rate among the adventitiously deaf 
and dumb is actually higher than that for congenital 
deaf-mutes. The higher percentage congenitally deaf 
for males in the final age group is, however, diflBcult 



to account for, unless possibly the gre&ter longevity of 
females operates somewhat more strongly in thei case 
of the adventitiously than of the congenitally deaf. 

Table 55 shows the distribution according to age at 
entuneration of the male and female deaf-mutes for 
whom special schedules were returned, classified ac- 
cording to age when hearing was lost. 



Table 65 


PEE CENT MSTHIBUTION> OF DEAF AMD DTTMB POFU- 
LATION IN 1910 FOE WHOM SFECIAI. SCHEDULES 
WERE KETUBNED WHOSE DEAFNESS WAS— 




Con- 
genitaL 


Acquired. 


s 




AGE AT ENUMERATION. 


Total. 


At less than 5 
of age. 


years 


At 5 

t09 

years 

of age. 




Total.' 


Less 

than 

2 years. 


2to4 
years. 




MALE. 


All ages 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 








2.4 
11.6 
13.4 
14.0 
11.9 
2&3 
15.9 

4.5 


1.0 
8.5 
13.4 
11.9 
11.0 
32.7 
17.8 
3.7 


1.2 
9.4 
14.0 
12.3 
11.6 
32.8 
15.8 
2.9 


2.3 
11.0 
16.8 
14.0 
12.9 
29.8 
11.5 

1.8 


0.4 
7.9 
11.8 
11.2 
10.6 
35.4 
19.0 
3.7 




5 to 9 years 


3.5 


10 to 14 years 


9.2 


15 to 19 vears . .... 


10.4 




7.6 


25 to 44 years 


35.5 


45 to 64 years 


28.2 




5.6 








FEMALE. 


All ages 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 








2.6 
11.8 
14.8 
13.6 
10.7 
27.0 
15.1 

4.5 


1.0 

8.2 
12.6 
11.5 

9.6 
35.1 
17.7 

4.4 


1.1 

8.8 
13.4 
11.8 
10.4 
34.6 
16.3 

3.6 


1.7 
10.2 
16.4 
14.8 
12.1 
30.9 
12.5 

2.2 


0.5 
7.7 
U.5 
9.1 
9.1 
38.1 
19.2 
4.7 




6 to 9 years 


2.8 


10tol4years 


8.5 


15tol9yeais 


9.9 


20 to 24 years 


6.9 




41.4 


45 to 64 years 


24.9 


65 years or over 


6.7 







1 Based upon the population whose age at enumeration was reported. 

' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. Per 
cent distribution of those whose hearing was lost at 10 years of age or over not 
shown, as base is less than 100 in each case. 

' Includes those reported as having lost thdr hearing in infancy but without 
statement as to the exact age. 

The age distribution of the congenitally deaf shows 
no very important difference for the two sexes. 
Amoi^ those whose deafness was acquired, however, 
the females were slightly older than the males, the per- 
centage 25 years of age or over being 57.1 and 54.2, 
respectively, and the percentage of children imder 15 
being 21.8 and 22.9, respectively; the proportion of old 
people 65 or over was 4.4 per cent for females and 3.7 
per cent for males. These figures would seem to confirm 
the ST^gestion already made that the greater longevity 
of females as compared with males may manifest 
itself more strongly in the case of the adventitiously 
than of the congenitally deaf. It should be noted, 
however, that meningitis, which is probably the most 
difficult to control of any of the leading causes of 
deafness, is somewhat more important as a cause for 
males than for females, and that for this reason the 
increase in the control of commimicable diseases in 
general may have reduced the number of females who 
annually become deaf-mutes to a somewhat greater 
extent relatively than the number of males, with the 
resxilt that the former represent the survivors of former 
years in a larger degree than the latter. 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST. 



51 



Table 56 shows the per cent distribution according 
to age when hearing was lost of the native and foreign- 
bom white and the Negro deaf-mutes in 1910 for 
whom special schedules were returned, classified 
according to age at entimeration. 



Table 56 


PER CENT OF TOTAL DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION IN 1910 
FOR WHOM SPECL/IL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED "VHOSE 
DEAFNESS VAS— 




Con- 
genital. 


Acquired.' 


AGE AT ENTJMEEATION. 


Total. 


At less than 5 years 
of age. 


At 6 

to 9 

years 

of age. 


At 10 
years 




Total.a 


Less 

than 

2 years. 


2to4 
years. 


of age 

or 
over. 




NATIVE ■WHITE. 


AJlages 


39.0 


61.0 


49.6 


22.3 


26.7 


7.7 


0.6 


Under 5 years 


61.6 
47.4 
41.6 
42.5 
40.1 
33.3 
35.6 
41.7 


38.4 
52.6 
58.4 
57.5 
59.9 
66.7 
64.4 
58.3 


35.3 
45.9 
49.7 
48.0 
51.5 
54.2 
47.4 
40.0 


26.3 
23.9 
26.1 
25.4 
26.2 
21.8 
16.0 
10.6 


8.0 
21.1 
22.6 
21.9 
24.8 
32.1 
30.6 
28.6 








2.7 
4.9 
6.1 
5.1 
9.4 
13.0 
11.1 






%. 


15 to 19 years. . . 


20 to 24 years 


0.2 


25 to 44 years 


5 


45 to 64 years 


1 5 


65 years or over 


2.6 




FOREIGN-BORN -WHITB. 


All ages' 


31.9 


68.1 


49.9 


16.1 


33.4 


13.1 


1.0 


Under 5 years 


25.0 
46.1 
27.5 
36.9 
32.7 
26.6 
33.1 
43.5 


75.0 
53.9 
72.5 
63.1 
67.3 
73.4 
66.9 
56. S 


75.0 
48.3 
52.1 
46.3 
54.2 
54.9 
47.0 
34.7 


75.0 
13.5 
23.9 
18.1 
20.6 
17.8 
11.6 
9.5 








5to9years. . 


34.8 
27.5 
27.5 
33.6 
36.5 
35.0 
25.2 


2.2 
14.8 
13.4 
10.3 
14.9 
13.2 
10.9 




10 to a years 




15 to 19 years 


7 


20 to 24 years 




25 to 44 years. . . . 


4 




2 4 


65 years or over 


2.0 




NEGRO. 


All ages' 


55.7 


44.3 


26.8 


9.3 


17.1 


10.3 


2.5 


Vru\tir a yen" 


87.5 
55.1 
45.4 
58.4 
60.4 
57.3 
58.9 
42.9 


12.5 
44.9 
54.6 
41.6 
39.6 
42.7 
41.1 
57.1 


12.5 
33.3 
44.8 
28.3 
26.4 
23.2 
14.0 
2.9 


12.5 

15.4 

14.9 

10.8 

8.8 

7.3 

3.1 

2.9 








6to9years 


17.9 
29.3 
17.5 
17.6 
15.3 
9.3 


5.1 
6.2 
9.0 

8.8 
12.7 
16.3 
17.1 




10 to 14 years 




15 to 19 years 




20 to 24 years 




25 to 44 years. . 


3 2 


45 to 64 years 


7.0 


65 years or over 


22.9 



> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported, 
i Includes those reported as having lost their hearing in infancy but vrithout 
statement as to the exact age. 

' Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. 
* Less than on&-tenth of 1 per cent. 

After the age of 10 the variations in the percentages 
for the foreign-bom whites are on the whole similar 
to those in the percentages for the native whites, 
except that the proportion congenitally deaf among 
the foreign-bom whites 15 to 19 years of age was 
much higher than among those from 10 to 14. A like 
increase is shown for Negroes; but the decrease 
shown by the age group "25 to 44 years" for the 
other two classes is less pronounced in the case of 
the Negroes, for whom the variations in the percentages 
for the age groups between 15 and 64 years are com- 
paratively slight. The precise reason for these dif- 
ferences is, however, difficult to determine. 

It will be observed that in the first age group for 
which comparisons are significant ("10 to 14 years") 
the difference in the percentage congenitally deaf for 
Negroes and native whites (45.4 and 41.6, respectively) 



is relatively small, but that it shows a general tendency 
to increase with each succeeding age group, imtil among 
those 45 to 64 years of age the percentages are 58.9 
and 35.6, respectively. There is some doubt whether 
the actual changes in the number of persons annually 
becomii^ deaf respectively from congenital and from 
adventitious causes can have differed for the two classes 
sufficiently to account for the variations just pointed 
out, and it seems very probable that the death rate 
among the adventitiously deaf may be considerably 
higher for the Negroes than for the whites. 

Table 57 shows the age distribution of the native 
white, foreign-bom white, and Negro deaf-mutes in 
1910 for whom special schedules were returned, classi- 
fied according to age when hearing was lost. 



Table 57 



AGE AT ENUICERATION. 



PER CENT DlSTRIBUnONl OF DEAF AND DUMB 
POPULATION IN 1910 FOR WHOM SPEOAL SCHED- 
ULES WERE RETURNED WHOSE DEAFNESS WAS — 



Con- 
geni- 
tal. 



AJlages.. 

Under 5 years.. 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years . . 
15 to 19 years . . 
20 to 24 years . . 
25 to 44 years . . 
45 to 64 years .. 
65 years or over 



AJlages.. 

Under 5 years.. 

S to9years 

10 to 14 years . . 
15 to 19 years . . 
20 to 24 years . . 
25 to 44 years . . 
45 to 64 years . . 
65 years or over 



AJlages.. 

Under 5 years.. 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years . . 
15 to 19 years . . 
20 to 24 years . . 
25 to 44 years . . 
45 to 64 years . . 
OS years or over 



Acquired.' 



Total. 



At less than 5 years of 
age. 



Total.' 



Less 
than 2 
years. 



2 to 4 

years. 



At 5 to 
9 years 
of age. 



NATTVE WHITE. 



100.0 100.0 100.0 loao 100.0 loao 



2.8 
12.6 

14.8 
14.0 
11.3 
25.7 
14.7 
4.0 



1.1 
9.0 
13.3 
12.2 
10.8 
33.0 
17.0 
3.6 



1.3 
9.6 
13.9 
12.5 
11.4 
32.9 
15.4 
3.1 



2.1 
11.1 
16.3 
14.7 
1Z9 
29.5 
11.5 

1.8 



0.5 
8.2 
11.7 
10.6 
10.2 
36.3 
1&4 
4.1 



3.8 

9.0 
10.3 

7.3 
37.0 
27.4 

fi.6 



FOSEIGN-BORN WHITE. 



100.0 100.0 10a 100.0 100.0 100.0 



0.2 

7.0 

6.7 

9.4 

6.0 

32.1 

27.8 

10.9 



0.2 
3.8 
8.2 
7.5 
5.8 
41.5 
26.3 
6.6 



0.3 
4.7 
8.1 
7.5 
6.3 
42.3 
25.2 
6.6 



LO 

4.1 

U.5 

9.2 

7.5 

42.7 

19.3 

4.7 



5.0 
6.4 
6.7 
5.9 
42.0 
28.0 
&0 



as 

&8 
8.3 
4.6 
43.8 
27.1 
6.7 



NEGRO. 



100.0 



1.2 
7.3 
13.3 
16.4 
16.2 
30.4 
12.8 
2.5 



100.0 



0.2 
7.4 
20.2 
14.7 
13.4 
28,6 
11.3 
4.3 



100.0 



0.3 
9.1 
27.3 
16.4 
14.7 
25.5 
6.3 
0.3 



100.0 



1.0 
12.1 
26.3 
18.2 
14.1 
23.2 
4.0 
LO 



100.0 



7.7 
28.0 
15.9 
15.4 
26.4 

6.6 



loao 



8.7 
8.3 
13.8 
12.8 
36.7 
19.3 
5.5 



1 Based upon the population whose age at enumeration was reported.. 

> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
Per cent distribution of those whose hearing was lost at 10 years of age or over not 
shown, as base is less than 100 in each case. 

' Includes those reported as having lost their hearing in inbncy but with- 
out statement as to the exact age. 

The Negroes constitute an exception to the rule 
that the congenitally deaf comprise more old people 
than the adventitiously deaf, the percentage 65 or 
over being only 2.5 for the former, as compared with 
4.3 for the latter. This, however, is due mainly to 
the relatively high number among those whose deafness 
was acquired of persons who lost their hearing after 



52 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



the completion of their fifth year, and more espe- 
cially after the first decade of life (see Table 46, p. 45) ; 
among those who lost it during the first five years 
of life, only 0.3 per cent had reached the age of 65, 
while none of those who reported it as lost between 
the ages of 2 and 4 had attained this age. The pro- 
portion in all the other age groups into which persons 
of adult life are divided was, however, distinctly 
higher for the congenitally deaf than for those whose 
deafness was acquired. 

In regard to the relative number of children among 
both the congenitally and the adventitiously deaf 
there is a marked contrast between the Negroes and 
the native whites. Of the Negroes who reported 
themselves as born deaf, only a little more than one- 
fifth (21.8 per cent) were children under 15, as com- 
pared with considerably more than one-fourth (30.2 
per cent) of the native whites. On the other hand, 
27.9 per cent of the Negroes whose deafness was 
acquired were under 15 years of age, as compared with 
23.4 per cent of the native whites. When the com- 
parison is confined to those who lost their hearing during 
the first five years of life, the contrast is even more 
marked, 36.7 per cent of the Negroes being children, 
as compared with 24.8 per cent of the native whites. 
These differences suggest that the death rate among 
the adventitiously deaf may be much higher relatively 
to that for the congenitally deaf among the Negroes 
than among the native whites. This is by no means 
improbable, as white children suffering from the 
diseases usually causing deafness presinnably receive 
in most cases better medical treatment than do Negro 
children, so that even when deafness follows, it is less 
apt to be accompanied by other sequelae likely to 
shorten life. This greater care in the case of white 
children may also accoimt for the comparatively 
small difference in the relative number of old people 
among the congenitally and the adventitiously deaf in 
the case of the native whites; it will be observed that 
when the comparison is made by individual age periods 
those who lost their hearing during the first two years 
of life constitute the only class of the adventitiously 
deaf having a lower percentage of old people than the 
congenitally deaf. 

The difference in the proportion of old people among 
the congenitally and the adventitiously deaf is especially 
marked among the foreign-bom whites, for whom 
the percentages 65 or over were 10.9 and 6.6, respec- 
tively. In this nativity class, in fact, the percentage 
of old people for the congenitally deaf exceeds that 
for any class of the adventitiously deaf shown sepa- 
rately in Table 57. 

General Table 11 (p. 126) gives for each geographic 
division the nimiber of deaf and dimib persons in 1910 
for whom special schedules were returned who were 
respectively under 20 years of age, 20 to 64 years of 
age, and 65 years of age or over, classified according 
to age when hearing was lost. 



Relation to marital condiMon. — Greneral Table 12 
(p. 127) shows the distribution according to marital 
condition of the male and female deaf and dimi.b 
population in 1910 for whom special schedules were 
returned, classified according to age when hearing was 
lost. Table 58 shows this distribution by percentages 
for those 15 years of age or over, classified according 
to age when hearing was lost. 



Table 58 



FEB CENT ' 0» TOTAL DEAF AND DUMB POPOIA- 
TION 16 TEABS OF AGE OB OVBB IN 1910 FOB 
WHOM SPECIAI. SCHEDULES VEBE BETUBNBO 
WHO WEBE — 















AGE WHEN BEABING WAS LOST. 


Single. 


Married, widowed, or divorced. 




Total. 


Married. 


Wid- 
owed. 


Di- 
vorced. 




MALE. 


Total 


68.2 


31.8 


29.4 


2.0 


4 








75.5 
63.9 


24.5 
36.1 


22.3 
33.6 


L9 
2.1 


0.3 
0.4 






At age of— 

Less than 5 years » 

Less than 2 years 

2 to 4 years 


64.7 
70.2 
60.8 
54.9 
78.4 


35.3 
29.8 
39.2 
45.1 
21.6 


32.7 
27.3 
36.6 
42.8 
19.5 


2.1 
L7 
2.2 
2.3 
2.2 


0.5 
0.8 
0.3 
0.1 


5 to 9 years - 










FEMALE. 


Total 


58.6 


41.4 


35.7 


5.4 


0.3 






68.3 
52.7 


3L7 
47.3 


26.7 
41.2 


4.8 
5.8 


0.2 
0.4 


Deafness acquired * 




At age of— 

Less than 6 years > 

Less than 2 years — 


62.te 
60.2 
46.7 
47.8 
67.8 


47.4 
39.8 
53.3 
52.2 
32.2 


41.9 
34.8 
47.5 
44.3 
28.0 


5.2 
4.7 
5.6 
7.4 
6.3 


0.3 
0.3 
0.3 
0.5 


5 to 9 years 









1 Percentages are based upon the population whose marital condition was 
reported, including the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported 

: Includes those for whom the age when Bearing was lost was not reported 
Per cent distribution of those whose uearing was lost at 10 years of age or over 
not shown, as base is less than 100. 

» Includes those reported as having lost their hearing in infancy but without 
statement as to the exact age. 

This table reveals some interesting differences in 
the extent to which the deaf-mutes who reported 
hearing as lost at the different ages have married. 
Both for males and for females the proportion is much 
higher for the adventitiowly deaf than for the congeni- 
tally deaf; only 24.5 ^er cent, or one-fourth, of the 
males, and only 31.7 per cent, or less than one-third, of 
the females 15 years of age or over who reported 
themselves as bom deaf had married at the date of the 
census, as compared with corresponding percentages of 
36.1 and 47.3 in the case of the adventitiously deaf. 
Moreover, among the adventitiously deaf the propor- 
tion tends to increase with the age when hearing was 
lost. Among those who became deaf during the first 
two years of life 29.8 per cent of the males and 39.8 
per cent of the females had married, figures which are 
distinctly higher than the corresponding percentages 
for the congenitally deaf. Among those who lost 
their hearing between the ages of 2 and 4 the per- 
centages were considerably higher (39.2, or two-fifths, 



CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



53 



and 53,3, or more than one-half, respectively) . In the 
case of males the percentage shows a further mcrease 
for those who lost their hearing between the ages of 5 
and 9 (to 45.1); but ia the case of females it was 
slightly smaller (52.2) for those who lost their hearing 
in this age period than for those who lost it in the 
preceding period. 

To a certain extent these diflEerences are due to 
differences in age distribution; thus only 27.8 per cent 
of the congenitally deaf 15 years of age or over 
returning schedules had reached the age of 45, or in 
other words had passed the period when most people 
have married, as compared with a corresponding per- 
centage of 36.9 for those who had lost their hearing 
during the second quinquenniima of Ufe, so that nor- 
mally the latter would be expected to comprise a much 
higher proportion of persons who had married than the 
former. That this is not the sole factor, however, 
appears from the circumstance that the percentage 
married, widowed, or divorced was distinctly higher 
for persons who had lost their hearing during the first 
two years of life than for the congenitally deaf, 
although the proportion who had reached the age of 
45 among those 15 years of age or over was not so great 
for the former group (19.6 per cent as compared with 
27.8 per cent). The fact that the adventitiously deaf 
who lost their hearing during the fiirst two years of life 
have married to a greater extent than the congenitally 
deaf is possibly explained in part by the circimastance 
that the former class comprises a certain number of 
persons whose deafness was only partial, and who in all 
probability for this reason were able to acquire a 
greater facility in commimication, especially by the 
oral method, than the congenitally deaf, whose deaf- 
ness is probably in most cases total. The higher per- 
centages shown for the two succeeding periods are in 
the main due to the fact that those losing hearing at 
these ages had already to a greater or less extent 
learned to speak and for that reason would presum- 
ably acquire a greater degree of faciUty in commimi- 
cation than those who were entirely dependent on 
instruction received after the loss of their hearing. 

CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 

The subject of the cause of deafness is naturally one 
of the most important to be considered in any statis- 
tical study of deaf-mutism, as returns on this point 
Bhould give a fairly accurate indication as to the lines 
along which measures for the prevention of deaf- 
mutism should be directed in order to bring about the 
maximum reduction in the number of persons who 
are suffering from this infirmity. Unfortunately the 
value of statistics on this subject which are ob- 
tained by the correspondence method is to some ex- 
tent impaired by the fact that in many instances the 
persons returning the schedules are ignorant of the 
actual cause of their deafness and either fail to answer 
the inquiry as to cause or else give an answer that is 



obviously inaccurate or conjectural. This is by no 
means surprising, since in a large number of cases they 
have undergone no medical examination and have never 
received medical treatment for the ear disorder which 
occasioned loss of hearing, so that unless their deafness 
was the direct and immediate consequence of some 
other disorder they would have practically no means 
of knowing the cause. In fact, so far as the congeni- 
tally deaf are concerned, the returns shed practically 
no light upon the primary cause of deafness, as those 
who reported themselves as deaf from birth almost in- 
variably stated that the cause was unknown, the only 
exceptions being a few persons who reported that their 
deafness was due to malformations or to traumatism 
during dehvery; but it is questionable whether a can- 
vass made under medical supervision would be much 
more successful in obtaining information as to the spe- 
cific cause of deafness for this class of deaf-mutes, as 
congenital deafness is probably in the great majority of 
instances due to conditions affecting the internal ear, 
the precise nature of which only an autopsy could dis- 
close. There were also a large number of indefinite and 
inaccurate returns from those whose deafness was ac- 
quired; inasmuch, however, as a comparatively small 
number of causes are responsible for the great majority 
of cases of acquired deafness, and as these causes, fur- 
thermore, are generally known and recognized and, so 
far as they induce deafness, usually make their connec- 
tion with the loss of hearing readily apparent, returns 
as to the cause in this class of cases should on the whole 
be reasonably significant in indicating the causes of 
greatest importance, even where it is necessary to de- 
pend on the statements of the deaf persons themselves 
or their relatives or friends, who usually have no ac- 
quaintance with aural pathology. 

It is obviously not to be expected that returns ob- 
tained in the manner under consideration should indi- 
cate the precise nature of the lesion causing deafness. 
This, however, does not materially affect the value of 
the statistics, except possibly from the standpoint of 
the medical specialist, for the reason that adventitious 
deafness, which of course is the only form in any 
considerable measure susceptible of control, results 
from idiopathic conditions in such a small minority of 
instances that a knowledge of the exact nature of the 
morbid conditions producing deaf-mutism is much less 
important for an effective campaign for its reduction 
than is a knowledge of the etiology of these condi- 
tions. Moreover, since the probable effect upon the 
ear of the principal causes producing deafness is known 
with a reasonable degree of accuracy, it is possible to 
classify the returns in such a way as to give an ap- 
proximately correct indication of the part of the ear 
affected. In tabulating the returns both for 1900 and 
for 1910 such a classification was adopted, the causes 
assigned being grouped under three broad heads, com- 
prising those which ordinarily or in the majority of 
instances affect, respectively, the external, ^e mid- 



64 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



die, and the internal ear; those aflFecting the middle 
ear were further divided into suppurative and non- 
suppurative affections, and those affecting the inter- 
nal ear into causes affecting, respectively, the laby- 
rinth, the auditory nerve, and the brain center for 
hearing. In addition, there were, of course, a con- 
siderable number of cases where the answer to the 
inquiry as to cause was too indefinite or obviously 
inaccurate to permit classification. While a classifi- 
cation on this basis is not absolutely accurate, owing 
to the circumstance that even among the returns as- 
signing a cause which actually occasions deafness some 
undoubtedly represented conjectures not in accord- 
ance with fact, and the further circimistance that some 
causes may affect more than one part of the ear, it 
probably gives a reasonably correct indication of the 
relative frequency with which deafness results from 
affections of the different parts of the ear. 

Table 59 shows the distribution according to re- 
ported cause of deafness of the total and the male and 
female deaf and dumb population in 1910 for whom 
special schedules were returned. In this table the con- 
genitaUy deaf are excluded by reason of the fact that 
a definite return as to cause of deafness was made in 
so few instances and the difference in the importance 
of this class of deaf-mutes for the two sexes is on the 
whole so slight that their inclusion in the tabulation 
would impair the value of comparisons as to the causes 
producing adventitious deafness to a considerable extent 
without being compensated by any commensurate gain. 

The unsatisfactory character of the returns appears 
plainly from the circumstance that for more than one- 
fourth of the total number of adventitious deaf- 
mutes for whom schedules were returned (28.6 per 
cent) the cause of deafness was either not given or else 
was stated so indefinitely as not to permit classi- 
fication according to the part of the ear presumably 
affected. As compared with the results obtained in 
connection with the census of the blind taken at the 
same time as that of the deaf and dumb, however, 
this is a fairly satisfactory showing, since 46 per cent, 
or nearly one-half, of the blind who returned schedules 
either failed to indicate any cause whatever or made 
a return too indefinite or obviously inaccurate to 
permit classification under any specific head. 

Of the persons who made a sufficiently specific 
answer to the inquiry relating to cause of deafness to 
permit a classification as to the part of the auditory 
apparatus probably affected, the majority reported 
a cause ordinarily affecting the middle ear, those 
reporting a cause of this nature representing 38.8 per 
cent, or nearly two-fifths, of the total number whose 
deafness was acqiiired, and more than one-half (54.4 
per cent) of the total number returning a classifiable 
cause. Of these by far the greater proportion (82.3 
per cent, or about five-sixths) were cases where the cause 
reported was one which usually operates by producing 
suppuration, such cases representing considerably more 



than two-fifths (44.7 per cent) of those in which 
a classifiable cause was returned. Persons returning a 
cause probably affecting the internal ear constituted 
nearly one-third (31.5 per cent) of the total number of 
adventitious deaf-mutes, and more than two-fifths 
(44.2 per cent) of those stating a classifiable cause. 
Nearly all (92.7 per cent) of these, representing about 
two-fifths (41 per cent) of the total number return- 
ing a classifiable cause, reported causes probably 
affecting the auditory nerve. As would be ex- 
pected, there were comparatively few instances (64, 
or less than 1 per cent of the total) in which the 
cause reported was one affecting the external ear, and 
it is possible that in some of these the return does not 
represent the actual cause. 



Table &9 



BEPOBTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



All causes . 



11,620 



Causes affecting the external ear. 
Causes affecting the middle ear . . 



suppurative 



Causes produc 

condition. 

Scarlet fever 

Measles 

Diphtheria 

Pneumonia 

Abscess in the head 
Disease of the ear. . 
All other causes 

suppurative condition. 



Causes not producing suppura- 
tive condition 

Whooping cough 

Catarrh 

Colds 

All other causes not produc- 
ing suppurative condition. . 

All other causes affecting the 
middle ear 



Causes affecting the internal ear . . 

Causes affecting the labyrinth . , 

Malarial fever and quinine 

Mumps 

All other causes affecting the 
labyrinth 



Causes affecting the aaditory 
nerve 

Meningitis 

Brain fever 

Typhoid fever 

Convulsions 

All other causes aflecttaig the 
auditory nerve 



All other causes affecting the 
internal ear ., 



Combination of different classes 
of causes 



Unclassiflable causes. 



Falls and blows 

A ccidant 

All other unclassiflable causes. 

Cause unknown or not reported. , 



DEAF AND DUMB POFULATION FOB 'WHOM SPE- 
CIAL SCHEDULES WEBE EETXmNED WHOSE 
DEAFNESS WAS ACQUIBED: 1910.> 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 



100.0 



6i 
4,507 



3,708 
2,005 
525 
166 
102 
349 
237 

324 



789 
301 
186 
156 

146 



10 
3,666 



128 

86 

13 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

384 

174 

102 

41 

55 
2,336 



587 

57 

1,692 

992 



0.6 
38.8 



31.9 
17.3 
4.5 
1.4 
0.9 
3.0 
2.0 

2.8 



6 8 
2.6 
1.6 
1.3 

1.3 



0.1 
31.5 



1.9 
1.1 
0.7 

0.1 



29.3 

15.6 

8.0 

3.3 

1.5 

0.9 
0.4 

0.5 

20.1 



5.1 
0.5 
14.6 

8.6 



Male. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 



6,479 



100.0 



39 
2,331 



1,925 

1,057 

262 

82 

62 

183 

119 

160 



144 
95 
82 

77 



8 
2,217 



143 
84 
52 



2,048 

1,070 

584 

224 

109 

61 



26 

27 
1,323 



326 

38 

959 

542 



Num- 
ber. 



5,141 



0.6 
36.0 



25 

2,176 



29.7 
16.3 
4.0 
1.3 
1.0 
2.8 
1.8 

2.5 



6.1 
2.2 
1.5 
1.3 

1.2 



0.1 
34.2 



2.2 
1.3 
0.8 

0.1 



31.6 

16.5 

9.0 

3.5 

1.7 

0.9 



0.4 

0.4 
20.4 



5.0 
0.6 
14.8 

8.4 



Female. 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 



100.0 



1,783 
948 
263 
84 
40 
166 
118 

164 



391 

157 

91 

74 



2 
1,449 



83 
44 



1,351 

742 

343 

160 

65 

41 



IS 

28 
1,013 



261 

19 

733 

460 



0.5 
42.3 



34.7 
18.4 
5.1 
1.6 
0.8 
3.2 
2.3 

3.2 



7.6 
3.1 
1.8 
1.4 

1.3 



28.3 



1.6 
0.9 
0.6 

0.1 



26.3 

14.4 

6.7 

3.1 

1.3 

0.8 



0.3 

0.5 
19.7 



5.1 
0.4 
14.3 

8.8 



Males 
per 100 

fe- 
males 



126.0 



(«) 
107.1 



108.0 
111.5 
90.6 

a. 

100.8 
V7.6 



101.8 
91.7 

{? 

(*) 



153.0 



o 



151.6 
144.3 
170.3 
140.0 
(«) 

O 



O 

O 
130.6 



124.9 
130.4 



> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

> Ratio not shown where number of females is less than 100. 
' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

Of the individual causes reported, scarlet fever was 
the most important, being specifically named as cause 



CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



55 



by 2,005 persons, or more than one-sixth (17.3 per 
cent) of the total number of adventitious deaf-mutes 
returning schedules, and nearly one-fourth (24.2 per 
cent) of those reporting a classifiable cause. Menin- 
gitis ranked next, being reported by 1,812 persons, or 
nearly one-sixth (15.6 per cent) of the total number 
whose deafness was acquired and more than one-fifth 
(21,9 per cent) of those reporting classifiable causes; 
while the returns did not permit of an accurate segre- 
gation between the cases due to cerebrospinal fever and 
those due to simple meningitis, the great majority 
were unquestionably due to the former cause. Brain 
fever ranked third, being reported by 927 persons. 
It is probable, however, that in the great majority of 
instances "brain fever" is in reality merely another 
name for meningitis, in which case meningitis is 
actually the most important cause, the combined total 
for these two causes representing nearly one-fourth 
(23.6 per cent) of the total for all causes for the adven- 
titiously deaf and practically one-third (33 per cent) 
of the total for all classifiable causes. 

Measles, which was reported as cause by 525 per- 
sons, or 4.5 per cent of the total number of deaf-mutes 
returning schedules whose deafness was acquired 
ranks next to brain fever among the causes which 
could be classified according to the part probably 
affected. A somewhat larger number, however, (587) 
reported the cause as falls or blows, which coiild not 
be classified on this basis. It is probable that the 
returns giving measles as cause of deafness faU short 
of the true figure to a much greater extent than is the 
case with any of the other important causes. This 
is due to the fact that in a large proportion of the cases 
where measles results in deafness, loss of hearing does 
not actually occur until a considerable period of time 
has elapsed, so that the connection between the dis- 
ease and the deafness is much less obvious than in 
cases where the cause of deafness is a disease like 
meningitis or scarlet fever, in which the destruc- 
tion of hearing, when it occurs, is usually rapid. 
Typhoid fever and abscess in the head were the only 
other definite causes returned in as many as 3 per cent 
of the cases; it is probable, however, that abscess in 
the head in the majority of cases merely represents a 
result of the contagious or infectious diseases already 
referred to as causing deafness. 

The total number of cases in which deafness was 
reported as due to meningitis (including brain fever), 
scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria, or typhoid fever, 
the causes most generally recognized as producing 
deaf -mutism, was 5,819, representing 70.2 per cent, or 
more than two-thirds, of the total number in which a 
classifiable cause was returned. This fact brings out 
clearly the great advance which would be effected 
in the direction of elimiaating deaf -mutism by prog- 
ress in the control of communicable diseases. 

The distribution according to cause of deafness of the 
male and female deaf-mutes whose deafness was ac- 



quired differed to some extent. The proportion report- 
ing deafness as due to a cause ordinarily affecting 
the middle ear was distinctly higher for females than 
for males (42.3 per cent as compared with 36 per cent) , 
while the proportion reporting a cause affecting the 
internal ear was lower (28.2 per cent as compared with 
34.2 per cent) . Scarlet fever and measles appear to be 
somewhat more important as causes for females than 
for males, being reported, respectively, by 18.4 and 5.1 
per cent of the total for the former and 16.3 and 4 per 
cent for the latter, while meningitis and brain fever 
were both more important for males, the percentage 
for the former cause beiug 16.5 for males and 14,4 for 
females, and that for the latter 9 for males and 6,7 for 
females. Meningitis, ia fact, which is outranked by 
scarlet fever for both sexes combined and for females 
among the causes as returned, was reported more 
frequently than any other cause by males. 

The figures in the last column of Table 59, which 
gives the number of males per 100 females among those 
returning the different causes, show that the most 
important factor in the great excess of males among 
adventitious deaf-mutes is the high ratio among those 
reporting a cause affecting the internal ear, and more 
especially a cause affecting the auditory nerve. Tlie 
niunber of males per 100 females reporting causes 
affecting the auditory nerve was 151.6, as compared 
with 126 for aU causes combined; a very high excess 
of males is shown for those reporting each of the three 
causes of this class for which the ratio is given in the 
table, the number of males per 100 females being 170.3 
for those reporting brain fever, 144.2 for those report- 
ing meningitis, and 140 for those reporting typhoid 
fever. On the other hand, among those reporting 
scarlet fever as the cause the ratio was only 111,5 to 
100, and in the case of those reporting measles and diph- 
theria the number was practically the same for the 
two sexes. 

These differences between the sexes in regard to the 
relative number of males and females, respectively, 
reporting the leading causes of deafness appear to 
correspond in some measure to differences in the mor- 
tality rate from the same causes among male and 
female children, respectively. Statistics on this point 
are not available for the United States; Table 60, on 
the following page, however, shows for England and 
Wales the average annual death rate for the period 
1911-1913 among male and female children under 10 
years of age from the five diseases which are generally 
recognized as the leading causes of deaf-mutism. 

The death rate from meningitis, which in Table 59 
shows a higher excess of males among those reporting 
it as cause of deafness than any other of the causes 
shown in Table 60, was considerably higher relatively 
for male than for female children in England and Wales 
during the period covered by the table. The death 
rate from scarlet fever was practically the same for the 
two sexes; by reference to Table 59 it wiU be seen that 



56 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



while there was an excess of males among those report- 
ing scarlet fever as cause of deafness, this excess was 
relatively slight as compared with that among those 
reporting meningitis. In the case of measles, however, 
which was reported as cause of deafness by practically 
the same number of males and of females, Table 60 
shows a somewhat higher death rate for males, al- 
though the excess is much less relatively than in 
the case of meningitis. On the whole, Tables 59 and 60 
lend further support to the supposition that the excess 
of males among the deaf and dumb is in some measure 
due to a greater susceptibility of that sex to the in- 
fectious and contagious diseases which occur most 
frequently in childhood. 



Table 60 



CAxraE or deaxh. 



Ueasles 

Scarlet fever 

Dilditheria and croup . 

Meningitis 

Typhoid lever 



AVERAGE ANNTJAL DEATH 
BATE OF CmUlBEN 
XTNDEB 10 TEABS OF 
AGE FEB 100,000 UVINO 
AT THE SAME AGE IN 
ENGLAND AND WALES: 
1»11-191S.> 



Male. 



162.1 

22.1 

52.9 

45.6 

1.7 



Female. 



149.7 

22.3 

54.9 

39.1 

2.0 



1 In tbe population employed as basis for these rates the number of births is 
used instead of the number of children under 1 year of age. 

While an inq-uiry as to cause of deafness was in- 
cluded in the special schedule at each census from 
1880 to 1910, the differences in the class of deaf cov- 
ered by the statistics at the respective censuses render 
comparisons of the returns on this subject of somewhat 
uncertain significance. For purposes of reference, 
however, Table 61 is presented, showing the number 
at each census returning certain of the more important 
causes of deafness. The figures for 1890 do not in- 
clude the deaf and dumb Indians, Chinese, or Japanese, 
for whom apparently no returns were secured as to 
cause of deafness; but owing to the comparatively 
small number of these races returning schedules in 
1910, this omission does not materially affect the com- 
parability of the figures. 

The most significant feature of Table 61 is probably 
the regular decrease from census to census in the pro- 
portion of cases in which scarlet fever was reported as 
cause of deafness. The large decrease in 1890 as com- 
pared with 1880 is due mainly to the fact that the 
tabulation for cause of deafness at the census of 1880 
appears to have been confined to those making a 
reasonably definite answer to the inquiry as to 
cause of deafness, who represented less than one-half 
of the total number whose deafness was acquired, 
whereas for 1890, as well as 1910, the figures relate to 
the total number whose deafness was not reported as 
congenital, regardless of the return as to cause. The 
fact, however, that the two censuses since 1890 have 
also shown decreases in the proportion of cases credited 
to scarlet fever makes it seem probable that thia 



cause has actually decreased in importance to some 
extent. Meningitis shows a considerable decrease 
in relative importance as a cause of deafness in 1910 
as compared with 1880; this decrease, however, was 
due entirely to a decrease between 1880 and 1890, the 
two following censuses each showing a small increase. 
In view of what has just been said as to the difference 
in the basis of tabulation at the respective censuses, 
and as there is also reason for believing that there may 
have been a difference in classification at the respec- 
tive censuses which affected the returns for this cause, 
it is questionable whether there has actually been such 
a f aUing off in the importance of meningitis as a cause 
as a comparison of the figures for 1910 and 1880 
would indicate; on the other hand, it seems more 
likely that it has actually, as the figures for the later 
censuses would appear to indicate, been increasing to 
some extent in relative importance, by reason of the 
fact that it is less susceptible of control than other 
important causes of deafness, such as scarlet fever and 
measles. The proportion of cases credited to measles 
shows no very great change during the period covered 
by the table; this is perhaps accounted for by the fact 
that the serious character of this disease does not 
appear to have been so generally recognized as that 
of diseases like scarlet fever, diphtheria, and menin- 
gitis, so that the same effort has not been made for its 
control, while it is further probable that any increase 
in the degree of accuracy of the returns as to cause 
would affect measles to a greater extent than the other 
important causes for the reason already stated that in 
a very large proportion of the cases where measles 
causes deafness the lapse of time between the attack 
of the disease and the loss of hearing is so great that 
the causal connection is not perceived. 



Table 61 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES 
•WHOSE DEAFNESS WAS ACQUIRED. 




1910' 


1900S 


1890 « 


1880« 


BEPOBTED CAUSE OF 
DEAFNESS. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
dis- 
trl- 
bu- 
tlon. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion. 


Total 


11,620 


100.0 


17,932 


100.0 


23,696 


100.0 


10,187 


100.0 




Bwirlet fever 


2,005 

625 

166 

1,812 

7,112 


17.3 

4.5 

1.4 

15.6 

61.2 


3,561 
932 

10,915 


19.9 
fi.2 
(') 
14.1 
60.9 


4,799 

1,021 

222 

3,278 

14,376 


20.3 

4.3 

0.9 

13.8 

60.7 


2,695 

448 

70 

2,866 

4,118 


26.5 

4.4 

0.7 

38.0 

40.4 


Measles 


Diphtheria 

ManiTipit.is . 


Allotfier 





t Deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were returned. Fig- 
ures include those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

* Deaf population for whom special schedules were returned less thmi 6 years 
of age when hearing was lost. 

> Deaf persons unable to speak at all. Figures include these for whom the age 
when hearing was lost was not reported. 

i Deaf-mutes, exclusive of those reported as 16 years of age or over when hear- 
ing was lost, who reported cause of deafness. While the report for 1880 does not 
state spedflcally that the ^ures relate only to persons whose deafness was acquired, 
the number of cangenital deaf-mutes, if any, who were included is probably too 
■mall to have any material influence upon the percentages. 

> Separate figures for diphtheria not available. 

Ireland is the only foreign coimtry pubhshing sta- 
tistics as to cause of deafness which are at all com- 
parable with those for the United States, and even for 



CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



57 



this country satisfactory comparisons can be made for 
only a few of the more important causes. Table 62, 
however, shows the number of deaf and dumb persons 
in Ireland ia 1911 reporting certain of the more im- 
portant causes, with the percentage which they rep- 
resented of the total. 



Table 62 



REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



AU causes. 



Measles 

Scarlet fever 

Meningitis 

CerelJTOspinal lever. 

Hydrocephalus 

Fans 

All other 



DEAF AND DUMB POP- 


ULATION OF IRE- 


LAND WHOSE DEAF- 


NESS 


WAS AO 


quired: 


1911. 




Per cent 


Number. 


distribu- 




tion. 


725 


100.0 


35 


4.8 


137 


18.9 


50 


6.9 


18 


2.5 


23 


3.2 


59 


8.1 


403 


55.6 



In Ireland, as in the United States, scarlet fever was 
the cause of deafness most frequently reported, being 
returned in a slightly larger proportion of cases than 
in the United States (18.9 per cent as compared with 
17.3 per cent). Meningitis, however, was much less 
important in Ireland than in the United States; of the 
deaf and dumb in the former country whose deafness 
was acquired, only 9.4 per cent, or less than one-tenth, 
reported meningitis or cerebrospinal fever as cause of 
deafness, whereas in the United States meningitis was 
reported as cause by 15.6 per cent, or nearly one-sixth, 
of the total, and ia addition this was probably the 
actual cause of deafness in a considerable proportion 
of the cases where deafness was ascribed to "brain 
fever, " a cause not shown in the pubUshed returns for 
Ireland. The proportion of cases credited to measles 
was practically the same for the two coimtries (4.8 for 
Ireland and 4.5 for the United States). 

The Austrian Statistical Central Commission also 
formerly published statistics as to the cause of deaf- 
ness for inmates of institutions for deaf-mutes in its 
annual report on health statistics. The figures for 
1906, the last year for which the pubhcation mentioned 
presented statistics relating to the deaf and dumb, are 
given in Table 63. 



Table 63 



CAUSE 07 DEAFHX88. 



All causes 

Convulsions, spasms, fits (Fraisen, Krample, Gicht) 

Other diseases of the brain and nerves 

Scarlet fever 

Smallpox 

Ueules 

Typhus i 

Diseases of the ear 

Scrofula 

other diseases 

Accident 

Undetermined causes 



DEAF AND DtTHB IN 
INSTITUTIONS FOB 
DEAF-MUTES IN AUS- 
TRIA WHOSE DEAF- 
NESS WAS acquibed: 

19M. 



Number. 



1,070 

~m 

202 
117 
11 
42 
61 
83 
25 
111 
148 
169 



Percent 
distribu- 
tion. 



100.0 

10.4 
18.9 
10.9 
1.0 
8.9 
6.7 
7.8 
2.3 
10.4 
13.8 
14.9 



Scarlet fever is apparently of much less importance 
as a cause of deafness in Austria than in the United 
States, being reported as cause for only 10.9 per cent 
(one-tenth) of the deaf-mutes in deaf-mute institu- 
tions in the former coimtry in 1906. The largest 
class with respect to cause shown in the table is that 
comprising persons whose deafness was attributed to 
"Other diseases of the brain and nerves," who con- 
stituted 18.9 per cent, or a little less than one-fifth, of 
the total; it is probable that persons whose deafness 
was due to meningitis were largely included imder this 
head. The proportion reporting measles as cause was 
3.9 per cent, or somewhat less than in the United States. 

Owing probably to the difficulty of getting accurate 
returns as to cause of deafness, the schedule which in 
Germany must be filled out for every deaf-mute child 
of school age makes no direct inquiry as to cause. 
Among a number of inquiries to be answered upon the 
admission of the child to an institution for the deaf and 
dumb, however, is one which asks, "During or in direct 
connection with what disease did deafness become 
noticeable?", several of the more common causes of 
deafness being specifically indicated. The results ob- 
tained from this inquiry for the period beginning Jan- 
uary 1, 1902, and ending Jime 30, 1905, are of some 
interest and are shown in Table 64 ; it must be borne 
in mind, however, that owing to the difference in the 
form of the inquiry and the limitation of the statistics 
to a relatively small proportion of the deaf and dumb, 
comparisons with the United States are of uncertain 
significance. 



Table 64 



DISEASE OB INJURY DURINO OB AFTEB WHICH DEAFNESS 
BECAME NOTICEABLE. 



All causes 

Cerebrospinal fever , 

Heningias 

other diseases of the brain 

Scarlet fever 

Ifeasles 

Diphtheria 

SimUlpox 

Typhoid fever (Unterleibstyphus) 

Whooping oou^ 

Influenza 

S vphilis or Keratitis diffusa 

idiopathic diseases of the ear 

Other diseases 

Injuries to the head 



DEAF-MUTE 


CHILDBEN 


OF SCHOOL AGE IN IN- 


STITUTIONS FOB DEAF- 


MtTTES IN 


GEBMANT 


WHOSE DEAFNESS BE- 


CAME NOTICEABLE 


DURING OB AFTEB DIS- 


EASE OE INJURY: JAN- 


UABY 1, 1902-JUNE 30, 


W06. 






Percent 


Number. 


distribu- 




tion. 


3,002 


100.0 


270 


9.0 


620 


20.7 


391 


13.0 


470 


16.7 


182 


S.1 


78 


2.6 


4 


0.1 


118 


3.9 


48 


1.6 


33 


1.1 


4 


ai 


181 


6.0 


404 


13.5 


199 


6.6 



The 3,002 children for whom the inquiry as to the 
disease or injury during or after which deafness became 
noticeable was answered represented about seven- 
eighths (86.5 per cent) of the 3,472 deaf-mute children 
of school age in institutions for deaf-mutes during the 
period covered by the returns. By far the lai^st 
nimiber (620, constituting 20.7 per cent, or one-fifth, 



58 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



of the total) reported that theu* deafness had become 
noticeable during or after an attack of meningitis {Ge- 
Mm7iautentz!indung), and in addition, nearly one-tenth 
(9 per cent) indicated cerebrospinal fever (epidemische 
Genickstarre) as the probable cause, these two diseases 
together being reported by considerably more than one- 
fourth (29.6 per cent) of the total. Other diseases of 
the brain were reported by 13 per cent of those answer- 
ing the inquiry, so that altogether more than two- 
fifths (42.7 per cent) indicated as the probable cause of 
deafness some cerebral affection, and there is ground 
for regarding even this ^ure as too low.' Scarlet 
fever ranked next to meningitis in the frequency with 
which it was returned, being reported by nearly one- 
sixth (15.7 per cent) of the total. The proportion re- 
porting measles was 6.1 per cent. The number re- 
porting injuries to the head (representing 6.6 per cent 
of the total) was, however, slightly greater than the 
number reporting measles, while the number reporting 
idiopathic diseases of the ear was practically the same 
as the latter. 

General Table 13 (p. 128) shows for each division and 
state the distribution according to reported cause of 
deafness of the deaf and dumb population for whom 
special schedules were returned. Table 65 shows a 
similar distribution in a more condensed form, with 
percentages, for each geographic division. The con- 
genitaUy deaf are included in this table in order to 
bring out more clearly the actual importance of' the 
various causes in the respective divisions in producing 
deaf-mutism. 

The divisions present some interesting contrasts in 
regard to the leading causes of deafness. Although in 
the United States as a whole scarlet fever was reported 
as cause more frequently than meningitis, this was 
true in only four of the nine geographic divisions — the 
New England, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, 
and South Atlantic — meningitis being the cause most 
frequently reported in the remaining five. Meningi- 
tis and brain fever taken together outranked any other 
classifiable cause for the United States as a whole and 
for eight of the nine divisions; New England, how- 
ever, constitutes a striking exception, the proportion 
of cases in which scarlet fever was reported as cause 
being considerably in excess of the combined propor- 
tion for meningitis and brain fever. Of the other 
causes shown separately in the table, falls and blows 
ranked next to those just specified in the New England, 
Middle Atlantic, Moimtain, and Pacific divisions; 
abscess of the head, which, however, as already pointed 

• "This number [the number for whom a disease of the brain was 
reported as apparent cause of deafness] should probably in reality be 
increased somewhat, as many cases had manifestly been diagnosed 
erroneously aa typhoid fever ("nerve fever")." — ^Translated from 
Die Ergebnisse der fortlaufenden StatisHk der Taubgtummen wdhrend 
der JcJtre 190i bis 1905 (in i£edinnal-Stati»tische MitteUungen aua dem 
Kaiterlichm OemndheiUamU, Band XII, Heft 1, 1908, p. 17). 



out, is probably merely the sequel of some other dis- 
ease, in the three southern divisions; and measles in 
the two North Central divisions. 

The percentages for the leading causes show a con- 
siderable range in the different divisions. Scarlet 
fever, for example, was reported as cause by only 4.4 
per cent of the total number of deaf-mutes returning 
schedules in the West South Central division, as com- 
pared with 16.9 per cent, or one-sixth, of those in the 
New England division; considerably more than one- 
fourth (27.4 per cent) of those in this latter division 
whose deafness was acquired attributed it to this cause. 
Similarly, the percentage naming meningitis as the 
cause of deafness ranged from 5.1 in the South Atlantic 
division to 15 in the Pacific division, and the percent- 
age reporting brain fever from 1.4 in the South Atlantic 
to 7.8 in the East North Central; when these two 
causes are taken together the range is from 6.4 in the 
South Atlantic to 20.1 in the Pacific division. The 
percentage for falls and blows varied from 1.7 in the 
two South Central divisions to 5.1 in the Middle Atlan- 
tic; that for measles from 1.7 in the East South Central 
to 3.4 in the East North Central; and that for typhoid 
fever from 1.4 in the South Atlantic and East South 
Central to 2.8 ia the East North Central. 

These wide variations in the relative importance of 
the respective causes in the different diAasions are 
somewhat difl&cult of explanation. In large measure, of 
course, they are due to variations in the percentage of 
congenital cases; thus the high percentages shown for 
scarlet fever and meningitis in the Pacific division are 
imdoubtedly accounted for to a considerable extent by 
the low proportion of congenital deafness in that di- 
vision, resulting from the fact that it is in large part a 
newly settled division. Similarly, the low percentages 
for the leading causes of deafness in the southern di- 
visions may be due to the high proportion of congenital 
deafness in these divisions. In this connection, however, 
it must be remembered that a high percentage of con- 
genital deafness may be due either to a high preva- 
lence of this form of deafness or to a low incidence of 
acquired deafness, and that it can not always be deter- 
mined which is the factor actually operating in any 
given instance. Another circumstance which must be 
borne in mind in connection with statistics as to cause 
of deafness by geographic divisions is that the preva- 
lence of the various diseases causing deafness has prob- 
ably varied widely in individual divisions at different 
periods of time, so that a high percentage for a given 
cause may reflect epidemic or semiepidemic condi- 
tions at some time in the past, and does not necessarily 
indicate the present importance of the disease in ques- 
tion as a cause of deaf-mutism in the given division. 
Differences in the completeness and accuracy of the 
retTirns as to cause are also responsible for some of the 
differences shown for the various divisions. 



CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



59 



Table 65 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION POB WHOIf SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE BETUBNED: 1910 


. 


KEPOETED CAUSE OF DEAPNE33. 


United 
States. 


New 
division. 


Middle 
Atlantic 
division. 


East 

North 

Central 

division. 


West 

North 

Central 

division. 


South 
Atlantic 
division. 


East 

South 

Central 

division. 


West 

South 

Centra^ 

division. 


Moun- 
tain 
division. 


PaciAo 
division. 




NUMBEE. 


All causes 


19,153 


1,187 


4,133 


4,329 


3,767 


2,326 


1,865 


1,613 


352 


581 






Causes affecting the external ear 


64 

4,S07 


7 
327 


7 
1,030 


17 
1,084 


14 
691 


8 

444 


2 

364 


6 
316 


1 
95 


2 

158 


Causes affecting the middle ear 




Causes produeing suppurative condition 


3,708 
2,e05 
i2S 
166 
102 
349 
237 
324 

789 
301 
186 
156 
146 

10 
3,666 


288 

201 

29 

7 

8 

9 

10 

24 

39 
13 

1 
12 
13 


908 
579 
123 
43 
25 
25 
48 
65 

120 
48 
30 
25 
17 

2 

869 


896 
509 
149 
50 
21 
59 
34 
74 

186 
75 
44 
38 
29 

2 
1,053 


546 
276 
85 
18 
19 
44 
41 
63 

143 
64 
23 
27 
28 

3 
621 


351 
142 
52 
17 
9 
70 
34 
27 

91 
28 
86 
18 
19 

2 

229 


276 
101 
32 
13 
5 
76 
28 
21 

88 
30 
20 
15 
23 


243 
71 
33 
7 
6 
57 
36 
33 

73 
24 
33 

8 
8 


79 
43 
8 
9 
3 
5 
3 
8 

16 

4 
2 
3 
7 


121 


Scarlet lever 




Measles 


14 
2 
6 
4 


Diphtheria 


Pneumonia 


Abscess in the head 


Disease of the ear 




All other causes producing suppurative condition 

Causes not producing suppurative condition 


9 
34 


Whooping cough 


15 


catarriC:.. .:!.... :::::::::::: 


7 


Colds 


All other causes not producing suppurative condition 

All other causes affecttag the middle ear 


2 
X 


Causes affecting the internal ear 


171 


233 


24d 


89 


152 






Causes affecting the labyrinth 


226 

128 

85 

13 

2,399 
1,812 
927 
384 
174 
102 

41 

5S 
9,869 


4 

1 
2 

1 

162 

83 

45 

21 

7 

6 

5 

a 

595 


21 
6 

13 
2 

835 

454 

229 

68 

67 

17 

13 

21 
1,949 


49 

28 

18 

3 

994 
458 
336 
120 
51 
29 

10 

9 

1,963 


26 
12 
12 
2 

590 
335 
161 
•3 
16 
IS 

5 

12 
1,298 


30 
18 
10 
2 

194 
118 
32 
32 
6 
6 

6 

3 
1,516 


34 

23 

8 

3 

199 

113 

48 

26 

9 

3 


54 
36 
18 


3 
1 
2 


5 
3 


Malarial fever and quinine 




2 


All otner causes affecting the labyrinth 


Causes affecting the auditory nerve 


194 
115 
32 
32 
5 
10 

1 

4 
978 


86 
49 
14 
9 
4 
10 


145 


Meningitis 


87 
30 


Brain fever 


TjTpboid fever 


13 


Convulsions 


g 


All other causes affecting the auditory nerve 


6 


All other causes affecting the intern^ ear 


2 


Cmnbination of different classes of causes 


2 

1,167 




2 


Undasslfiable causes 


158 


245 








7,533 

587 

57 

1,692 

992 


453 

49 

3 

90 

85 


1,465 

209 

18 

257 

257 


1,434 

118 

15 

396 

203 


909 

73 

7 

310 

131 


1,292 

46 

3 

175 

126 


954 

32 

5 

176 

97 


743 

28 

5 

202 

60 


114 
10 


169 


Falls and blows 


23 


Accident 


1 


All rther nifflasafflaNe miisfls 


34 
9 


52 


Cause unknown or not reported 


24 








PEB CENT DISTRIBUTION. 


All causes 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




<>Hiiw>s (•♦'("rt'ng t^e 4Mf t*mBl ear 


0.3 
23.5 


0.6 
27.5 


0.2 
24.9 


0.4 
25.0 


0.5 
35.0 


0.3 
19.1 


0.1 
19.5 


0.4 
19.6 


0.3 

27.0 


0.3 
26 9 


Causes affecting the middle ear 






Causes producing suppurative condition 


19.4 
10.5 
2.7 
0.9 
0.5 
1.8 
1.2 
1.7 

4.1 
1.6 
1.0 
0.8 
0.8 

0.1 
19.1 


24.3 
16.9 
2.4 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.8 
2.0 

3.3 
1.1 
0.1 
1.0 
1.1 


22.0 
14.0 
3.0 
1.0 
0.6 
0.6 
1.2 
1.6 

19 
1.2 
0.7 
0.6 
0.4 

(') 

21.0 


20.7 
11.8 
3.4 
1.2 
0.5 
1.4 
0.8 
1.7 

4.3 
1.7 
1.0 
0.9 
0.7 

(') 

24.3 


19.7 
10.0 
3.1 
0.7 
0.7 
1.6 
1.5 
3.3 

5.1 
2.3 
0.8 
1.0 
1.0 

0.1 

22.4 


15.1 
6.1 
2.2 
0.7 
0.4 
3.0 
1.5 
1.2 

3.9 
1.2 
1.1 
0.8 
0.8 

0.1 

9.8 


14.8 
5.4 
1.7 
0.7 
0.3 
4.1 
1.5 
1.1 

4.7 
1.6 
1.1 
0.8 
1.2 


15.1 
4.4 
2.0 
0.4 
0.4 
3.5 
3.2 
3.0 

4.5 
1.5 
3.0 
0.5 
0.5 


22.4 
12.3 
3.3 
3.6 
0.9 
1.4 
0.9 
3.3 

4.5 
1.1 
0.6 
0.9 
2.0 


20 8 




14.3 
2 4 


Measles 




3 


Pnenmn^'R 


1 


Abscess In the head 


7 


Disease of the ear 


6 


All other causes producing suppurative condition 

Causes not producing suppurative condition 


1.5 
5 


Whoopmg cough 


2 5 


Catarrh 


1.2 
1 7 


Colds 


All other causes not producing suppurative condition 

All other causes affecting the middle ear 


0.3 
3 


Cft^ises affecting the internal ear 


14.4 


12.5 


15.4 


35.3 


36 3 






r^niwi? Rffao+fa" t*"" 'fbyr'ith 


1.2 
0.7 
0.4 
0.1 

17.7 
9.5 
4.8 
2.0 
0.9 
0.5 

0.3 

0.3 
51.6 


0.3 
0.1 
0.2 
0.1 

13.6 
7.0 
3.8 
1.8 
0.6 
0.5 

0.4 

0.2 

50.1 


0.5 
0.1 
0.3 
(') 

10.2 
11.0 
5.5 
1.6 
1.6 
0.4 

0.3 

0.5 
47.2 


1.1 
0.6 
0.4 
0.1 

23.0 
10.6 
7.8 
2.8 
1.2 
0.7 

0.2 

0.2 
45.3 


0.9 
0.4 
0.4 
0.1 

31.3 
12.1 
5.8 
2.3 
0.6 
0.5 

0.2 

0.4 
46.9 


1.3 
0.8 
0.4 
0.1 

8.3 
5.1 
1.4 
1.4 
0.3 
0.3 

0.2 

0.1 
65.2 


1.8 
1.2 
0.4 
0.2 

10.7 
6.1 
2.6 
1.4 
0.5 
0.2 


3.3 
2.3 
1.1 


0.9 
0.3 
0.6 


9 


Malarial fever and quinine 


5 




3 


All other causes affecting the labyrinth 




Causes affecting the auditory nerve 


13.0 
7.1 
2.0 
2.0 
0.3 
0.6 

0.1 

0.2 
60.6 


34.4 
13.9 
4.0 
3.6 
1.1 
3.8 


36 


Meningitis 


15 


Brain fever 


6 2 


Typhoid fever 


3 3 


Convulsions 


1 S 


All other causes affecting the audltorr nerve 


1.0 


All other causes affecting the internal ear 


3 


Combination of different classes of oeuises 


0.1 
62.6 




3 


Unolassiflable causes 


44.9 


43 2 






Congmitd 


39.3 
3.1 
0.3 
8.8 

5.2 


38.2 
4.1 
0.3 
7.6 

7.2 


35.4 
5.1 
0.4 
6.2 

6.3 


33.1 
2.7 
0.3 
9.1 

4.7 


33.9 
3.4 
0.3 

11.2 

4.7 


55. 5« 
2.0 
0.1 

7.5 

5.4 


51.3 
1.7 
0.3 
9.4 

5.2 


46.1 
1.7 
0.3 

12.5 

3.7 


33.4 
3.8 


39 1 


Ttlia and blows 


4 0. 


Accident 


3 


All other undassififtWe Oftns'w 


9.7 
3.6 


9 


Cause unknown or not reuorted 


4.1 





> Less tlian one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



m 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



In determining the probable extent to which the 
differences in the relative importance of individual 
causes were due to variations in their prevalence in 
the respective divisions at the present time, accurate 
mortality statistics would be of considerable service. 
Unfortunately a considerable part of the United States 
is not included in the registration area for deaths, and 
the portion excluded comprises the greater part of the 
South, which shows some of the most striking varia^ 
tions from the other divisions in regard to causes of 
deafness, so that it is necessary to exercise some cau- 
tion in the use of mortality rates for the purpose of 
comparisons between geographic divisions. As such 
comparisons for the leading causes of acquired deaf- 
mutism woidd, however, be of considerable interest 
in the present connection, Table 66 is presented, show- 
ing the average annual death rate among children 
imder 10 years of age from typhoid fever, measles, 
scarlet fever, diphtheria and croup, and 'meningitis for 
the 5-year period 1910-1914 for those portions of the 
respective geographic divisions included within the 
registration area for which statistics as to the causes 
of death at the different ages are available. 



Table 66 



DIVISION. 



Total. 



K«w England 

Ulddle Atlantic 

East North Central (part of) . . . 
West North Central (part of). . . 

South Atlantic (part of ) 

East South Cenlxal Opart of ) . . . 
West South Central Q>art of). . 

Uonntain (part of ) 

Pacific (part of) 



AVERAGE ANNUAL DEATH RATE FROM SPECTPIED 
CAUSE AMONQ CHILDREN UNDER 10 YEARS OF 
AGE PER 100,000 LrvlNG AT SAME AGE: 1910-igu.l 



Typhoid 
fever. 



10.7 



4.9 
6.7 
11.8 
14.3 
19.0 
26.0 
12.5 
17.1 
11.7 



Measles. 



44.8 



51.7 
56.5 
37.5 
33.9 
32.5 
39.5 
45.3 
36.9 
32.0 



Scarlet 
lever. 



36.5 



28.5 
45.6 
41.9 
32.0 
13.6 
Kl.O 
10.9 
49.7 
16.0 



Diphthe- 
ria and 
croup. 



87.5 



85.3 
109.8 
86.2 
68.9 
57.3 
92.7 
96.8 
40.0 
40.1 



Menin- 
gitis. 



39.3 



55.4 
36.0 
36.3 
28.5 
43.4 
63.9 
41.2 
36.1 
39.3 



I Figorej relate to registration states and registration cities of 100,000 population 
or over innonregistration states; for smaller registration citiesinnonxegistrationstates 
figures are not available. 

As the death rate of children imder 10 years of age 
from scarlet fever in the three southern divisions is 
much below the average for the United States as a 
whole, it seems probable that the low percentage of 
cases in which scarlet fever was returned as cause of 
deafness in these divisions reflects actual conditions, 
especially as scarlet fever is likely to be as readily 
recognized as any of the leading causes. In New 
England, on the other hand, where the percentage 
reporting scarlet fever as cause of deafness is high and 
the percentage reporting meningitis low, the death 
rate from the former cause is below the average and 
that from the latter cause above the average, so that 
it is apparent that some part of the explanation for 
the conditions first mentioned must be sought elsewhere 
than in the relative prevalence of the respective causes 
at the present time. For t^o of the southern divi- 
sions the death rate from measles is below the aver- 
age; the rates from meningitis and from typhoid 
fever, however, are above the average in all three 



divisions, and that from diphtheria in two. On the 
whole, so far as mortality returns go, it seems fully as 
probable that the high percentage of congenital deaf- 
mutism in the South indicates a high prevalence of 
congenital deafness in this section of the country as 
that it reflects a low prevalence of acquired deaf- 
mutism. In general, however, owing to the limita- 
tions already mentioned, the statistics fail to shed any 
very extensive light on the reasons for the variations 
in the proportions of the deaf and dumb who attrib- 
uted their deafness to the several causes. 

General Table 14 (p. 132) shows the number in the 
various race and nativity classes among the deaf and 
dumb for whom special schedules were returned who 
reported the various causes of deafness. Table 67 
gives similar figures in somewhat less detail. 

The three leading race and nativity classes differ to 
some extent in respect to the relative importance of 
the different causes of deafness. Among the foreign- 
bom whites the proportion of cases where deafness 
was due to scarlet fever was considerably above the 
average, being 15.2 per cent, as compared with 10.5 
per cent for all classes combined, while the proportion 
for meningitis and brain fever taken together was 
below the average (11.2 per cent, as compared with 
14.3 per cent for all classes combined). On the other 
hand, the percentage reporting typhoid fever as cause 
was considerably higher for this class (4.8) than for 
any of the others. Among the Negroes the percent- 
age reporting scarlet fever as the cause of deafness 
was exceptionally low, being only 2.9, as compared 
with a percentage of 10.5 for the native whites. The 
percentages for measles, typhoid fever, and meningitis 
(including brain fever) were also somewhat lower than 
in the case of the whites. 

As a number of different factors contribute to bring 
about the differences in the percentages for the respec- 
tive causes in the several race and nativity classes, 
it is diflScult to determine definitely just what is the 
precise significance of these differences. To a certain 
extent variations in the tendency to congenital deaf- 
ness in the respective classes may accoxmt for differ- 
ences in the relative importance of the causes of 
acquired deafness, this factor being perhaps especially 
likely to influence the figures for the Negroes; but on 
the whole it seems probable that the differences in the 
percentages congenitaUy deaf are to a greater or less 
extent themselves explained by the differences in the 
percentages for the causes producing acquired deaf- 
ness, rather than that they explain these differences. 
Variations in the definiteness and accuracy of the 
returns as to cause constitute another factor requiring 
consideration; in particular, it appears probable that 
the low percentages for the leading causes in the case 
of the Negroes are partly explained in this manner. 
This may also account in part for some of the figures 
for the foreign-bom whites; in connection with the 
high percentage for typhoid fever shown for this class, 



CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



61 



for example, it is interesting to note that the German 
report on deaf-mttes of school age for the period 
1902-1905 states that the cases where typhoid fever 
(JJnterleihstyphus) was returned as apparent cause prob- 
ably in many instances represent cases where the 
actual ailment was some disease of the brain (see p. 58). 
To some extent, however, the differences in the 
percentages for the several causes in the respective 
race and nativity classes reflect actual diflferences 
in the importance of the different diseases as causes 
of deafness. The extremely low percentage for 
scarlet fever in the case of Negroes, for example, 
unquestionably indicates that this is much less im- 
portant as a cause of deafness for Negroes than it is 
for whites, because, as already noted (p. 22) the 
death rate from this cause is distinctly lower for 
Negroes than for whites. The much smaller dispro- 
portion between the percentages for the two races in 
the case of meningitis than in the case of the other 
important causes makes it apparent that there is 
much less difference in the degree to which whites 



and Negroes, respectively, are susceptible to this 
disease; and in fact, as already pointed out, mortality 
statistics tend to show that the death rate from 
meningitis is higher for Negroes than for whites. The 
diseases generally recognized as the leading causes 
of adventitious deaf-mutism, namely, scarlet fever, 
measles, diphtheria, meningitis (including brain fever), 
and typhoid fever, taken together, were returned as 
cause for only 14.2 per cent, or one-seventh, of the 
Negroes for whom schedules were received, as com- 
pared with 31 per cent, or nearly one-third, for the 
native whites, 'and 34.5 per cent, or more than one- 
third, for the foreign-born whites. After making all 
allowances for differences in the accuracy of the 
retxims and also for possible differences in the tendency 
to congenital deafness, it stiU seems probable that 
these percentages to some extent reflect actual con- 
ditions, and that the higher proportion congenitally 
deaf among the Negroes is due more to a relatively low 
incidence of adventitious deafness than to a high 
iacidence of congenital deafness. 



Table 67 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 




All Classes. 


White. 


Colored. 


EEPOKTED CAUSE OF DEATNESS. 


Total. 


Native. 


Foreign-bom. 


Total. 


Negro. 






Number. 


Percent 
distri- 
bution. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distri- 
bution. 


Number. 


Percent 
distri- 
bution. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per cent 
distri- 
bution. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per cent 
distri- 
bution. 


Num- 
ber. 


Percent 

distri- 
bution. 


col- 
ored.! 




19,153 


100.0 


18,016 


100.0 


16,178 


100.0 


1,838 


100.0 


1,137 


100.0 


1,069 


100.0 


68 






Causes aflecting the external ear 


64 
4.507 


0.3 
23.5 


58 
4,375 


0.3 
24.3 


49 
3,967 


0.3 
24.5 


9 

408 


0.5 
22.2 


6 

132 


0.5 
11.6 


5 

122 


0.5 
11.4 


1 




10 






Causes producing suppurative condition. 


3,708 
2,005 
525 
166 
102 
349 
237 

324 

789 
301 
186 
156 

146 
10 

3,666 


19.4 
10.5 
2.7 
0.9 
0.5 
1.8 
1.2 

1.7 

4.1 
1.6 
1.0 
0.8 

0.8 
0.1 

19.1 


3,613 
1,971 
508 
164 
96 
332 
230 

312 

752 
290 
179 
149 

134 
10 

3,526 


20.1 
10.9 
2.8 
0.9 
0.5 
1.8 
1.3 

1.7 

4.2 
1.6 
1.0 
0.8 

0.7 
0.1 

19.6 


3,238 
1,692 
462 
148 
95 
330 
221 

290 

720 
276 
177 
137 

130 
9 

3,188 


20.0 
10.5 
2.9 
0.9 
0.6 
2.0 
1.4 

1.8 

4.5 
1.7 
1.1 
0.8 

0.8 
0.1 

19.7 


375 

279 

46 

16 

1 

2 

9 

22 

32 
14 
2 
12 

4 

1 

338 


20.4 
15.2 
2.5 
0.9 
0.1 
0.1 
0.6 

1.2 

1.7 
0.8 
0.1 
0.7 

0.2 
0.1 

18.4 


95 
34 
17 
2 
6 
17 
7 

12 

37 

11 

7 

7 

12 


8.4 
3.0 
1.6 
0.2 
0.5 
1.5 
0.6 

1.1 

3.3 
1.0 
0.6 
0.6 

1.1 


88 
31 
15 
2 
5 
17 
6 

12 

34 

10 

7 

7 

10 


8.2 
2.9 
1.4 
0.2 
0.5 
1.6 
0.6 

1.1 

3.2 
0.9 
0.7 
0.7 

0.9 


7 
3 


Measles 


2 


Diphtheria 




Pneumonia 


1 






Disease of the ear 


1 


Another causes producing suppura- 




Causes not producing suppurative con- 
dition 


3 


Whooping cough 


1 


Catarrh 




Colds 




All other causes not producing sup- 
purative condition 


2 


All other causes affecting the middle ear. 
Causes affecting the internal ear 




140 


12.3 


135 


12.6 


5 






Causes affecting the labyrinth 


226 
128 
85 

13 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

384 

174 

102 

41 

55 
9,869 


1.2 
0.7 
0.4 

0.1 

17.7 
9.5 
4.8 
2.0 
0.9 

0.5 

0.2 

0.3 
51.5 


200 
109 
82 

9 

3,286 

1,731 

916 

367 

173 

99 

40 

53 
9,085 


1.1 
0.6 
0.6 

(«) 

18.2 
9.6 
5.1 
2.0 
1.0 

0.6 

0.2 

0.3 

50.4 


187 

105 

73 

9 

2,966 

1,659 

783 

278 

160 

86 

35 

49 
8,123 


1.2 
0.6 
0.6 

0.1 

18.3 

10.3 

4.8 

1.7 

1.0 

0.5 

0.2 

0.3 
50.2 


13 
4 
9 


0.7 
0.2 
0.6 


26 
19 
3 

4 

113 

81 

11 

17 

1 

3 

1 

2 

784 


2.3 
1.7 
0.3 

0.4 

9.9 
7.1 
1.0 
1.5 
0.1 

0.3 

0.1 

0.2 
69.0 


26 
19 
3 

4 

108 

81 

8 

15 

1 

3 

1 

2 
736 


2.4 
1.8 
0.3 

0.4 

10.1 
7.6 
0.7 
1.4 
0.1 

0.3 

0.1 

0.2 
68.8 












All o^er causes affecting the laby- 
rinth 




Causes affecting the auditory nerve 

Meningitis 


320 
72 

133 
89 
13 

13 

6 

4 
962 


17.4 
3.9 
7.2 
4.8 
0.7 

0.7 

0.3 

0.2 
52.3 


5 


Brain mver 


3 


Typhoid fever 


a 


Convulsions 




All other causes affecting the audi- 
tory nerve 




All other causes affecting the internal 
ear 




Combination of different classes of causes 

TTnclftssififlble causes 


48 






Congenital 


7,533 

587 

57 

1,692 

992 


39.3 
3.1 
0.3 
8.8 

6.2 


6,901 

558 

54 

1,672 

919 


38.3 
3.1 
0.3 

8.7 

6.1 


6,314 

439 

46 

1,324 

802 


39.0 
2.7 
0.3 
8.2 

5.0 


687 

119 

8 

248 

117 


31.9 
6.6 
0.4 

13.5 

6.4 


632 

29 

3 

120 

73 


55.6 
2.6 
0.3 

10.6 

6.4 


696 

28 

3 

109 

69 


65.8 
2.6 
0.3 

laz 

6.5 


36 




1 


Accident 






11 




4 











1 For cent distribution of " Other colored" not shown, as base Is less than 100. 



> Less than one-tenth of 1 per cant. 



62 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



In order to bring out somewhat more cleaxly tlie 
differences in the relative importance of the various 
affections producing adventitious deafness for the 
respective race and nativity classes, Table 68 is pre- 
sented, showing the per cent distribution by cause of 
deafness of those in each class who reported their 
deafness as acquired. 



Table 68 



BEPOBTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



PEE CENT DISTEIBUTION OF DEAF AND DUMB 
POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHED- 
ULES WERE EETURNED WHOSE DEAFNESS 

WAS acquired: MIO.^ 



AU 

classes. 



All causes. 



Causes affecting the external ear. 
Causes affecting the middle ear. . . 



Causes, producing suppurative con- 
dition 

Scarlet fever 



Diphtheria 

Pneumonia 

Abscess in the head. 

Disease of the ear. .. 

All other causes 

Durativc condition. 



Causes not producing suppurative 
condition 

Whooping cough 

Catarm 

Colds 

AU other causes not producing 
suppurative condition 



All other causes affecting the mid- 
dle ear 



Causes affecting the internal ear 

Causes affecting the labyrinth 

Ualarial fever and quinine 

Uumps 

All other causes affecting the 
labyrinth 



Causes affecting the auditory nerve. 

Meningitis 

Biainiever 

Typhoid fever 

Convulsions 

AU other causes affecting the 
auditory nerve 



All other causes affecting the in- 
ternal ear 



Combination of different classes of 



Unclassifiable causes. 



Falls and blows 

Accident 

All other unclassifiable cailses. 

Cause unknown or not reported. . 



100.0 



0.6 
38.8 



31.9. 

17.3 
4.5 
1.4 
0.9 
3.0 
2.0 

2.8 



6.8 
2.6 
1.6 
1.3 

1.3 



0.1 
31.6 



1.9 
1.1 
0.7 

0.1 

29.3 

15.6 

8.0 

3.3 

1.6 

0.9 



0.4 

0.5 
20.1 



5.1 
0.5 
14.6 

8.5 



White. 



Total. 



100.0 



0.5 
39.4 



32.5 
17.7 
4.6 
1.5 
0.9 
3.0 
2.1 

2.8 



6.8 
2.6 
1.6 
1.3 

1.2 



0.1 
31.7 



1.8 
1.0 
0.7 

0.1 

29.6 

15.6 

8.2 

3.3 

1.6 

0.9 



0.4 

0.6 
19.6 



5.0 
0.5 
14.1 

8.3 



Na- 
tive. 



100.0 



For- 
eign- 
bom. 



100.0 



0.5 
40.2' 



32.8 
17.2 
4.7 
1.5 
1.0 
3.3 
2.2 

2.9 



7.3 
2.8 
1.8 
1.4 

1.3 



0.1 
32.3 



1.9 
1.1 
0.7 

0.1 

30.1 

16.8 

7.9 

2.8 

1.6 

0.9 



0.4 

0.5 
18.3 



4.5 
0.5 
13.4 

8.1 



0.7 
32.6 



30.0 
22.3 
3.7 
1.3 
0.1 
0.2 
0.7 

1.8 



2.6 
1.1 
0.2 
1.0 

B.3 



0.1 
27.0 



1.0 
0.3 
0.7 



25.6 
5.8 

10.6 
7.1 
1.0 

1.0 



0.4 

0.3 
30.0 



9.5 
0.6 
19.8 

9.4 



Colored.' 



Total. 



100.0 



1.2 
26.1 



18.8 
6.7 
3.4 

e.4 

1.2 
3.4 
1.4 

2.4 



7.3 
2.2 
1.4 
1.4 

2.4 



27.7 



5.1 
3.8 
0.6 

0.8 

22.4 

16.0 

2.2 

3.4 

0.2 

0.6 



0.2 

0.4 
30.1 



5.7 
0.6 
23.8 

14.6 



Ne- 
gro. 



100.0 



1.1 

25.8 



18.6 
6.6 
3.2 
0.4 
1.1 
3.6 
1.3 

2.5 



7.2 
2.1 
1.5 
1.5 

2.1 



28.5 



5.5 
4.0 
0.6 

0.8 

22.8 

17.1 

1.7 

3.2 

0.2 

0.6 



0.2 

0.4 
29.6 



5.9 
0.6 
23.0 

14.6 



> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
' Per cent (liiS),ribution of "Other colored" not shown, as base is less than 



100. 



Meningitis (including brain fever) was reported as 
cause of deafness by one-fourth (24.8 per cent) of the 
native whites whose deafness was acquired, as com- 
pared with corresponding percentages of 16.4, or one- 
sixth, and 18.8, or somewhat less than one-fifth, for 
the foreign-bom whites and Negroes, respectively. 
Scarlet fever was reported as cause by 17.2 per cent, 
or slightly more than one-sixth, of the native white 
deaf-mutes whose deafness was acquired, as compared 
with 22.3 per cent, or more than one-fifth, of the 
foreign-bom whites, and 6.6 per cent, or only one- 



sixteenth, in the case of the Negroes. About one-tenth 
(9.5 per cent) of the foreign-bom whites assigned falls 
or blows as the cause of their deafness, the correspond- 
ing percentage for native whites being only 4.5 and 
that for Negroes 5.9. The percentage reporting 
typhoid fever was 7.1 for the foreign-bom whites, as 
compared with 2.8 and 3.2, respectively, for the native 
whites and the Negroes; the percentage reporting 
measles was 4.7 for the native whites, 3.7 for the 
foreign-bom whites, and 3.2 for the Negroes. 

General Table 15 (p. 134) shows the distribution 
according to reported cause of deafness of the deaf 
and dumb population for whom special schedules were 
returned, classified according to age when hearing was 
lost. Table 69 (p. 64) gives a similar distribution in 
more condensed form for those whose deafness was 
acquired, with percentages. 

So far as can be determined from the figures in Table 
69, meningitis (including brain fever) appears to be 
of approximately the same importance as a cause of 
deafness during the first and second quinquennia of 
hfe, being reported by 29.4 per cent, or considerably 
more than one-fourth, of those who lost their hearing 
between the ages of 5 and 9, and sHghtly less than one- 
fourth (24.2 per cent) of those who became deaf before 
the completion of their fifth year; only 8.6 per cent, or 
about one-twelfth, of those who lost their hearing later 
than the first decade of hfe, however, assigned this dis- 
ease as a cause of deafness. Scarlet fever was most 
frequently reported by those who lost their hearing 
during the second quinquennium of life, one-fourth 
(24.8 per cent) of whom returned this as cause, as 
compared with 16.8 per cent, or one-sixth, of those 
who had lost it during the first quinquennium, and 15 
per cent, or somewhat less than one-sixth, of those who 
had lost it after reaching the age of 10. The propor- 
tion credited to typhoid fever was also higher for those 
losing their hearing in the later age periods than in the 
earlier, only 3 per cent of those who lost their hearing 
before reaching the age of 5 attributing their deafness 
to this cause, as compared with 6.1 per cent of those 
who lost it between the ages of 5 and 9, and 6.4 per 
cent of those losing it after reaching the age of 10. 
Falls and blows, on the other hand, were returned with 
greater relative frequency by those who lost their hear- 
ing during the first five years of life than by those who 
lost it during the second quinquennium or after the com- 
pletion of the first decade, the percentages being 5.5, 
3.8, and 5, respectively. The differences noted are 
doubtless explained to a certain extent by differences 
in the percentage of cases where the cause of deafness 
was unknown or not reported, or was indefinitely or 
inaccurately returned, cases where no cause whatever 
was returned or where an unclassifiable cause other 
than external injury was reported representing more 
than two-fifths (42.1 per cent) of those where hearing 
was lost after reaching the age of 10, as compared with 
20.3 per cent and 16.9 per cent of those where it was 



CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



63 



lost respectively in the first and second quinquennia; 
differences in the extent to which the less satisfactory 
of the classified causes, such as "disease of the ear," 
are returned by those who lost their hearing at the 
respective ages may also be a factor. It seems prob- 
able, however, that the figures indicate in a general 
way the actual differences ia the importance of the 
leading causes of deaf-mutism at the different ages. 

Of those who reported their hearing as lost dining 
their first year of life, more than one-fifth (22.4 per 
cent) gave meningitis or brain fever as the cause of 
deafness, a proportion more than twice as great as that 
for scarlet fever (9.7), the cause ranking second. Ab- 
scess in the head ranked third, being reported by 6.5 
per cent of the total; in most of these cases, of course, 
the actual cause was probably one of the contagious or 
infectious diseases. Falls and blows ranked fourth 
among the causes as reported, and measles fifth, the 
percentages being 5.4 and 5, respectively. For the 
second year of life meningitis (including brain fever) 
again ranked first, being named as cause by about one- 
fifth (20.3 per cent) of those whose hearing was lost at 
1 year of age. The proportion reporting scarlet fever as 
cause was somewhat higher for those who lost their 
hearing during this year of life (12.5 per cent, or about 
one-eighth) than for those who lost it in the first. 
FaUs and blows ranked third, being reported by 6.3 per 
cent of the total, and measles fourth, being reported by 
5.7 per cent. 

Nearly one-fourth (24.3 per cent) of those who lost 
their hearing in the third year of life assigned meningi- 
tis or brain fever as the cause of deafness, and nearly 
one-fiifth (18.9 per cent) scarlet fever; falls and blows 
again ranked third and measles fourth, with percent- 
ages of 5.7 and 5.1, respectively. Of those who lost 
their hearing during the fourth year, more than one- 
fourth (27 per cent) assigned meningitis or brain fever 
as cause and more than one-fifth (22.8 per cent) scarlet 
fever, these causes being reported by practically one- 
half (49.9 per cent) of the total. Falls and blows con- 
tinue to rank third, with 5.5 per cent, followed by 
measles and typhoid fever, with 4.4 per cent of the 
total in each case. Of those whose hearing was lost 
during their fifth year, nearly three-fifths (58.2 per 



cent) reported either meningitis (including brain fever) 
or scarlet fever as cause, the proportions being 33.7 per 
cent, or one-third, in the first instance, and 24.5 per cent, 
or about one-fourth, in the second. Typhoid fever 
ranked next among the causes as reported and measles 
fourth, the percentages for these causes being only 3.8 
and 3.3, respectively. 

During the second quinquenniimi of life the impor- 
tance of scarlet fever as a cause of deafness shows a 
general tendency to increase, practically one-foxuth 
(24.5 per cent) of those who lost their hearing at 
the age of 5 reporting this as the cause, as com- 
pared with about three-tenths (29 per cent) of those 
who lost it at the age of 8 or 9. In the last two 
years of the period, in fact, scarlet fever out- 
ranks all other causes in importance. Dm-ing the 
first three years of the period meningitis (includ- 
ing brain fever) maintains about the same relative 
importance as in the closing years of the preceding 
quinquenniiun, being assigned as cause by 28.7, 32.6, 
and 31.3 per cent, respectively, of those who lost 
their hearing at the ages of 5, 6, and 7, but by only 15 
per cent of those who lost it in the last two years of the 
period taken together. Of those who lost their hearing 
during the sixth and seventh years of life more than one- 
half (53.2 per cent and 55.1 per cent, respectively), and 
of those losing it in the eighth year nearly three-fifths 
(58.6 per cent) gave one or the other of these diseases 
as the cause of their deafness. Typhoid fever ranks 
third for the first three years of this quinquenniimi, the 
percentages reporting this cause ranging from 5.1 in 
the case of those who lost their hearing at the age of 6 
to 8.5 in the case of those who lost it at the age of 7; 
for the last two years of the period taken together 
the number reporting measles and typhoid fever was 
the same. 

Scarlet fever was reported more frequently than any 
other cause by the small number of deaf-mutes who 
lost their hearing after reaching the age of 10, the pro- 
portion returning this cause, as already stated, being 
15 per cent, or slightly more than one-seventh. 
Meningitis (including brain fever) ranked second. 
No other cause was reported by as many as 10 
persons. 



64 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 69 



BBFOSTED CAUSE OF DSArNSSS. 



DKAI AND DUMB POPXJLATION FOE WHOM SPECTAL SCHEDULES WERE RETBBNED WHOSE DEAFNESS WAS ACQUIBED: 1»1«.« 



Total. 



At less than 5 years of age. 



Total. 



than 1 
year. 



1 year. 



2yeais. 



3 years. 



4 years. 



Infancy 
(exact 
age not 

re- 
ported). 



At 5 to 9 years of age. 



Total. 



5 years. 



6 years, 



7 years. 



8 and 9 

years. 



At 10 



Of ag8 

or 

over. 



All causes. 



Causes affecting the external ear . 
Causes affecting the middle ear. . 



Causes producing suppurative condition . . 
Scarlet fever 



Diphtheria 

Pneumonia. 

Abscess in the head 

Disease of the ear 

All other causes producing suppura- 
tive condition 



Causes not producing suppurative condi- 
tion. 



Whooping cough 

Cataru 

Colds 

All other causes not producing suppu- 
rative condition 



All other causes affecting the middle ear. . . 

Causes affecting the internal ear 

Causes affecting the labyrinth 

Malarial fever and quinine 

Mumps 

All ouier causes affecting the labyrinth. 

Causes affecting the auditory nerve 

Meningitis 

.Brain fever 

Typhoid fever 

Convulsions 

AH other causes affecting the auditory 
nerve 

All other causes affecting the internal ear. . . 

Combination of different classes of causes 

Unclassiflable causes 



Falls and blows 

Accident 

All other unclasslfiable causes. . 

Cause unknown or not reported . . . 



All causes. 



Causes affecting the external ear. 
Causes affecting the middle ear. . 



Causes producing suppurative condition . . . 

Scarlet (ever 

Measles 

Diphtheria 

Pneumonia. 

Abscess in the head 

Disease of the ear 

All other causes producing suppu- 
rative condition 



Causes not producing suppurative condi- 
tion 

Whooping cough 

Catarrh. 

Colds 

All other causes not producing suppu- 
rative condition 



All other causes affecting the middle ear. . . 

Causes affecting the internal ear 

Causes affecting the labyrinth 

Malarial fever and quinine 

Humps 

All other causes affecting the labyrinth. 

Causes affecting the auditory nerve 

Meningitis 

Brain fever 

Typhoid fever 

Convulsions 

All other causes affecting the auditory 
nerve ^ 

All other causes affecting the internal ear. . 

Combination of different classes of causes 

Unclasslfiable causes 



Falls and blows 

Accident 

All other unclasslfiable causes.. 



Cause unknown or not reported. . 



11,620 



64 
4,507 



3,708 
2,005 
525 
166 
102 
349 
237 

324 

789 
301 
186 
156 

146 

10 

3,666 



226 

128 

85 

13 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

384 

174 

102 

41 

55 

2,336 



587 

57 

1,692 

992 



100.0 



0.6 

38.8 



31.9 
17.3 
4.5 
1.4 
0.9 
3.0 
2.0 

2.8 

6.8 
2.6 
1.6 
1.3 

1.3 

0.1 

31.5 



1.9 
1.1 
0.7 
0.1 

29.3 

15.6 

8.0 

3.3 

1.5 

0.9 

a4 

0.6 
20.1 



5.1 
0.5 
14.6 

8.S 



NUMBER. 



9,254 



54 
3,773 



3,069 
1,558 
454 
142 
98 
323 
215 

279 



277 
158 
140 

121 

8 

2,955 



173 

107 

57 

9 

2,746 

1,454 

784 

273 

161 

74 

36 

45 

1,938 



506 

45 

1,387 

489 



1,628 



12 

667 



519 
158 
81 
19 
30 
106 
67 

58 

145 
76 
22 
28 

19 
3 

488 



31 

17 

10 

4 

445 

223 

141 

18 

44 

19 
12 
5 



88 

8 

273 

87 



2,375 



14 

932 



766 

298 

136 

43 

22 

102 

67 

98 

215 
81 
58 
34 

42 
1 

681 



43 

31 

11 

I 

629 

301 

183 

69 

5S 

21 

9 

14 

571 



150 
12 

409 

113 



2,606 1,572 



13 



879 
492 
132 
37 
26 
70 
51 

71 

208 
79 
44 

44 

41 

2 

818 



46 

32 

11 

3 

768 

411 

221 

79 

39 

18 

4 

13 

518 



148 

13 

357 

155 



8 
618 



540 
359 
69 
24 
11 
32 
16 

29 

77 
26 
24 
15 

12 
1 

558 



517 

282 

143 

69 

11 

12 

8 

9 

310 



86 

7 

217 



959 



329 

235 

32 

19 

6 

8 

8 

21 

39 

11 

7 

14 

7 

1 

391 



369 

229 

94 



3 

3 

3 

150 



28 
5 

117 

42 



114 



19 



1,594 



9 
600 



545 

395 

59 

io 

3 
18 
13 

37 

53 

15 

12 

9 

17 
2 

639 



40 

14 

25 

1 

596 

339 

130 

97 

5 

25 

3 

9 

270 



60 

7 

203 

67 



714 



5 

274 



253 

175 

30 

11 

2 

9 

9 

17 



283 



264 

153 

52 

41 

4 

14 



4 
115 



454 



2 
160 



142 
102 
12 
5 
1 
5 
3 

14 

17 
8 
4 
2 

3 
1 

187 



179 

108 

40 



7 

1 

3 

.85 



319 



2 

120 



109 

87 

11 

3 



10 
1 
2 
2 

5 

1 

143 



10 
4 
5 
1 

131 
67 
33 
27 



107 



46 



29 



PEE CENT DISTRIBUTION. 



100.0 



0.6 
40.8 



33.2 
16.8 
4.9 
1.5 
1.1 
3.5 
2.3 

3.0 

7.5 
3.0 
1.7 
1.5 

1.3 

0.1 

31.9 



1.9 
1.2 

ao 

0.1 

29.7 

15.7 

8.5 

3.0 

1.7 

a8 

0.4 

as 

20.9 



0.5 
15.0 

5.3 



loao 



a7 

41.0 



31.9 
9.7 
6.0 
1.2 
1.8 
6.5 
4.1 

3.6 

8.9 
4.7 
1.4 
1.7 

1.2 

0.2 

30.0 



1.9 
1.0 

ao 
a2 

27.3 

13.7 

8.7 

1.1 

2.7 

1.2 

a? 
as 

22.7 



5.4 

as 

16.8 
S.3 



100.0 



ae 

41.3 



32.3 

12.5 

5.7 

1.8 

a9 

4.3 
2.8 

4.1 

9.1 
3.4 
2.4 
1.4 

1.8 
(•) 



1.8 
1.3 

as 

(•) 

26.6 

12.7 

7.7 

2.9 

2.4 

a9 
a4 
as 

24.0 



6.3 

as 

17.3 
4.8 



100.0 



as 

41.8 



33.7 
18.9 
5.1 
1.4 
1.0 
2.7 
2.0 

2.7 

8.0 
3.0 
1.7 
1.7 

1.6 

ai 

31.4 



1.8 
1.2 

a 4 
ai 

29. S 

IS. 8 

8.6 

3.0 

1.6 

a? 
as 
as 

19.9 



5.7 

as 

13.7 
6.9 



100.0 



as 

39.3 



34.4 

22.8 

4.4 

1.S 

a 7 

2.0 
1.0 

1.8 

4.9 
1.7 
1.5 
1.0 

as 
ai 

35. S 



2.1 
1.2 

a 9 



3Z9 

17.9 

9.1 

4.4 

a 7 

a8 
as 
ae 

19.7 



6.6 

a4 

13.8 
4.4 



100.0 



a 4 

38.5 



34.3 

24.5 

3.3 

2.0 

as 
a 8 
a 8 

2.2 

4.1 
1.1 

a 7 

1.6 

a7 
ai 

4a 8 



2.0 

a 8 
1.1 



38.5 

23.9 

9.8 

3.8 

a7 

as 
as 
as 

15.6 



2.9 

as 

U2 
4.4 



100.0 



2.6 
42.1 



31.6 
14.0 
S.S 



2.6 
4.4 

5.3 

1.8 

las 

3.S 
2.6 
4.4 



16.7 



a 9 



a9 

15.8 
7.0 
2.6 
1.8 
3.S 

a 9 



a9 

17.6 



6.3 



US 

2aa 



loao 



a 6 

37.6 



34.2 

24.8 

3.7 

1.3 

a2 

1.1 

as 

2.3 
3.3 

a9 
as 
ae 

1.1 
ai 
4a 1 



2.5 

a9 

1.6 

ai 

37.4 

21.3 

8.2 

6.1 

as 

1.6 

a2 
ae 

16.9 



3.8 

a4 

12.7 
4.2 



100.0 



0.7 
38.4 



35.4 

24.5 

4.2 

l.S 

as 

1.3 
1.3 

2.4 
2.9 

as 
a 6 
a 4 

1.1 



39.6 



2.7 
1.0 
1.7 



37.0 

21.4 

7.3 

6.7 

ae 

2.0 



ae 

16.1 



3.9 

ae 
11. e 

4.6 



100.0 



a4 

35. 2 



31. 3 

22.6 

2.6 

1.1 

a2 

1.1 

a 7 

3.1 

S.7 
1.8 

a 9 
a4 

a7 
a2 

41.2 



1.5 

e.4 
1.1 



39.4 

23.8 

8.8 

5.1 

a2 

l.S 

a 2 
a7 

18.7 



4.0 

a2 

14.6 
3.7 



loao 



a 6 

37.6 



34.2 

27.3 

3.4 

a9 



a 6 
as 

1.6 
3.1 

as 
a 6 
ae 

1.6 

as 

44.8 



3.1 
1.3 
1.6 

as 

41.1 
21.0 

las 

8.S 



1.3 

ae 
ae 

12.9 



3.4 

as 

9.1 
3.4 



100.0 



43.0 



38.3 

29.0 

5.6 

a9 



1.9 

a 9 

4.7 



1.9 
1.9 



a 9 



24. S 



3.7 

as 

2.8 



20.6 

las 

4.7 
6.6 



27.1 



2.8 

a9 

33.4 

6.6 



140 



1 

35 



28 

21 

3 

1 



34 



2 

27 
5 
7 
9 
3 

3 
1 
1 

_49 

7 

3 

39 

20 



loao 



a7 

25.0 



20.0 

1S.0 

2.1 

a 7 



a 7 

1.4 
5.0 

a 7 

2.1 

a 7 

1.4 



24.3 



4.3 
2.9 



1.4 

19.3 
3.6 
S.0 
e.4 
3.1 

2.1 

a 7 
a 7 

35.0 



6.0 

3.1 

37.9 

14.3 



> Includes those for whom th9 age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



> Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



HEREDITY AND DEAFNESS. 



65 



HEREDITY AND DEAFNESS. 

The question of the extent to which deafness occurs 
among different members of the same family is one 
that has received more or less attention, particularly 
in recent years, when special investigations are being 
made as to the transmissibility of physical and mental 
defects from one generation to another. In order to 
throw light on this question, the special schedules 
employed at the enumeration of the deaf and dumb in 
1910 and the enimieration of the deaf in 1890 and 
1900 requested information regarding deafness among 
relatives. The inquiries on this subject inserted on 
the schedule for 1910 asked whether either parent of 
the deaf and dumb person was also deaf, and also 
whether any of his brothers or sisters or children, if he 
had any, were deaf, and if so, their nimiber. As 
statistics tend to show that defects are especially 
likely to occur among the children of parents who are 
related to each other, an inquiry was also included ask- 
ing whether or not the parents of the deaf and dumb 
person were first cousins. The data obtained by 
means of these several inquiries are summarized in 
General Table 16 (p. 135), in which the deaf and dumb 
population returning the schedules is classified in 
detail according to the answers made to the respective 
questions. 

In considering the statistics presented in General 
Table 16, and also in other tables dealing with the 
subject of deafness among relatives, it must be kept 
in mind that they possess certain distinct limitations^' 
In particular, it must be remembered that they indicate 
merely the number of deaf and dumb individuals re- 
porting themselves as' having deaf parents, brothers or 
sisters, or children, and not the number of famiUes 
having more than one deaf member; in other words, 
the figures probably give an exaggerated impression of 
the actual extent, relatively, to which deafness occurs 
in two or more individuals in the same family, by 
reason of the fact that where such a situation exists a 
schedule may have been received from each of the 
deaf members. This situation may perhaps be made 
clearer by a specific illustration. Assume that in a 
given family, in which both the parents are deaf- 
mutes, there are three children, aU deaf-mutes. If 
schedules were received from each of these three chil- 
dren these would be tabulated as three cases in which 
a deaf-mute had both deaf parents and deaf brothers 
or sisters, although they related to but a single family. 
If in addition schedules were received from both 
parents, they woidd figure in the statistics as two 
cases where a deaf-mute had deaf children. The same 
family would thus figure in the statistics five times, so 
that it is apparent that in studying the figures relative 
to this general subject considerable allowance must be 
made for possible duplications of this kind. Of course 
in many instances where more than one member of 
the same family was deaf, there may have been no 
50171*— 18 5 



exaggeration in the statistics, since only one member 
may have figured in the returns, as the others may 
not have been deaf-mutes, or if deaf-mutes, may have 
been dead, or may not have been reported as deaf 
and dumb by the enumerator, or may have neglected 
to return the special schedule. 

The figures as to deafness among relatives obtained 
at the census of 1910 can not, of course, even after 
allowance is made for the limitation just noted, be 
taken as an indication of the extent to which deafness 
is hereditary, for the reason that certain forms of 
hereditary deafness do not ordinarily cause loss of 
hearing before middle or late middle life, and conse- 
quently would only figure in statistics of the deaf and 
dumb in the exceptional cases where they were accom- 
panied by loss of speech. It is furthermore somewhat 
imcertain how far the statistics can be taken as an 
index of the extent to which deaf-mutism is heredi- 
tary, since the inquiry as to deafness among relatives 
asked merely whether the relatives in question were 
deaf, and not whether they were deaf and dimib, and 
it is proba;ble that in a considerable number of cases 
deaf-mutes may have had deaf relatives who were 
hdt deaf-mutes. Inasmuch, however, as congenital 
deafness is largely due to hereditary causes, where a 
person suffering from congenital deal-mutism reports 
the existencie of deaf parents, brothers or sisters, or chil- 
dren there is a strong presumption that they also are 
afflicted with heireditary deaf-mutism. For this rea- 
son, when taken in conjimction with the returns as to 
age when hearing was lost and cause of deafness, the 
figures as to deafness among relatives probably indi- 
cate in a more or less general way the extent to which 
deaf-mutism is hereditary, although they can not be 
taken as an accurate measure. 

The total nimiber of deaf-mutes returning special 
schedules who reported themselves as having deaf 
parents, brothers or sisters, or children was 4,639, 
representing 24.2 per cent, or nearly one-fourth, of the 
total. Of these, 420, or about one-tenth, had deaf 
parents, the remainder reporting either deaf brothers 
or sisters or deaf children. Of those having deaf 
parents, 270, or about two-thirds, also had deaf 
brothers or sisters, and 28 had deaf children, 22 having 
both. Of the 4,219 reporting deaf brothers or sisters 
or deaf children but no deaf parents, by far the greater 
number (3,951) reported deaf brothers or sisters only, 
the number reporting deaf children only being 142 and 
the number reporting both deaf brothers or sisters 
and deaf children being 126. The total nimiber re- 
porting deaf brothers or sisters was 4,347, or more 
than nine-tenths of the total number reporting deaf 
relatives, and the total number reporting deaf children 
was 296. 

From the figures just given it is apparent that 
heredity is on the whole a minor factor in bringing 
about deaf-mutism, especially as a certain proportion 
of the cases where deaf-mutes reported deaf relatives 



66 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



represent instances where two or more members of the 
same family lost their hearing from the same con- 
tagious or infections disease. This was indeed to be 
expected, in view of the extent to which deafn^s 
resrdts from causes such as cerebrospinal fever, scarlet 
fever, and accident or other violence, where the loss 
of hearing is due to injury or infection from without. 
As a matter of fact, although the circumstance that 
deaf-mutism is to a considerable extent a hereditary 
defect is probably much more generally recognized 
than the circimistance that bUndness may result from 
hereditary influences, only 2.2 per cent of the deaf- 
mutes from whom the Bureau of the Census received 
satisfactory schedules at the census of 1910 reported 
themselves as having deaf parents, whereas 3.7 per 
cent of the blind returning schedules reported blind 
parents. This more general recognition of hereditary 
influence in the case of deaf-mutism than in that of 
blindness is probably due mainly to the fact that in a 
considerable proportion of the cases of hereditary 
bhndness vision is not lost until late in life, when the 
bhnd relatives of the previous generation are dead, 
whereas hereditary deaf-mutism is probably in most 
instances congenital. 

Of the 420 persons reporting deaf parents, 289, or 
more than two-thirds, reported that both parents were 
deaf; of the remainder, 71, or about one-sixth of the 
total number reporting deaf parents, reported their 
father only as deaf, and 60, or one-seventh, their 
mother only as deaf. These figures present a striking 
contrast to the corresponding figures for the blind, as 
out of the 1,073 blind persons reporting blind parents at 
the census of 1910, only 31, or 2.9 per cent, reported 
both parents as blind, while 478, or 44.5 per cent, 
reported their father alone as blind, and 564, or 52.6 
per cent, their mother alone. The circumstance that 
where a deaf-mute reported deaf parents at aU both 
parents were usually deaf whereas among the blind 
reporting blind parents it was the exception for both 
parents to have defective vision is probably due in 
some measure to a greater frequency of marriage be- 
tween deaf-mutes than between blind persons. Blind- 
ness, including some of the most important forms of 
hereditary bhndness, in the great majority of cases 
does not occur until adult life, so that the blind per- 
sons who have married at all have done so in the 
greater number of instances before the loss of their 
sight, and hence in most cases have married persons 
of normal vision. Deaf-mutes, on the contrary, be- 
come so early in life and in consequence of the handi- 
cap thus imposed upon them in respect to their inter- 
course with others tend more to marry those of their 
own kind (see p. 32). In view of the large propor- 
tion of deaf-mutes who lost their hearing from adven- 
titious caiises, and whose deafness is therefore not 
hereditary in character, and of the further fact that 
congenital deafness may be due to a variety of condi- 
tions, the relatively large number of cases in which 



both parents were deaf can not be taken as condxisive 
evidence of a special risk of deafness in the offspring 
where both parents are deaf, inasmuch as the parents 
may be suffering from different forms of deafness, 
although where persons stiffering from the same form 
of hereditary deafness intermarry, there is undoubtedly 
a much greater probabiUty of deaf offspring than 
where one parent only is so a£3icted. The fact that 
in the majority of instances where only one deaf parent 
was reported it was the father who was deaf is, of 
course, what would normally be expected in view of 
the general excess of males among the deaf and dumb. 
The circumstance that among the bhnd who reported 
a bhnd parent it was more often the mother who was 
bhnd is probably in part accounted for by the fact that 
glaucoma, one of the causes of blindness which appears 
in successive generations, attacks women more fre- 
quently than men, and also by the fact that women 
survive more frequently than men to the ages when 
cataract, another cause which is hereditary, most fre- 
quently occurs. 

In any consideration of the extent to which physi- 
cal defects are the result of hereditary influence, more 
or less attention is given at the present time to the 
question as to how far the persons suffering from the 
defects in question are the children of consanguineous 
marriages, since investigation has shown that there is 
a strong tendency for any defect to which there may 
be a family predisposition to appear in the offspring 
of such marriages, even if the parents themselves are 
free. In order to obtain information as to the extent 
to which the deaf and dumb are the offspring of con- 
sanguineous marriages the special schedide contained, 
as already noted, an inquiry as to whether or not the 
parents of the deaf and dumb person were first cousins. 
The results of this inquiry are siunmarized in Table 70, 
which classifies the total deaf-mute population in 1910 
returning special schedules and those reporting that 
their parents were first cousins according to whether 
or not they reported any deaf relatives. 



Table 70 


DEA» AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM 
SPEOAL SCHEDUI.es WEBE BETUBNED: 1910. 


STATUS AS TO SEAT BELATTVES. 


Total. 


With parents first 
cousins. 




Number. 


Per 
cent 
distri- 
bution. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
distri- 
bution. 


Per 

cent 

of 

total. 


Total 


19,153 


100.0 


883 


100.0 


4.6 






4,639 
14.614 


24.2 
75.8 

» 


475 
408. 


S3.8 
,':i46.2 


10 2 


Not reporting deaf relatiyes 


2.8 



Of the 19,153 persons who returned satisfactory 
schedules, 883, or 4.6 per cent, were the children of 
first cousins. This may be regarded as a relativdy 
high proportion, as it is hardly probable that in eveny 
himdred marriages even four are marriages of first 
cousins. The percentage is, moreover, much larger 



HEREDITY AND DEAFNESS. 



67 



than the corresponding percentage fbr the blind 
population returning special schedules (2.4); in fact 
the absolute ntunber of deaf-mutes reporting that their 
parents were first cousins exceeded the number of 
blind so reporting by 174, although the total nimiber 
returning schddules was 10,000 less. These facts 
indicate that the subject of consanguineous marriages 
is one of some importance for a study of deaf-mutism. 
The statistics as to the number of deaf and dimib 
persons reporting deaf parents, brothers or sisters, and 
children bring out most clearly the reason why the 
question of consanguinity in the parents is regarded 
as possessing so much interest. As already stated, 
the total number of deaf and dumb persons reporting 
deaf relatives was 4,639, representing 24.2 per cent, or 
nearly one-fourth, of the total number returning 
schedules. Of those whose parents were first cousins, 
however, 475, representing 53.8 per cent, or consider- 
ably more than one-half, reported deaf relatives; in 
other words, persons with deaf parents, brothers or 
sisters, or children were more than twice as numerous 
relativdy among those whose parents were first 
cousins as among those whose parents were not thus 
related. To make the comparison in another way, 
while persons whose parents were first cousins formed 
only 4.6 per cent of the total deaf and dumb popu- 
lation returmng schedules, they formed 10.2 per cent 
of those reporting deaf relatives. The following table 
simxmaiizes the facts concerning the deaf and dumb 
persons whose parents were first cousins and who 
reported deaf relatives, and shows for comparison the 
statistics for all deaf and dumb persons reporting such 
relatives. 



Table 71 


DEAF AND DUMB POFUIATION FOB 
WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 
BETUBNED BEFOBTINO DEAF BEL- 

ATTVES: mo. 


STATUS AS TO DEAT BELATIVES BEFORTED. 


Total. 


With parents first 
cousins. 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 


Per 
cent 

of 
total. 


Total reoortinz deaf relatives 


4,639 


100.0 


475 


10».0 


10.2 






RfiDortinfiT one or both Darents deaf 


420 


9.1 


11 


2.3 


2.6 








144 
276 

22 

6 

248 

4,219 


3.1 
S.9 

0.6 
0.1 
S.3 

90.9 


2 
9 


0.4 
1.9 


1.4 




3.3 


R^mtSag both deaf children and deaf 
brothflTS or sisters 






1 

8 

464 


0.2 
1.7 

97.7 


'I2 
11.0 


Reporting deaf brothers or sisters only — 
Not rADortiiuF a deaf narent 






Reporting both deaf children and deaf 
Mothers or sisters 


126 

142 

3,9S1 


2.7 

3.1 

85.2 


8 

4 

452 


1.7 
0.8 
95.2 


6.3 


RflDortinff deaf children onlv 


2.8 


R^HJTtlng deaf brothers or sisters 011I7 


11.4 



1 Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 

Most of the deaf-mutes whose parents were first 
cousins and who also reported deaf relatives reported 
deaf brothers or sisters, only 3 of them having deaf par- 
ents and only 5 of them deaf children without having 
deaf brothers or sisters. This was perhaps to have been 



expected, since the importance of consanguineous mar- 
riages in any study of heredity lies in the fact already 
mentioned that any latent tendency toward a physical 
or mental defect is especially likely to make itself ap- 
parent in the offspring when both of the parents possess 
this tendency, so that the children of such marriages 
win frequently be defective where both parents are 
normal. 

General Table 17 (p. 143) classifies the total and the 
male and female deaf and dumb population in each race 
and nativity class who returned schedules according to 
their status as to relationship and hearing of parents. 
Table 72 shows the distribution by race and nativity 
of the total number reporting as to the hearing of their 
parents, classified according to the status of their par- 
ents as to hearing, and also gives the percentage report- 
ing one or both parents as deaf among the total num- 
ber in each race and nativity class who reported as to 
the hearing of their parents. 



Table 72 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WEBE BETUBNED BEPOBTINO AS TO 
HEABINO OF PABENTS: I»10. 


BACB AND NATTVlTT. 


Total. 


BeportlTig one or both parents 
as deaf. 


Report- 
ing 
neiSer 
parent 
as deaf. 




Number. 


Percent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Percent 
of total. 


All Classes 


18,833 


420 


100.0 


2.2 


18,413 




White. ; 


17,745 


406 


96.7 


2.3 


17,339 






Native 


15,963 
1,782 

1,088 


392 
14 

14 


93.3 
3.3 

3.3 


2.5 
0.8 

1.3 


15,571 


Foreign-bom 


1,768 
1,074 






Negro -... 


1,024 
64 


13 

1 


3.1 
0.2 


1.3 


1,011 




63 







> Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 

The proportion which persons whose parents were 
also deaf formed of the total number reporting was 
much higher (2.5 per cent) for the native whites than 
for any other race and nativity class for which the per- 
centage is given in the table. For the Negroes the 
percentage was only 1.3, while for the foreign-bom 
whites it was only 0.8. The low percentage for the 
foreign-bom whites is probably accoxmted for by the 
fact that comparatively few deaf-mutes emigrate from 
the country in which they live, so that the majority of 
the foreign-bom white deaf-mutes in the United States 
are persons who were brought into the country by their 
parents as children and who subsequently lost their 
hearing. The low proportion for the Negroes is prob- 
ably explained by the fact that Negro deaf-mutes 
appear to marry less frequently than white deaf-mutes 
(see Table 30, p. 34). 

Table 73, on the next page, gives the distribution by 
race and nativity of the deaf and dumb who reported 
as to the relationship of their parents, with the per- 
centage which those whose parents were first cousins 
represented of the total shown for each race and 
nativity class. 



68 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 73 


DEAF AND DUMB POPTnATION FOR WHOM SFECUL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED REPOBTINO AS TO 
RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS: 1»10. 


BACK AND NATIVITY. 


Total. 


Parents first cousins. 


Parents 
not first 
cousins. 




Number. 


Percent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Per cent 
of total. 




18,301 


883 


100.0 


4.8 


17,418 






White 


17,268 


851 


96.4 


4.9 


16,417 






Native 


15,563 
1,705 

1,033 


776 
75 

32 


87.9 
8.5 

3.6 


5.0 

4.4 

3.1 


14,787 


Foreign-bom 


1,630 


Colored 


1,001 








972 
61 


30 
2 


3.4 
0.2 


3.1 


942 


OtEer colored 


59 







> Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 

The proportion of deaf and dumb persons whose 
parents were first cousins was higher for the native 
whites (5 per cent) than for any other class for which 
the percentage is given in the table. For4he foreign- 
bom whites the percentage was 4.4, while for the 
Negroes it was 3.1. These variations are somewhat 
difficult to explain; the circumstance that the propor- 
tion failing to report whether or not their parents were 
first cousias was higher among the Negroes than ia 
either of the white classes suggests the possibility, 
however, that other Negroes may have replied in the 
negative through ignorance of the facts. 

General Table 18 (p. 145) shows the distribution ac- 
cording to age when hearing was lost of the deaf 
and dumb population for whom special schedules were 
received, classified according to relationship of parents 
and status of parents as to hearing. Table 74 shows 
the distribution according to age when hearing was 
lost of the deaf and dumb population for whom special 
schedules were received, classified according to whether 
or not their parents were deaf. 

Of the deaf-mutes who reported that both parents 
were deaf, 71.6 per cent, or considerably more than 
two-thirds, were oongenitally deaf, and of those who 
reported one. parent only as deaf, 61.1 per cent, or 
three-fifths; of those who reported neither parent as 
deaf, on the other hand, only 38.7 per cent, or con- 
siderably less than two-fifths, were congenitally deaf. 
The proportion of congenital cases was practically the 
same for those reporting their father only as deaf as 
for those who reported their mother only as deaf. 
It is, of course, not surprising that the percentage of 
congenital cases should be somewhat higher for those 
reporting two deaf parents than for those repoiiting 
only one; that the difference is not still greater is ex- 
plained by the fact that deaf-mutes who intermarry 
are probably in a considerable number of cases suffer- 
ing from different forms of deafness, and as deafness 
from nonhereditary causes is so far as known not trans- 
missible, the probability of deaf offspring is no greater 
when a person who is deaf from hereditary causes 
marries one who is adventitiously deaf than when he 



marries a person of normal hearing. The proportion 
reporting hearing as lost in each definite age period 
after birth was in practically every instance much 
higher for those whose parents could both hear than 
for those who reported one or both parents as deaf. 



Table 74 



AGE WHEN HEARING WAS 
LOST. 



Total. 



Deafness congenital. 
Deafness acquired > . 



At age of— 

Less than 5 years 

Less than 1 year 

lyear 

2to4years 

Infancy (exact age not 

reported) 

5 to 9 years 

10 years or over 

At age not reported 



Total. 



Deafness congenital. 
Deafness acquired ' . . 



At age of— 

Less than S years 

Less than 1 year 

lyear 

2 to 4 years 

Infancy (exact age not 

reported) 

5 to 9 years 

10 years or over 

At age not reported 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: IMO. 



Total. 



Both 
par- 
ents 
re- 
port- 
ed 
as 
deaf. 



One parent only re- 
ported as deaf. 



Total 



Father 
only 
re- 
ported 

as 
deaf. 



Mother 
only re- 
ported 
as deaf. 



Neither 
parent 

re- 
ported 
as deaf. 



Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
hear- 

par- 
ents. 



NUMBER. 



19,153 



7,533 
11,620 



9,254 
1,628 
2,375 
5,137 

114 

1,594 

140 

632 



289 



207 
82 



131 



38 
11 
9 
18 



71 



60 



18,413 



7,120 
11,293 



9,115 
1,504 
2,351 
5,058 

112 

1,567 

132 

479 



320 



126 
194 



35 
5 
5 

24 

1 

12 

6 

141 



PER CENT DISTBIBUnON. 



100.0 



39.3 
60.7 



48.3 

8.5 

12.4 

26.8 

0.6 
8.3 
0.7 
3.3 



100.0 



100.0 



71.6 
28.4 



22.8 
6.2 
3.5 

12.8 

0.3 
1.7 
0.3 
3.5 



61.1 
38.9 



29.0 
8.4 
6.9 

13.7 



7.6 
0.8 
L5 



(•) 



(•) 
(•) 



(•) 



C») 
(') 



(«) 



(») 

■(■«■)■ 



100.0 



38.7 
61.3 



49.5 

8.7 

12.8 

27.5 

0.6 
8.5 
0.7 
2.6 



100.0 



39.4 
00.6 



10.9 
%i 
1.6 

0.3 

i.a 

.J«9 
44.1 



> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
* Per cent distribution not shown, as base is less than 100. 

The schedule to be filled out for deaf-mute children 
of school age in Germany, to which reference has already 
been made, included inquiries as to the presence in the 
parents of congenital deaf-mutism, acquired deaf- 
mutism, and deafness unaccompanied by mutism. 
In th^ published statistics for the period from January 
1, 1902, to February 1, 1905, however, only the figures 
for the congenitally deaf are shown, and owing to 
differences in the method of presentation, it is im- 
possible to make any detailed comparison with 
similar figures for the United States. On account 
of the interest attadiiing to this subject, however, 
Table 75 summarizes the results obtained, compara- 
tive figures for the United States being presented as 
far as practicable. 

The report of the Imperial Health Office from which 
the figures for the German Empire were taken does 
not show the ntmiber of cases in which both parents 
of the deaf-mute were deaf, so that it is impossible to 
make any comparison with the United States as to 



HEREDITY AND DEAFNESS. 



69 



the proportion of the congenitally deaf who reported 
that one or both parents were deaf. Of the congenital 
deaf-mute children of school age in Germany for whom 
statistics are presented in Table 75, however, 1.9 per 
cent reported that they had a deaf father and 2.1 
per cent that they had a deaf mother, as compared 
with corresponding percentages of 3.3 and 3.2 for the 
congenital deaf-mutes in the United States returning 
schedules at the census of 1910. The reason for the 
higher percentage for the United States is difficult 
to determine, and it is probably due to a variety 
of factors. It wiU be observed that, contrary 
to the situation among the deaf-mutes covered by 
the figures for the United States, a larger number 
of the German children of school age reported their 
mother deaf than their father. This was due to the 
larger nimiber of cases in which the mother suffered 
from congenital deaf-mutism, as the cases of acquired 
deaf-mutism and of total deafness without mutism 
were sUghtly more nmnerous where the father was 
deaf; the reason for the difference is, however, not 
apparent. In the great majority of instances where a 
congenital deaf-mute of school age in Germany was re- 
ported as having a deaf parent, the parent also was a 
congenital deaf-mute; 140, or practically five-sixths 
(82.4 per cent), of the 170 deaf parents reported suf- 
fered from this form of the defect, while only 24 were 
adventitious deaf-mutes and only 6 suffered from 
deafness in both ears not combined with mutism. 



Table 76 



8TATV8 or FABENTS AS TO BEABING. 



Total 

Reporting one or botb parents as deaf .. . 

Reportine fother as deaf 

Hepoiwig lather as suffering f rom— 

Congenital deatmutism 

Acquired deaf-mutism 

Dea&iess in botb ears 

Bcportine mother as deaf 

Bcportmg mother as suffering 
from — 

Coneenital deaf-mutism 

Acquired deaf-mutism 

Deafness in tmth ears 

Not reporting a deaf parent 



CONGENITAL DEAT- 
MUTESFORWHOU 
SPECIAL SCHED- 
ULES WERE SE- 
TUBNED IN THE 
UNITED states: 
IMO. 



Number. 



287 
2SI 



243 



7,246 



Percent 
of total. 



100.0 



3.8 
3.3 

!'i 

3.2 



86.2 



CONGENITAL DEAF- 
MUTES or SCHOOL 

ageinoebuany: 
januabt 1, 1m»- 
niNE 30, ites. 



Number. 



4,189 



0) 



(') 



Percent 
of total. 



100.0 



(') 



1.9 

1.S 
0.3 
0.1 

2.1 



(•) 



1.8 
0.3 



> Niunber not reported. 

< Not reported separately. 

> Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

An inquiry as to the existence of deaf and dimib 
relatives was also made at the census of 1911 in Ire- 
land. The results, however, present a marked con- 
trast to those just referred to, as out of 2,325 congenital 
deaf-mutes enumerated, only 1 reported a mnte 
father and only 2 a mute mother, these representing 
altogether only 0.1 per cent of the total. 

Table 76 shows for the deaf and dimib in 1910 for 
whom special schedules were returned the distribution 



according to age when hearing was lost of those whose 
parents were first cousins, in comparison with that of 
those whose parents were not first cousins. 



Table 76 



AGE WHEN HEABING WAS 
LOST. 



Total , 

Deafness congenital 

Deafness acquired > 

At age of— 

Less than 5 years 

Less than 1 year 

lyear 

2to4 years 

Infancy (exact age not 

reported) , 

5to9years 

10 years or over , 

At age not reported 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WEBE RETURNED: 1*10. 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



19,153 



7,533 
11,620 



9,254 
1,628 
2,375 
5,137 

114 

1,594 

140 

632 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion. 



100.0 



39.3 
60,7 



48.3 

8.5 

12.4 

26.8 

0.6 
8.3 
0.7 
3.3 



Num- 
ber 



Parents 

first 
cousins. 



553 
330 



27* 
56 
82 

133 

3 
31 

2 
23 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion. 



100.0 



62.6 
37.4 



31.0 
6.3 
9.3 

15.1 

0.3 
3.5 
0.2 
2.6 



Parents not 
first cousins. 



Num- 
ber. 



17,418 



6,595 
10,823 



8,785 
1,549 
2,248 
4,882 

106 

1,503 

113 

422 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion. 



Num- 
ber. 



100.0 



37.9 
62.1 



50.4 

8.9 

12.9 

28.0 

0.6 
8.6 
0.6 
2.4 



Not report- 
ing as TO re- 
lationship 
of parents. 



852 



385 
467 



195 
23 
45 

122 

5 

60 

25 

187 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion. 



100.0 



45.2 
54.8 



22.9 
2.7 
5.3 

14.3 

0.6 

7.0 

2.9 

21.9 



> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

Of the deaf-mutes who stated that their parents were 
first cousins more than three-fifths (62.6 per cent) 
reported themselves as born deaf, as compared with a 
corresponding proportion of 37.9, or less than two- 
fifths, of those whose parents were not first cousins. 
The proportion losing their hearing in each individual 
age period subsequent to birth was, on the other hand, 
distinctly lower for those whose parents were first 
cousins than for those whose parents were not thus 
related. These differences are of course explained by 
the circumstance that the special risk involved in 
consanguineous marriages arises from the fact that any 
latent tendency toward a hereditary defect is much 
more likely to become evident in the offspring of a 
marriage when both parents possess this latent tend- 
ency than when only one possesses it. As such defects 
to a considerable extent either are congenital or mani- 
fest themselves early in life, it was to be expected that 
the deaf-mute children of first cousins would comprise 
a relatively high proportion of persons who were con- 
genitally deaf. 

The schedule for deaf-mute children of school age in 
Germany contains an inquiry asking whether the 
parents were related by blood, and one of the inquiries 
on the special schedules for the deaf and dumb at the 
census of 1911 in Ireland was framed in such a way as 
probably to secure a report of most of the instances 
where the deaf-mute was the child of first cousins, 
although such a report was not specifically required. * 
Among the 4,189 congenital deaf-mutes of school age in 
Germany included in the returns for the period begin- 
ning January 1, 1902, and ending June 30, 1905, 191, 

> See Appendix C, p. 213. 



70 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



or 4.6 per cent, were reported as being the children of 
first cousins, a percentage considerably lower than the 
corresponding figure for congenital deaf-mutes of all 
ages in the United States (7.3 per cent), although the 
reason for the difference is difiSicult to determine. It is 
impracticable to make any exact comparison between 
the returns for the United States and those for Ireland, 
as the census report for the latter country does not 
give the total number of deaf and dumb enumerated 
who were the children of first cousins but the number 
of individual cases of deaf -mutism reported as occurring 
in families where the parents were cousins. The num- 
ber of such cases tabulated was 126, of which 121 were 
congenital cases and 5 acquired cases. If all of these 
deaf-mutes were enumerated at the census of 1911, 4 
per cent of the total deaf and dumb enximerated and 
5.2 per cent of the congenitaUy deaf were the children 
of cousins. These figures, however, can only be re- 
garded as approximations, as it is not entirely clear 
whether the published figures comprise only persons 
actually enumerated at the census or also include 



other deaf-mute members of their families, in addi- 
tion to which a further factor of uncertainty results 
from the circumstance that on the one hand the sched- 
ule did not definitely require that wherever the parents 
of the deaf and dumb persons were cousins this fact 
should be indicated, while, on the other hand, the in- 
quiry did not refer specifically to first cousins, but 
merely to "cousins," so that some instances where the 
parents were of more distant relationship than first 
cousins may have been included. As in the case of the 
United States, however, the figures serve to show the 
importance of consanguineous marriages as a factor in 
congenital deaf-mutism. 

General Table 19 (p. 146) shows the distribution 
according to reported cause of deafness of the deaf and 
dimib population returning special schedules in 1910, 
classified according to relationship of parents and 
status of parents as to hearing. In Table 77 the dis- 
tribution according to cause is given for those report- 
ing deaf parents in comparison with those whose 
parents could hear. 



Table 77 




DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECIAi 


SCHEDULES WEBE BETUBNED: 1910. 






Number. 


Per cent distribution. 


BEPOBTED CAnSB OF DEAFNESS. 


Total. 


Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 


One parent only reported as 


Neither 

parent 

reported 

as deaf. 


Not 
reporting 

as to 
hearing 

of 
parents. 


Total. 


Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 


One 
. parent 

only 
reported 
as deal 


Neither 




Total. 


Father 

only 

reported 

as deaf. 


Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 


parent 
reported 
asdeaC 


AUcausea 


19,153 


289 


131 


71 


60 


18,413 


320 


loao 


loao 


loao 


loao 




Causes affecting the external ear 


64 
4,507 










64 
4,424 




0.3 
23.5 






0.3 


jOauses affecting the middle ear 


34 


20 


U 


9 


39 


11.8 


15.3 


24.0 






Causes producing suppurative condition 

Scarletfever 


3,708 
2,005 
525 
166 
103 
349 
237 

324 

789 
301 
186 
156 

146 

10 

3,666 


21 
10 
3 
3 
1 
2 
1 

1 

12 
5 
5 

1 

1 

1 
12 


11 
4 

1 


6 
3 


5 

1 
1 


3,649 
1,975 
519 
162 
101 
342 
230 

320 

766 
293 
179 
153 

141 

9 

3,530 


27 

16 

3 

1 


19.4 

ia5 

2.7 

a9 
as 

1.8 
1.2 

L7 

4.1 
1.6 
1.0 

as 
a8 
ai 

19.1 


7.3 
3.5 
1.0 
1.0 

as 
a7 
as 

as 

4.2 
1.7 
1.7 

as 
as 
as 

4.2 


8.4 
3.1 

as 


19.8 

ia7 

2.8 


1 Measles 


' Diphtheria 




0,9 


TnAiiTnonla 












Abscess in the head 


3 

1 

2 

9 
3 
2 
2 

3 


2 


1 

1 

1 

4 
1 
1 

1 

1 


2 

5 

1 
2 


2L3 

as 

1.5 

6.9 
2.3 
1.5 
1.5 

1.6 


1.9 
1.3 

1 7 


Disease of the ear 


^U other causes producing suppurative 
condition 


1 

S 
3 

1 
1 

1 


flanses not producing suppurative condition 


4.2 
1.6 
1.0 

as 
as 

0) 
19.7 


'Catarrn 




<3olds 




All other causes not producing suppurative 
condition 


2 


All other causes affecting the middle ear 


12 


9 


3 


12 


9.3 




Causes affecting the labyrinth 


226 

128 

85 

13 

3,399 
1,812 
927 
384 
174 
102 

41 

55 

9,869 


4 
1 

a 

1 

8 
1 
3 
3 
3 
1 








220 

127 

83 

10 

3,370 

1,801 

921 

381 

168 

99 

40 

65 

9,408 


2 


1.2 

a 7 
a 4 
ai 

17.7 
9.5 
4.8 
2.0 

a 9 
a5 

a3 

as 

51.5 


1.4 

as 
a7 
as 

2.8 

as 
a7 
a7 
a7 
as 




1.3 


Malarial fever and quinine 










a7 

0.5 






















3 

9 
6 
3 




ai 

18.3 
9.8 
5.0 
2.1 

a 9 
as 

0.2 

as 

51.1 


rauaea affeetine the audltorv nerve 


13 

4 
3 
1 

4 
1 


3 

a 


3 

1 


9.3 
3.1 
1.5 

as 

3.1 

as 


Meningitis 


Brfttn fflver 




1 
1 


ConvulsionB .*- 


3 

1 




All other causes affecting the auditory nerve. 
All other causes affecting the internal ear 


1 
1 




Combination of different classes of causes 
















228 


95 


50 


45 


138 


78.0 


73.5 






7,533 

587 

57 

1,692 

993 


207 

10 

5 

8 

15 


80 
5 


44 

1 


36 
4 


en 

51 
1,665 

833 


126 


39.3 
3.1 

as 

8.8 
5.3 


71.6 
3.5 
1.7 
2.1 

6.3 


61.1 
3.8 


S8.7 
3.1 

as 

9.0 
4.5 




Accident 


1 
U 

141 


All other unclaaaifiable causes 


10 

4 


5 

1 


5 
3 


7.6 
3.1 







1 Leas than one-tenth o( 1 per cent. 



HEREDITY AND DEAFNESS. 



71 



In view of the great difference between those who 
reported one or both of their parents as deaf and those 
who reported that both of their parents could hear as 
regards the proportion of congenital cases, it would 
be expected that the importance of the principal causes 
of adventitious deafness would differ widely for the 
two classes. Thus only 1 of the 289 persons who 
reported that both parents were deaf and 4 of the 131 
who reported that one parent only was deaf gave 
meningitis as a cause of deafness, and 2 in each in- 
stance gave brain fever, as compared with 1,801 and 
921, representing, respectively, 9.8 and 5 per cent, of 
those who reported that neither parent was deaf. The 
number who reported scarlet fever as cause of deaf- 



ness among those having deaf parents was somewhat 
greater, constituting 3.5 per cent of the total for those 
reporting both parents as deaf and 3.1 per cent for 
those reporting one parent only as deaf; these pro- 
portions, however, are decidedly smaller than that for 
those reporting neither parent as deaf (10.7 per cent). 
Only 4 (1 per cent) of those reporting a deaf parent 
gave measles as a cause, as against 2.8 per cent of those 
reporting no deaf parents. 

Table 78 shows the distribution according to re- 
ported cause of deafness of the deaf-mutes for whom 
special schedules were returned who reported that, 
their parents were first cousins in comparison with 
those whose parents were not first cousins. 



Table 78 



SEFOBTED CAUSE Or DEAFNESS. 



All causes 

Causes affecting the external ear 

Causes affecting the middle ear 

Causes producing suppurative condition 

Scarlet fever 

Measles 

D^htherla 

Pneumonia 

Abscess in the hrod 

Disease of the ear 

All other causes producing suppurative condition 

CaoMS not producing suppurative condition 

Whooping cough 

Catarrh 

Colds 

All other causes not producing suppurative condition 

All other causes affecting the middle ear 

Causes affecting the internal ear 

Causes affecting the labyrinth 

Malarial fever and quinine 

Mumps 

All other causes affecting the labyrinth 

Causes affecting the auditory nerve 

Meningitis 

Brain fever 

Typhoid fever 

Convulsions .' 

All other causes affecting the auditory nerve 

All other causes affecting the internal ear 

Combination of different classes of causes 

UnclassiOable causes 

Congenital 

Falls and blows 

Accident - 

All other unclassifiable causes 

Cause unknown or not reported 



DEAF AND DUMB POFVLATION FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEBE BETUBNED: 1910. 



Number. 



Total. 



19,153 



64 
4,507 



3, 70S 
2,005 
525 
166 
102 
349 
237 
324 

789 
301 
186 
156 
146 

10 

3,666 



226 

128 

85 

13 

3,399 
1,812 
927 
384 
174 
102 

41 

65 

9,869 



7,533 

587 

67 

1,692 

992 



Parents first 
cousins. 



2 
146 



117 

60 

18 

5 

1 

22 

6 

5 



53 



2 
641 



553 

23 

2 

63 

39 



Parents not 
first cousins. 



17,418 



60 
4,258 



3,502 
1,893 
492 
157 
99 
324 
224 
313 

746 
285 
175 
148 
138 

10 

3,527 



209 

118 

80 

11 

3,279 

1,745 

900 

369 

166 



S2 
8,768 



6,595 

547 

52 

1,574 

753 



Not report- 
ing as to 
relationship 
of parents. 



852 

2 

103 



86 



74 

46 

15 

8 

4 

1 

2 

1 

460 



Per cent distribution. 



Total. 



100.0 



0.3 
23.5 



19.4 
10.5 
2.7 
0.9 
0.5 
1.8 
1.2 
1.7 

4.1 
1.6 
1.0 
0.8 
0.8 

0.1 

19.1 



385 
17 
3 

55 

200 



1.2 

0.7 
0.4 
0.1 

17.7 
9.5 
4.8 
2.0 
0.9 
0.5 

0.2 

0.3 

51.5 



39.3 
3.1 
0.3 
8.8 

5.2 



Parents first 
cousins. 



100.0 



0.2 
16.5 



13.3 
6.8 
2.0 
0.6 
0.1 
2.5 
0.7 
0.6 

3.3 
1.5 
0.9 
0.5 
0.5 



6.0 



0.8 
0.6 
0.2 



5.2 
2.4 
1.4 
0.8 
0.5 
0.2 



0.2 
72.6 



62.6 
2.6 
0.2 
7.1 

4.4 



Parents not 
first cousins. 



100.0 



0.3 
24.4 



20.1 
10.9 
2.8 
0.9 
0.6 
1.9 
1.3 
1.8 

4.3 
1.6 
1.0 
0.8 
0.8 

0.1 

20.2 



1.2 

a7 

0.6 
0.1 

18.8 
10.0 
6.2 
2.1 
1.0 
0.6 

0.3 

0.3 

50.3 



37.9 
3.1 
0.3 
9.0 

4.3 



As in the case of the classes shown in Table 77, the 
marked difference between the deaf-mutes who re- 
ported that their parents were first cousins and those 
who reported that their parents were not thus related 
as regards the relative number whose deafness was 
respectively congenital and acquired brings about a 
great difference in the relative importance for the two 
classes of the leading causes of acquired deafness. 
Thus only 3.7 per cent of those who were the children 
of fiist cousins gave meningitis or brain fever as the 



cause of deafness, as compared with 15.2 per cent, a 
proportion four times as great, for those whose par- 
ents were not so related. Scarlet fever was assigned 
as cause by 6.8 per cent of the former and 10.9 per 
cent of the latter, while the percentages for measles 
were 2 and 2.8, and those for typhoid fever 0.8 and 
2.1, respectively. In practically every case, in fact, 
the proportion shown for a cause producing acquired 
deafness was lower for the children of first cousins 
than for persons whose parents were not first cousins. 



72 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Of the 19,153 deaf and dumb persons returning 
special schedules, 17,852 reported themselves as hav- 
ing brothers or sisters. Of these, the number answer- 
ing the inquiry as to whether any of their brothers 
or sisters were deaf was 17,740, of whom 4,347, 
representing 24.5 per cent, or one-fourth, gave an 
affirmative answer. As already stated, the actual 
number of families represented was somewhat 
smaller. 



General Table 20 (p. 150) shows the distribution 
according to reported cause of deafness of the deaf and 
dumb population returning special schedules, classi- 
fied according to whether or not they reported brothers 
or sisters and whether or not these brothers or sisters 
were deaf. Table 79 shows the distribution by cause 
for those reporting deaf brothers or sisters in com- 
parison with the distribution for those none of whose 
brothers or sisters were deaf. 



Table 79 


DEAF AND DUMB POPXTLATIOM FOE WHOM SPECTAL SCHEDULES WEBE BETUBNED BEPOBTINO 
BBOTHERS OB SI8TEBS: ItlO. 


BEPOBTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 


Number. 


Per cent distribution. 




Total. 


Reporting 

deaf brothers 

or sisters. 


or sisters. 


Not reporting 

as to hearing 

of brothers 

or sisters. 


Total. 


Reporting 

deaf brothers 

or sisters. 


Reporting no 

deaf brothers 

or sisters. 


All causes 


17,852 

62 

4,251 


4,347 


13,393 


112 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 




12 

628 


50 
3,608 




0.3 
23.8 


0.3 

14.4 


0.4 


f|ms«S affBnt.iTig thp miilrtV Bf^r . , . 


15 


26.9 






Causes producing suppurative condition ^ 


3,«7 
1,896 
491 
147 
95 
342 
222 
304 

744 
284 
178 
144 
138 

1« 

3,462 


463 
222 
72 
18 
14 
50 
38 
49 

163 
63 
41 
33 
26 

2 

208 


3,022 
1,667 
417 
127 
81 
292 
183 
255 

578 
220 
136 
III 
111 

8 

3,249 


12 
7 
2 
2 


19.6 
10.6 
Z8 
0.8 
0.5 
1.9 
1.2 
1.7 

4.2 
1.8 
l.t 

0.8 
0.8 

0,1 

19.4 


10.7 
6.1 
1.7 
0.4 
0.3 
1.2 
0.9 
1.1 

3.7 
1.4 
0.9 
0.8 
0.6 

0) 
4.8 


22.6 


Scarlet feverT..." ... . . 


12.4 


Ueasles 


3.1 


Diphtheria 


0.9 




0.6 


Al>s<^sR in the hoad . 




Z2 


Disease of the ear 


1 


1.4 




1.9 


Causes not producing suppurative condition 


3 
1 

1 


4.3 


Whoopme cough 


1.6 


cataSiTt.v.^....." :.::: :..:..:::.::.. 


1.0 


Colds -■ 


as 


All other causes not producing suppurative condition 


1 


0.8 
0.1 


Causes afFectiDET the internal ear 


S 


24.3 






Causes affecting the labyrinth 


217 

123 

83 

11 

3,205 

1,696 

876 

370 

167 

96 

40 

51 

0,238 


18 

6 

11 

1 

188 
65 
62 
31 
27 
3 

2 

2 

3,313 


198 

117 

72 

9 

3,013 

1,629 

813 

339 

■ 140 

92 

38 

49 

5,862 


1 


1.2 
0.7 
0.5 
0.1 

18.0 
9.5 
4.9 
2.1 
0.9 
0.5 

0.2 

a3 

51.7 


0.4 
0.1 
0.3 
P) 

4.3 
1.5 
1.4 
0.7 
0.6 
0.1 

P) 

(0 

76.2 


1.6 




0.9 






0.5 


All other causes affecting the labyrinth 


1 

4 
2 

1 


ai 


Oauses affecting the auditory nerve 


22.5 


lff^in^.% 


12.2 


Brabi fever 


6.1 


Typhoid fever 


2.6 


Onnviilfrions 




1.0 




1 


a7 




0.3 


CrOTnhinfttJoTi of diff^rf^nt clfLssf^s of CAii.s4*s ... 




0.4 


Unclansifiahle causes ,, 


63 


43.8 






OmBwiftfti, . . . , 


7,047 

645 

45 

1,601 

788 


3,042 

92 

9 

170 

184 


3,95S 

451 

36 

1,420 

575 


50 
2 


39.5 
3.1 
0.3 
9.0 

4.4 


70.0 
2.1 
0.2 
3.9 

4.2 


29.6 


Fal Js and Wows 


3.4 




a3 


All other onclassiftahle <!fluse.s 


11 
29 


10.6 




4.3 







> Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



Of the 4,347 persons who reported that they had 
deaf brothers or sisters, 3,042, or more than two-thirds 
(70 per cent), stated that their deafness was congenital, 
as compared with a corresponding percentage of only 
29.5, or considerably less than one-third, for those 
who reported that none of their brothers or sisters 
were deaf. To state the situation in another way, 
two-fifths (40.4 per cent) of the congenital deaf-mutes 
reported deaf brothers or sisters, although persons re- 
porting deaf brothers or sisters represented less than 
one-fourth (22.7 per cent) of the total number of 
deaf-mutes returning schedules. In contrast to this, 
only 2.9 per cent of those reporting deaf brothers or 
sisters gave meningitis or brain fever as the cause of 



their deafness, only 5.1 per cent scarlet fever, and oijy 
1.7 per cent measles, as compared with corresponding 
percentages of 18.2, 12.4, and 3.1 for those reporting 
no deaf brothers or sisters. 

The statistics for deaf-mute children of school age 
in Germany also show a relatively large number of 
cases where two or more deaf children were bom in the 
same family. Of the 4,189 congenital deaf-mutes for 
whom schedules were made out during the period 
covered by the report already mentioned, 1,241, or 
considerably more 'than one-foiu-th (29.6 per cent), 
were reported as having brothers or sisters who were 
also congenital deaf-mutes. In addition, 361 were 
reported as having brothers or sisters who were 



HEREDITY AND DEAFNESS. 



73 



adventitious deaf-mutes and 524 as having brothers 
or sisters suffering from deafness in both ears unasso- 
ciated with mutism. Thus the total number of cases 
in which deaf brothers or sisters were reported was 
2,126, or shghtly more than one-half (50.8 per cent), 
whereas the corresponding percentage for congenital 
deaf-mutes in the United States was 40.4, or two-fifths. 
The former proportion, however, is somewhat above the 
true figure, since in the tabulation of the schedules it 
appeared that the persons making out the reports had 
in a considerable nimiber of instances erroneously re- 
ported the same brothers or sisters more than once, 
in addition to which there is the possibUity of a cer- 
tain amount of dupUcation due to the fact that a 
deaf-mute may have had brothers or sisters suffering 
from different forms of deafness. 

The published returns for the census of 1911 in 
Ireland do not show the nimiber of the deaf and 
diunb enumerated who also had deaf brothers and 
sisters. Statistics are, however, presented showing as 
far as possible for families in which there were deaf 
and diunb children the total number of such children 
reported. The niunber of such f amihes reported was 
1,749, of which 432, or about one-fourth (24.7 percent), 
comprised two or more deaf and dumb children. The 
total number of deaf and dimib children included in 
these families was 2,424, of whom 1,107, or considerably 
more than two-fifths (45.7 per cent), were in fauuhes 
comprising at least two deaf and dumb children. The 
total number of children represented was 10,804, the 
deaf and dumb representing 22.4 per cent, or somewhat 
more than one-fifth. 

Of the deaf-mutes in the United States who re- 
turned the special schedule, 4,397 reported that they 
had children. The number of these who reported as 
to the hearing of their children was 4,339, of whom 296, 
or 6.8 per cent, stated that they had deaf children. 

In this connection it may be noted that of the 
9,194 deaf and dumb persons 15 years of age or over 
who were reported as single and returned special 
schedules, 284 stated that they had children (see 
General Table 16, p. 135). For a considerable number 
of these the return of the population enumerator as 
to their marital condition was doubtless correct. In 
some instances, however, the return was probably 
inaccurate, the enumerator either using the term 
"single" in the sense of "not married," and accord- 
ingly reporting widowed and divorced persons as 
single, or else obtaining his information at second 
hand from persons who did not know the exact facts. 
The enumerator's retvun as to marital condition was, 
it is true, entered on the special schedule along with 
certain other data which the person receiving the 
schedule was requested to verify, but through negli- 
gence or for other reasons erroneous returns were in 
a lai^e number of cases never corrected. 

Table 80 shows the distribution by race, nativity, 
and sex of the deaf and dumb population reporting 



children, separate figures being presented for those 
who had deaf children and those who had not; it 
also gives the percentage which persons reporting 
deaf children and reporting none of their children as 
deaf, respectively, formed of the total number in 
each class who reported as to the hearing of their 
children. 



Table SO 


DEAF AND DTJMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WEEE RETURNED REPORTING CHIL- 
DREN: 1910. 


RACE, NATIVITT, AND SEX. 


Total. 


Reporting deaf 
children. 


Reporting no deaf 
children. 


Not 
report- 
ing as 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent of 

total.i 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent of 
total.i 


to 
hearing 
of chil- 
dren. 


All classes 


4,397 


296 


6.8 


4,043 


93.2 


58 






Male 


2,020 
2,377 


141 
155 


7.1 
6.6 


1,856 
2,187 


92.9 
93.4 


23 


Female ,,,... 


35 






White 


4,200 


286 


6.9 


3,860 


93.1 


54 






MaleL 


1,970 
2,230 

3,650 
1,706 
1,944 

550 
264 
286 

197 


138 
148 

263 
128 
135 

23 
10 
13 

10 


7.1 
6.7 

7.3 
7.6 
7.0 

4.2 
3.8 
4.6 

5.2 


1,811 
2,049 

3,340 
1,560 
1,780 

520 
251 
269 

183 


92.9 
93.3 

92.7 
92.4 
93.0 

95.8 
96.2 
95.4 

94.8 


21 


Female 


33 

47 


Native. 


Male 


18 


F«na|e.. 


29 


Foreign-bom 


7 


Male. 


3 


Female 


4 


Colored 


4 






Male 


50 
147 

185 
47 
138 

12 
3 
9 


3 

7 

10 
3 

7 


6.3 
4.8 

5.5 
6.7 
5.1 


45 
138 

171 
42 
129 

12 
3 
9 


93.8 
95.2 

94.5 
93.3 
94.9 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 


2 


Female 


2 


Negro... 


4 


Male 


2 


Fem>*l« 


3 


other colored 




Male. 








Female 

















1 Based upon the population reporting as to hearing of children. 

The percentage reporting deaf children was shghtly 
h^her for males than for females. Among the differ- 
ent race and nativity classes for which the percentage 
reporting deaf children is given in the table, the 
native whites show the highest percentage (7.3), 
followed by the Negroes, with 5.5, while the foreign- 
born whites show the lowest percentage (4.2), probably 
by reason of the low percentage of congenital deaf- 
mutes in this class. The high proportion for native 
whites as compared with Negroes is at fii"st sight some- 
what surprising, in view of the much higher proportion 
of congenital deaf-mutes in the latter class. It is prob- 
ably explained, however, by the fact that marriage is 
less common among Negro deaf-mutes than among 
white. 

Table 81, on the next page, shows the distribution 
according to age when hearing was lost of the deaf and 
dumb population reporting children, classified accord- 
ing to whether or not they had any deaf children. 

Of those who reported deaf children, more than one- 
half (53.7 per cent) reported themselves as bom deaf, 
as compared with somewhat more than one-fourth 
(28.4 per cent) of those who reported that none of their 
children were deaf. 



74 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 81 



AGE WHEK HEABINa WAa LOST. 



Total.. 



Deafness congenital. . 
Deafness acquired i.. 



At age of— 

Less than 5 years 

Less than 1 year 

lyear 

2 to 4 years 

Infancy (exact age not re- 
ported) 

8 to 9 years 

10 years or over 

At age not reported 



DBAP AND DUUB POPULATION FOB WBOJi SPE- 
CIAL SCHEDULES WEBE RETUBNED BEPOBT- 

iNo cbildben: i«io. 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



4,397 



1,340 
3,057 



2,317 
300 

477 
1,527 

13 

604 

40 

96 



Per 

cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 



100.0 



30.5 
69.5 



52.7 

6.8 

10. S 

34.7 

0.3 
13.7 
0.9 
2.2 



Beporting 
deaf chil- 
dren. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion, 



296 



159 
137 



112 
15 
26 
69 

2 

17 

1 

7 



100.0 



53.7 
46.3 



37.8 
5.1 
8.8 

23.3 

0.7 
5.7 
0.3 
2.4 



Num- 
ber. 



4,043 



100.0 



1,149 
2,894 



2,187 
284 
448 

1,444 

11 

584 

38 

85 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bu- 
tion. 



28.4 
7L6 



54.1 

7.0 

11.1 

35.7 

0.3 
14.4 
0.9 
2.1 



Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
hear- 
ing of 
chil- 
dren. 



58 



32 



18 
1 



14 



> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



General Table 21 (p. 151) shows the distribution 
according to reported cause of deafness of the deaf 
and dumb population reporting children, classified 
according to whether or not they had deaf chUdren. 
Table 82 shows the per cent distribution on the same 
basis of the deaf and dumb population reporting 
children. 

The differences with respect to cause of deafness 
between those who reported deaf children and those 
whose children could all hear are in general much the 
same as when the classification is based upon the status 
of the parents or brothers and sisters as to hearing. 
Only 7.4 per cent of those having deaf children 
reported their deafness as due to meningitis or brain 
fever, as compared with 18.9 per cent of those whose 
children could all hear; the corresponding percentages 
for scarlet fever were 10.8 and 18.3, respectively, for 
measles 2.4 and 2.7, respectively, and for typhoid 
fever 1 and 2.6, respectively. 



Table 28 



BEPOBTED CAUSE OP DEAFNESS. 



All causes 

Causes afiecting the external ear 

Causes affecting the middle ear 

Causes producing suppurative condition. 



Scarlet fever. 

Measles 

Diphtheria 

Pneumonia 

Abscess in the head 

Disease of the ear 

All other causes producing suppurative condition . 



Causes not producing suppurative condition.. 



Whooping oough 

Catarrh 

Colds 

All other causes not producing suppurative condition . 



All other causes affecting the middle ear. 
Causes affecting the internal ear 



Causes affecting the labyrinth. . 
Malarial fever and quinine. 



Mumps. 

All other causes affecting the labyrinth.. 



Causes affecting the auditory nerve 

Meningitis 

Brain fever 

Typhoid fever 

Convulsions 

All other causes affecting the auditory nerve. 



AU other causes affecting the internal ear.. 

Combination of different classes of causes 

Cnclasslflable causes 



Coiuenital 

Falls and blows 

Accident 

AU other unclassiflable causes . 



Cause unknown or not reported. 



deaf and duub popttlation fob whom special schedules webe beiubned bepobtina 

childben: 1910. 



Number. 



Total. 



4,397 



19 
1,305 



1,139 

776 
118 



15 
60 
58 
76 

164 

61 
25 

47 
31 

2 

1,048 



73 

34 

36 

3 

965 
464 
329 
113 
26 
33 

10 

14 



1,8 



1,340 

160 

8 

341 

162 



Beporting 
deaf children. 



70 



2 
183 



159 

6 

2 

16 

13 



Beporting 

no deaf 

children. 



4,043 



19 
1,227 



1,076 

739 
111 
33 
15 
54 
52 
72 

149 

66 
21 
43 
29 

2 

1,010 



451 

315 

107 

23 

32 

10 

12 

1,630 



1,149 

154 

6 

321 

145 



Not reporting 
as to hearing 
ofcliildren. 



58 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent 



10 



32 



Per cent distribution. 



Total. 



100.0 



0.4 



25.9 

17.6 
2.7 
0.8 
0.3 
1.4 
L3 
1.7 

3.7 

L4 
0.6 
1.1 
0.7 



C) 



23.8 



1.7 
a8 
0.8 
0.1 

21.9 
10.6 
7.S 
2.6 
0.6 
0.8 

0.2 

0.3 

42.1 



30. S 
3.6 
0.2 
7.8 

3.7 



Beporting 
deaf children. 



100.0 



23.6 



19.3 

10.8 
2.4 
1.0 



2.0 
1.7 
1.4 

4.4 

1.7 
1.0 
1.0 
0.7 



9.5 



0.3 
0.3 



9.1 
3.0 
4.4 
LO 
0.7 



0.7 
61.8 



63.7 
2.0 
0.7 
5.4 

4.4 



Beporting 
no deaf 
children. 



100.0 



0.5 
30.3 



26.6 

18.3 
2.7 

as 

0.4 
1.3 
1.3 
L8 

3.7 

1.4 

as 

1.1 

a7 



(') 



25.0 



l.» 

as 
aa 
ai 

23.0 

n.2 

7.8 
2.6 

a 6 
as 

0.3 

aa 

40.3 



2S.4 
3.8 

ai 

7.9 



EDUCATION. 



75 



EDUCATION. 

The results of the inquiries regarding education 
included in the special schedule for the deaf and 
dumb at the census of 1910 are summarized in Table 
83 for the deaf and dmnb returning the schedules, 
classified according to sex. In this and other tables 
relating to the education of the deaf and dumb those 
reporting attendance at more than one kind of school 
other than an institution for the deaf have been tabu- 
lated only under the school of highest grade. Thus, 
if a deaf and dumb person reported that he had 
attended both a common school, a high school or 
academy, and a college or univerdty, he was tabu- 
lated only under the last-named heading. Children 
under 5 years of age have been excluded from this 
and aU other tables relating to education, as they 
were below the age when school attendance usually 
begins. 



Table 83 



XDUCATION. 



Total. 



Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the 

deaf 

Having attended other schools also. . 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

University or college. 

Schools of miscellaneous character. 
Schools of character not reported . . 

Having attended no other school 

Beporting no other Instruction.. . . 

Reporting private Instruction at 

home 



Not having attended special school for 

the deaf. ,. 

Having attended- 
Common school only 

High school or academy 

Schools of miscellaneous character. 
Schools of character not reported. . 

Not having attended school 



Reporting private instruction at home. 
Reporting no instruction. 



Not reporting as to education . 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 5 YEARS OF 
AGE OR OVEB FOB 'WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: UIO.' 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



18,850 



15,736 



15,388 
601 
430 
72 
34 
44 
21 

14,787 
14,667 

120 



348 

237 
24 
70 
17 

2,862 



112 
2,750 

252 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion.» 



100.0 



84.6 



82.7 
3.2 
2.3 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

79.5 
78.9 

0.6 



1.9 

1.3 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

IS. 4 



0.6 
14.8 



Male. 



Num- 
ber. 



10,343 



8,709 



8,522 

329 

233 

41 

23 

23 

9 

8,193 
8,125 

68 



187 

124 
13 
43 

7 

1,491 



54 
1,437 

143 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion.> 



100.0 



85.4 



83.5 
3.2 
2.3 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

80.3 
79.7 

0.7 



1.8 

1.2 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

14.6 



0.5 
14.1 



Female. 



Num- 
ber. 



8,507 



7,027 



6,866 
272 
197 
31 
11 
21 
12 

6,594 
6,542 

52 



161 

113 
11 
27 
10 

1,371 



58 
1,313 

109 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tri- 
bu- 
tion.« 



100.0 



83.7 



81.8 
3.2 
2.3 
0.4 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 

78.5 
77.9 

0.6 



1.9 

1.3 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 

16.3 



0.7 
15.6 



I Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 
> Based upon the population reporting as to education. 

Of the total deaf and dumb population 5 years of 
age or over in 1910 who answered the inquiries as to 
education on' the special schedule, 15,736, represent- 
ing 84.6 per cent, or more than five-sixths, reported 
that they had been to school. It seems probable, 
however, that this proportion may somewhat exag- 
gerate the actual extent of education among deaf- 
mutes, since it is practically certain that a much fuller 
return of the special schedules was obtained from the 
educated than from the illiterate deaf-mutes. On the 
other hand, it must be remembered that most of the 



deaf-mutes whom the enumerators failed to report as 
such because they had learned to speak had probably 
attended school; but it seems doubtful whether the 
number would have been suflB.ciently great to coun- 
terbalance the high percentage of illiteracy among 
those who failed to return the schedules. 

Most of the deaf-mutes who reported school attend- 
ance had been only to a special school for the deaf, 
such persons constituting 79.5 per cent, or four-fifths, 
of the total number 5 years of age or over. Only 3.2 
per cent reported attendance both at a special school 
for the deaf and a school primarily for the hearing, 
and but 1.9 per cent attendance only at a school pri- 
marily for the hearing. Of the latter more than two- 
thirds had attended common school only, the number 
who had attended schools other than common schools 
but not a school for the deaf representing only 0.6 per 
cent of the total 5 years of age or over returning 
schedules. 

The schools included imder the heading of "Schools 
of miscellaneous character" comprise a variety of in- 
stitutions, such as schools for the blind or the feeble- 
minded, private schools which could not be distin- 
guished as equivalent either to elementary or to sec- 
ondary schools, convents, and various special schools. 
The inquiry on the schedule in regard to instruction 
at home was intended to cover only instruction at 
home by private tutors or other special teachers. 
From a careful examination of the returns, however, 
it seems practically certain that in a lai^e number of 
the cases where instruction at home was reported, the 
instruction consisted mainly of more or less desultory 
teaching by parents or other relatives,, so that the 
figures for private instruction shown in the tables can 
not be regarded as reliable. 

The distribution according to education of the male 
and the female deaf-mutes returning special schedules 
shows no very pronounced differences. The propor- 
tion reporting school attendance was slightly higher 
for males than for females, the percentages being 85.4 
and 83.7, respectively, and the proportion reporting 
attendance at a special school for the deaf only was 
also slightly higher for males, 80.3 per cent as com- 
pared with 78.5 per cent. The percentage reporting 
attendance both at schools for the deaf and schools 
primarily for the hearing, however, was the same for 
females as for males, arid the percentage reporting at- 
tendance at schools primarily for the hearing only 
was practically the same for the two sexes. 

General Table 22 (p. 152) shows the distribution 
according to education of the deaf and dmnb popula- 
tion 5 years of age or over in each geographic division 
and state for \vhom special schedules were returned. 
Table 84, on the next page, shows the distribution 
for the several geographic divisions, \rith percentages. 

The proportion of the deaf and dimib population 5 
years of age or over who had attended sohool was 



76 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



higher (90.1 per cent, or nine-tenths) in the Middle 
Atlantic division than in any other, but was nearly 
as high in the Pacific division (89.9 per cent) and in 
the East North Central (88.1 per cent). In the New 
England and West North Central divisions also it was 
in excess of 85 per cent. The proportion was lowest 
(73.6 per cent, or less than three-fourths) in the South 
Atlantic division, and was less than 80 per cent in 
the other two southern divisions. In the main these 
differences correspond in greater or less degree to the 
differences in the general percentage of illiteracy in 
the respective divisions. The high percentage report- 
ing school attendance in the Pacific division, for ex- 
ample, is not surprising in view of the low percentage 
of illiteracy in that division, which, if the Indians, 
Chinese, and Japanese, who have a relatively small 
representation among the deaf-mutes returning special 



schedules, are excluded, has a lower percentage of 
illiteracy than any other. Similarly, the relatively low 
percentages reporting school attendance among the 
deaf-mutes in the three southern divisions reflect the 
high percentage of ilUteracy in the general population 
of the South; and in the case of the West South Cen- 
tral division a further factor exists in the circumstance 
that one of the states in the division makes no provi- 
sion for the education of Negro deaf-mutes. In the 
case of the Middle Atlantic division, however, the high 
percentage appears to be explained in part by the cir- 
cumstance already referred to that certain large insti- 
tutions for the deaf in this division seem to have given 
special attention to securing a return of the schedules 
for their pupils ; and it is possible that similar conditions 
in other divisions may also account in part for the dif- 
ferences in the percentages which are shown in the table. 



Table 84 



EDUCATION. 



VKAT AND DUMB POPULATION 6 TEABS OF AOE OR OVER FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDXn.ES 
WEBE BETUBNED: IMO.' 



United 
Stato^. 



New 
England 
division. 



Middle 
Atlantic 
division. 



East 

North 

Central 

division. 



West 

North 

Central 

division. 



South 
Atlantic 
division. 



East 

South 

Central 

division. 



West 

South 

Central 

division. 



Moun- 
tain 
division. 



Pacific 
division. 



Total 

Having attended school 

Haying attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

University or college 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Haying attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home. 

Not haying attended special school for the deaf, 
Having attended- 
Common school only 

High school or academy 

Bchools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character notre|>orted 

Not haying attended school 

Reporting private instruction at home 

Reporting no instruction 

Not reporting as to education 

Total 

Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

Univeisity or college. 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Having attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home . 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 
Having attended- 
Common school only 

High school or academy 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Not having attended school 

Reporting private instruction at home 

Reporting no instruction 



18,850 
15,736 



15,388 
601 
430 
72 
34 
44 
21 

14,787 

14,667 

120 

348 

237 
24 
70 
17 

2,862 



112 
2,750 

252 



100.0 
84.6 



82.7 
3.2 
2.3 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

79.5 
78.9 
0.6 

1.9 

1.3 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

15.4 



0.6 
14.8 



994 



66 

37 

6 

4 

g 

10 

903 

804 

9 

25 

14 
..... 



149 



7 
142 



2« 



4,087 
3,614 



3,553 


3,605 


127 


166 


100 


121 


17 


17 


2 


9 


7 


15 


1 


4 


3.426 


3,439 


3,400 


3,409 



61 

46 
3 
7 
6 

398 



20 

378 

75 



4,269 



3,705 



100 



4 

499 



20 
479 



65 



2,731 



2,350 



2,281 

102 

71 

12 

8 

10 

1 

2,179 

2,154 

25 



4 

22 

5 

355 



20 
335 

26 



2,277 



1,660 



1,623 

61 

43 

10 

3 

1 

4 

1,562 

1,657 

5 

37 

30 

4 



3 

596 



17 
579 



21 



1,822 



1,379 



1,361 
23 
14 
5 
2 
1 
1 

1,338 
1,332 



421 



10 

411 



22 



1,584 



1,240 



1,224 

23 

19 

1 

3 



1,201 

1,191 

10 

16 

13 
2 
1 



332 



17 
315 



12 



PER CENT DISTBIBVTION.' 



100.0 
87.0 



84.8 
5.8 
3.2 
0.S 
0.3 
0.8 
0.9 

79.0 
78.2 
0.8 

2.2 

1.2 

'To' 



13.0 



0.6 
12.4 



100.0 
90.1 



88.6 
3.2 
2.6 
0.4 

^2 
(•) 

85.4 

84.7 

0.6 

1.6 

1. 1 
0.1 

a2 

0.1 

9.9 



0.5 
9.4 



100.0 



.1 



85.8 
3.9 
2.9 
0.4 
0.2 
0.4 
0.1 

81.8 

81.1 

0.7 

2.4 

1.6 
0.1 

a5 

0.1 
11.9 



0.5 
11.4 



100.0 



86.9 



84.3 
3.8 
2.6 
0.4 
0.3 
0.4 
(•) 

80.6 
79.6 
0.9 

2.6 

1.4 
0.1 
0.8 
0.2 

13.1 



0.7 
12.4 



100.0 



73.6 



71.9 
2.7 
1.9 
0.4 
0.1 

%.2 

69.2 

69.0 

0.2 

1.6 

1.3 
0.2 



0.1 
26.4 



0.8 
25.7 



100.0 



76.6 



75.6 
1.3 
0.8 
0.3 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 

74.3 
74.0 
0.3 

1.0 

0.8 
0.1 
0.1 



23.4 



0.6 
22.8 



100.0 



78.9 



77.9 
1.5 
1.2, 
0.1 
0.2 



76.4 
75.8 
0.6 

1.0 

0.8 
0.1 
0.1 



21.1 



1.1 
20.0 



343 



2S6 



282 

15 

11 

2 

1 

1 



267 

264 

3 

4 

4 



55 



100.0 



83.9 



82.7 
4.4 
3.2 
0.6 
0.3 
0.3 



78.3 

77.4 

0.9 

1.2 

1.2 



16.1 



16.1 



568 



508 



490 
18 
14 
3 
2 



472 

466 

6 

18 

10 
4 

« 



57 



1 
56 



100.0 

89.a 



86.7 
3.2 
2.5 
0.4 
0.* 



83.5 

82.5 

1.1 

3.2 

1.8 
0.7 
0.7 



10.1 



0.3 
9.9 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. > Based upon the population reporting as to edoeatlon. > Lesi than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



EDUCATION. 



77 



The proportion who had attended both a school for 
the deaf and other schools was highest in New England 
(5.8 per cent) and was also relatively high in the 
Mountain division (4.4 per cent). The proportion 
was lowest in the East and West South Central divi- 
sions (1.3 and 1.5 per cent, respectively). It is, how- 
ever, somewhat uncertain how far these variations 
possess any special significance. 

The proportion reporting attendance only at a 
school other than a special school for the deaf was 
highest (3.2 per cent) in the Pacific division, and next 
highest (2.6 per cent) in the West North Central divi- 
sion, while in the East North Central division it was 
2.4 per cent. In the two South Central divisions, on 
the other hand, it was only 1 per cent, and in the 
South Atlantic only 1.6 per cent. 

General Table 23 (p. 154) shows the distribution 
according to education of the deaf and dumb popula- 
tion 5 years of age or over in 1910 for whom special 
schedules were retiuned, classified according to race, 
nativity, sex, and age. Table 85 gives the per cent 
distribution of the native and foreign-bom whites and 
the Negroes 5 years of age or over without distinction 
of sex or age. 



Table S^ 


PEE CENT DISTRIBUTION OF DEAF 
AND DUMB POPULATION 5 YEAKS OF 
AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 
1910.' 


XDVCATION. 


All 

classes. 


White. 






Total. 


Na- 
tive. 


For- 
eign- 
bom. 


Negro. 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


lOO.O 






ITftvIng ftttflTiflfld Rohool 


84.6 


86.7 


87.5 


79.6 


52.4 






Having attended special school for the 
deaf 


82.7 
3.2 
2.3 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

79.5 
78.9 
0.6 

1.9 

1.3 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

15.4 


84.9 
3.3 
2.4 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

81.5 

80.8 

0.7 

1.9 

1.3 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

13.3 


85.7 
3.3 
2.4 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

82.4 

81.7 

0.7 

1.8 

1.2 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

12.5 


77.3 
3.6 
2.6 
0.5 
0.1 
0.3 
0.1 

73.7 

73.2 

0.6 

2.3 

1.4 
0.1 
0.6 
0.2 

20.4 


50.5 


Having attended other schools also 


1.7 
1.0 


High school or academy 


0.4 


University or college 


0.2 


Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Having attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

R^orting private instruction at home. 

Not having attended special school for the 
deaf 


0.1 
0.1 

48.8 

48.5 

0.3 

1.9 


Having attended- 


1.4 


High school or academy 


0.1 


Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Not having attended school 


0.1 
0.3 

47.6 






Reporting private instruction at home 

Reporting no instruction 


0.6 
14.8 


0.6 
12.7 


0.5 
U.9 


1.0 
19.4 


0.9 

46.7 







> Includes the small number whose age vms not reported. In calculating these 
percentages, persons not reporting as to eiucation have been excluded from the total. 
Per cent distribution of " Other colored " not shown, as base is less than 100. 

The proportion who reported that they had attended 
school was higher (87.5 per cent, or seven-eighths) for 
the native whites than for any other class shown in 
the table. For the foreign-bom whites it was 79.6 
per cent, or about four-fifths, but for the Negroes it 
was only 62.4 per cent, or somewhat more than one- 
half. In the main the differences correspond to the 
differences in the general literacy of the respective 



classes and are probably explained by the same 
causes. It seems probable that if complete retiu-ns 
had been received from all deaf-mutes the difference 
between the percentages for the native and foreign- 
bom whites would have been somewhat greater, as 
there is reason to believe that the representation in 
the returns of the more Uliterate elements of the 
latter class is far from commensurate with their 
actual importance. 

The differences between the three leading classes in 
regard to the proportion who had attended only a 
school for the deaf are approximately the same as 
those in the percentage reporting school attendance of 
any kind. The proportion reporting attendance at 
both a special school for the deaf and other schools 
was, however, higher for the foreign-bom whites than 
for the native whites (3.6 per cent as compared with 
3.3 per cent), and the proportion reporting attend- 
ance at schools primarily for the hearing only was 
higher for both the foreign-bom whites and the 
Negroes (2.3 per cent and 1.9 per cent, respectively) 
than for the native whites (1.8 per cent). The most 
important factor in bringing about the conditions just 
noted is probably the circumstance that as compared 
with the native whites the foreign-bom whites and 
Negroes comprise a somewhat larger proportion of 
persons who lost their hearing after reaching school 
age, and consequently had probably been to school 
before they lost their hearing. 

Table 86, on the next page, shows for the deaf and 
dumb 5 years of age or over in 1910 for whom special 
schedules were returned, classified according to age 
at enumeration, the number reporting, respectively, 
attendance at a special school for the deaf only, 
attendance at other schools only, and attendance at 
both kinds of schools, and the number reporting no 
schooling, together with the per cent distribution by 
education for each age group. 

The proportion reporting school attendance was 
highest (92.6 per cent, or more than nine-tenths) 
among those from 15 to 19 years of age, but was 
nearly as high (90.8 per cent) among those from 10 to 
14 years of age. Beginning with the age of 20 it de- 
creases, only 67.7 per cent, or a little more than two- 
thirds, of those 65 years of age or over having been to 
school, a circumstance which brings out clearly the 
great increase during the past half century in the 
extent to which deaf-mutes are sent to school. 
Among those from 5 to 9 years of age only 69 
per cent, or somewhat more than two-thirds, had 
been to school when the schedule was returned. 
The variations in the percentage reporting attendance 
at a special school for the deaf for the different age 
groups correspond closely in the main to those in the 
percentage reporting attendance at any kind of school. 
The proportion reporting attendance at schools pri- 
marily for the hearing only, however, was highest in 
the two latest age groups, probably in considerable 



78 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



measure because these groups comprise a larger pro- 
portion than do the earlier groups of persons who had 
lost their hearing in the later years of childhood or in 
adult Ufe, and consequently had never been to a school 
for the deaf; it is also possible tiiat the number who 
after losing their hearing had attempted to receive iq- 
struction by attendance at a school for normal children 
may be greater relatively among the older deaf-mutes. 



The proportion who had attended both a school for 
the deaf and a school for the hearing shows no very 
pronounced change between the ages of 10 and 64, 
ranging from 3 per cent among those from 45 to 64 
to 3.9 per cent among those from 25 to 44; for the 
first and last age groups, however, it was much lower, 
being 1.6 for those from 5 to 9 years of age and 1.7 for 
those 65 or over. 



TaMe 86 



EDUCATION. 



deaf and dumb population 8 teaks op age or over for whom speqal schedxiles webe 

returned: 1910.' 



Total. 



5 to 9 
years of 



10 to 14 
years of 



15 to 19 
years of 



20 to 24 
years of 



25 to 44 
years of 



45 to 64 
years of 



65 years 

of age or 

over. 



Age not 
reported. 



Total 

Having attended school . 



18,850 



15,736 



Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 



Not having attended school . . . 
Not reportmg as to education.. 



15,388 
601 

14,787 
348 

2,862 
252 



1,850 



1,266 



1,227 
29 

1,198 
39 

568 
16 



2,321 



2,280 
82 

2,198 
41 

235 
13 



2,403 



2,222 



2,194 
85 

2,189 
28 

177 
4 



2,062 



1,831 



1,796 
67 

1,729 
35 

216 
15 



5,914 



5,040 



4,929 
228 

4,701 
111 

771 
103 



3,228 



2,522 



2,447 

96 

2,351 

75 

640 
66 



797 



519 



501 
13 

488 
18 

248 
30 



27 

15 



14 
1 

13 
1 

7 
5 



PER CENT DISTRIBUTION.' 



Total 

Having attended school. 



100.0 



84.6 



Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf 



Not having attended school . 



82.7 
3.2 

79.5 
1.9 

15.4 



100.0 



69.0 



1.6 

65.3 

2.1 

31.0 



100.0 



90.8 



89.2 
3.2 

86.0 
1.6 

9.2 



100.0 



92.6 



91.5 
3.5 

87.9 
1.2 

7.4 



100.0 



9.4 



87.7 
3.3 

84.5 
1.7 

10.6 



100.0 



e.7 



84.8 
3.9 

80.9 
1.9 

13.3 



100.0 



79.8 



77.4 
3.0 

74.4 
2.4 

20.2 



100.0 



67.7 



65.3 
1.7 

63.6 
2.3 

32. S 



(•) 



(•) 



(») 



> Includes those whose age was not reported. > Based upon the population rei>orting as to education. > Per cent distribution not shown, as base is less than 100. 



Table 87 shows the distribution according to educa- 
tion of the male and female deaf-mutes 5 years of age 
or over in 1910 for whom special schedules were 
returned, classified according to age. 

The two sexes show some interesting diflFerences in 
regard to distribution by education when the different 
age groups are considered separately. As already 
pointed out, in the aggregate deaf and dumb popula- 
tion 5 years of age or over for whom special schedules 
were returned, the percentage who had been to school 
was higher for males than for females. In the first 
age group shown in the table, however, that compris- 
ing children from 5 to 9 years of age, the percentage 
who had attended school was higher for females than 
for males (69.3 as compared with 68.8), while for the 
-two following groups, comprising those from 10 to 14 
and from 15 to 19 years of age, the percentages were 
practically the same (90.8 and 92.5, respectively, for 
males and 90.9 and 92.8, respectively, for females). 
Among persons from 20 to 24 years of age, on the other 
hand, the percentage was higher for males (90 as com- 
pared with 88.6), and the difference increased in the 
succeeding age groups until among those from 45 to 
64 years of age the proportion reporting school attend- 



ance was 81.8 per cent for males and 77.2 per cent for 
females. In the final age group, however, comprising 
persons of 65 or over, the difference was not so great, 
the percentage being 68.1 for males and 67.2 for 
females. These changes tend, on the whole, to suggest 
that the increase in the extent to which deaf-mutes 
are being sent to school which the figures seem to indi- 
cate has been somewhat greater relatively for females 
than for males, a supposition borne out by the fact 
that the statistics of schools for the deaf show that 
the percentage of females among their pupils has 
been increasing durijig the past 30 years.* The com- 
paratively close correspondence between the per- 
centages for those in the final age group is difficxilt to 
explain; but it may have some connection with the 
fact that this age group, unlike the others, shows a 
higher percentage adventitiously deaf for females 
than for males, in view of the circimistance that the 
percentage who had been to school was higher for the 
adventitiously than for the congenitally deaf 
(seep. 80). 

' In 1880, 42.5 per cent of the pupils in schools for the deaf in 
the United States were females: in 1910, 46.4 jper cent. (See 
American Annals of the Deaf, Vol. XXVI, p. 67; Vol. LVI, p. 21.) 



EDUCATION. 



79 



87 


DEA» AND DtJMB POPULATION 6 TEARS OP AGE OR 
OVER FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RE- 
TURNED: 1910.1 




1 

Total. 


Haviag attended scbiwi. 


Not 
having 

at- 
tended 
school. 


Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
edu- 
ca- 
tion. 


ACE GBOin- AND SEX. 


Total. 


Having 
attended 
special 
school 
for the 
deaf. 


Not 
Iiavlng 

at- 
tended 
special 
school 
for the 

deaf. 




NUMBER. 


5 years or over: » 
Male 


10,343 
8,507 


8,709 
7,027 


8,522 
6,866 


187 
161 


1,491 
1,371 


143 


'Female . 


109 






6 to 9 years: 

Male 


1,015 
835 

1,403 
1,166 

1,337 
1,066 

1,193 
869 

3,170 
2,744 

1,792 
1,436 

416 
381 


692 
674 

1,267 
1,054 

1,235 

987 

1,066 

765 

2,735 
2,305 

1,431 
1,091 

275 
244 


675 
652 

1,241 
1,039 

1,219 
975 

1,042 
754 

2,684 
2,245 

1,388 
1,059 

266 
235 


17 
22 

26 
15 

16 
12 

24 
11 

51 
60 

43 
32 

9 
9 


314 

254 

129 
106 

100 

77 

118 
98 

379 
392 

318 
322 

123 
119 


9 




7 


10 to 14 years: 

Male 


7 


Female 


6 


15 to 19 years: 

Male 


2 


Female ■••- 


2 


20 to 24 years: 

Male 


9 




6 


25 to 44 years: 

Male 


56 




47 


45 to 64 years: 

Male 


43 




23 


65 years or over: 

Male 


12 




18 








PER CENT OP TOTAL.' 


5 years or over: i 

Male 


100.0 
100.0 


85.4 
83.7 


83.5 
81.8 


1.8 
1.9 


14.6 
16.3 












8to9years: 

MaIv 


100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 

ioo:o 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 


68.8 
69.3 

90.8 
90.9 

92.5 
92.8 

90.0 
88.6 

87.8 
85.5 

81.8 
77.2 

68.1 
67.2 


67.1 
66.7 

88.9 
89.6 

91.3 
91.6 

88.0 
87.4 

86.2 
83.2 

79.4 
74.9 

65.8 
64.7 


1.7 
2.7 

1.9 
1.3 

1.2 
1.1 

2.0 
1.3 

1.6 
2.2 

2.5 
2.3 

2.2 
2.5 


31.2 
30.7 

9.2 
9.1 

7.6 
7.2 

10.0 
11.4 

12.2 
14.5 

18.2 
22.8 

31.9 
32.8 




Female 




10 to 14 years: 

Male 




Female 




15 to 19 years: 

Male 




Female.. 




20 to 24 years: 

Male 




Female 




25 to 44 years: 

Male 




Female . 




45 to 64 years: 

Male 








66 years or over: 

Mnk 













1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 
> Based upon the population reporting as to education. 

Table 88, on the next page, shows the distribution 
according to education of the native white, foreign- 
born white, and Negro deaf and dumb in 1910 for 
whom special schedules were returned, by age groups. 



This table brings out the fact that there has been 
a very great increase during the past half century in 
the education of Negro deaf-mutes. Of the 35 Negroes 
65 years of age or over for whom special schedules 
were returned only 2 had ever been to school, although 
for the native whites in this age group the proportion 
reporting school attendance was nearly three-fourths 
(73.9 per cent) and for the foreign-bom whites it 
was considerably more than one-half (56.8 per cent). 
Of the Negro deaf-mutes from 45 to 64 years of age, 
however, nearly one-fourth (23.6 per cent) had been 
to school, although the figures for < this race still 
present a marked contrast to those for the two white 
classes, of whom five-sixths (83.6 per cent) and three- 
fourths (75.2 per cent), respectively, had been to 
school. The next younger age group, comprising 
persons from 25 to 44 years of age, shows a striking 
reduction in the difference between the races as to 
education, the proportion of Negroes reporting school 
attendance having increased to 46.9 per cent, or 
somewhat less than one-half, as compared with per- 
centages of 90.7 for the native whites and 78.6 for 
the foreign-bom whites. The difference continues 
to decrease in the next two younger age groups, the 
proportion of Negroes who had been to school being 
61 per cent, or about three-fifths, among deaf-mutes 
20 to 24 years of age and 71.7 per cent, or considerably 
more than two-thirds, among those 15 to 19 years 
of age, as compared with corresponding figures for 
the native whites of 92.5 and 94.3, respectively, and 
for the foreign-bom whites of 85.7 and 94.6, respec- 
tively. In the earliest age group for which percentages 
for all three classes are shown in the table, that com- 
prising children from 10 to 14 years of age, the differ- 
ence is somewhat greater, although this may perhaps 
be accoimted for in part by the fact that the institu- 
tions which, as previously stated, apparently gave 
special attention to securing the return of the sched- 
ules for their inmates were mainly in states where the 
Negro population was relatively small, or if in states 
with a large Negro population, received white pupils 
exclusively. On the whole it is fairly evident that 
the general increase in the extent to which deaf-mutes 
are sent to school, which has already been pointed out, 
has been shared by Negroes to an even greater extent 
relatively than whites. 



80 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 88 



BACK, NATITITT, AKD AGE 
OBOVP. 



5 years or overi 

Native white 

Foreisi-boin white . . 
Negro 

5 to.9 years' 

Native white 

Forei^-bom white 

Negro 

10 to 14 years ' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

Negro 

15 to 19 years ' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

Negro 

20 to 24 years' 

Native white 

Forelgn-bom white 

Negro 

26 te 44 years' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

Negro 

45 to 64 years' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

IJTegro 

65 years or over' 

Native white 

Forelgn-bom white 

Negro 

5 years or over ' , 

Native white , 

Foreign-bom white 
Negro 

S to 9 years' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

Negro 

10 to 14 years' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

Negro 

15 to 19 years' 

Native white , 

Foreign-bom white , 

Negro 

20 to 24 years' , 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

Negro 

25 to 44 years' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

Negro 

45 to 64 years' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom wliite 

Negro 

65 years or over ' 

Native white 

Foreign-bom white 

Negro 



DEAT AKD DITMB POPULATION 5 TEAB3 OF AGE OB 
OVEB FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDTn.ES WERE 

betxtbned: i9io.> 



Total. 



Having attended school. 



Total. 



Having 
attended 
special 
school 
for the 
deaf. 



Not 
hav- 
ing at- 
tended 
special 
school 
for the 
deaf. 



Not 
hav- 
ing at- 
tended 
school. 



Not 
report- 
ing as 
to edu- 
cation. 



18,850 

15,889 

1,834 

1,061 



1,850 

1,677 

89 

78 

2,569 

2,246 

142 

174 

2,403 

2,083 

149 

166 

2,062 

1,782 

107 



5,914 

4,871 

707 

314 

3,228, 

2,598 

492 

129 

797 

612 

147 

35 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



15,736 

13,743 

1,421 

548 



1,266 

1,144 

77 

41 

2,321 

2,063 

136 

116 

2,222 

1,960 

141 

119 

1,831 

1,637 

90 

97 

6,040 

4,353 

540 

143 

2,522 

2,133 

358 

30 

519 

438 

79 

2 



15,388 

13,459 

1,380 

528 



348 

284 

41 



1,227 

1,109 

75 

39 

2,280 

2,028 

134 

112 

2,194 

1,939 

138 

117 

1,796 

1,609 

88 



4,929 

4,256 

529 

140 

2,447 

2,078 

342 



501 

426 

74 

1 



28 

21 

3 

2 

35 

28 

2 

4 

111 
97 
U 



75 

55 

16 

4 

18 

12 

5 

1 



2,862 

1,960 

364 

497 



568 

519 

U 

36 



771 
444 
147 
162 

640 

417 

118 

97 

248 
155 
60 
31 



PER CENT OF TOTAL.' 



84.6 
87.5 

79.6 
52.4 



69.0 
68.8 

« 

90.8 
92.3 
96.5 
66.7 

92.6 
94.3 
94.6 
71.7 

89.4 
92.5 
85.7 
61.0 

86.7 
90.7 
78.6 
46.9 

79.8 
83.6 
75.2 
23.6 

67.7 
73.9 
56.8 
(0 



82.7 
85.7 
77.3 
50.5 



66.9 
66.7 

89.2 
90.8 
95.0 
64.4 

91.5 
.93.3 
92.6 
70.5 

87.7 
91.0 
83.8 
58.5 

84.8 
88.7 
77.0 
45.9 

77.4 
81.5 
71.8 
20.5 

65.3 
71.8 
53.2 
0) 



1.9 
1.8 
2.3 
1.9 



2.1 
2.1 

t^ 

1.6 
1.6 
1.4 
2.3 

1.2 
1.0 
2.0 
1.2 

1.7 
1.6 
1.9 
2.5 

1.9 
2.0 
1.6 
1.0 

2.4 
2.2 
3.4 
3.1 

2.3 
2.0 
3.6 

0) 



15.4 
12.5 
20.4 
47.6 



31.0 
31.2 

(*) 
(') 

9.2 

7.7 

3.5 

33.3 

7.4 

6.7 

6.4 

28.3 

10.'6 

7.5 

14.3 

39.0 

13.3 

9.3 

21.4 

53.1 

20.2 
16.4 
24.8 
76.4 

32.3 
26.1 
43.2 

w 



232 

186 

49 

16 



16 

14 

1 

1 



235 


13 


171 


12 


5 


1 


58 




177 


4 


119 


4 


8 




47 




216 


15 


132 


13 


15 


2 


62 





103 

74 

20 

9 

66 

48 

16 

2 

30 
19 
8 
2 



I Includes the small number whose age was not reported and also the small 
number o("Other colored." 
' Includes the small number of " Other colored." 
> Based upon the population reporting as to education. 
* Peri^ntnotshownwhsre base is less than 100. 



The figures for the foreign-bom whites show some 
interesting variations from those for the native whites. 
In the two youngest age groups the proportion report- 
ing school attendance was higher for the foreign-bom 
than for the native whites, and in the next group, 
comprising children from 15 to 19 years old, the per- 
centages were practically the same, that for foreign- 
bom whites still being slightly the higher. In the 
succeeding age groups the proportion was higher for 
the native whites; the difference fluctuates from one 
age group to another, although it is greatest in the 
oldest group. It is questionable, however, whether 
the figures can be taken as indicating that the increase 
in the extent to which deaf-mute children are being 
sent to school has been greater relatively for the 
foreign-bom than for the native whites; it seems 
more probable, on the other hand, that the explana- 
tion of the higher proportion reporting school attend- 
ance among the foreign-bom whites at the earlier 
ages is to be found in the fact that several of the 
institutions which made a special effort to secure the 
return of schedules for their inmates were located in 
lai^e cities having a considerable foreign-bom popu- 
lation, so that inmates of such institutions were more 
numerous relatively among the foreign-bom than 
among the native white children for whom schedules 
were returned. 

General Table 24 (p. 158) shows the distribution 
according to education of the deaf and dumb popu- 
lation in 1910 returning special schedules, classified 
according to age when hearing was lost. Table 89 
shows a similar distribution, with percentages. 

The proportion who had attended school was some- 
what higher for those whose deafness was acquired 
than for the congenitally deaf, seven-eighths (87.2 
per cent) of the former stating that they had been to 
school as compared with four-fifths (80.7 per cent) 
of the latter. This difference is of course due in part 
to the fact that a certain proportion of those whose 
deafness was acquired had been to school before losing 
their hearing. The circumstance that the percentage 
whose education had been confined to a special school 
for the deaf was also higher for the adventitiously 
than for the congenitally deaf (81 as compared with 
77.2) indicates, however, that other factors probably 
contributed; but it is diflScult to state definitely jvat 
what these factors are, although statistics tend to show 
that the congenitally deaf comprise a larger number 
who are mentally defective, and hence not likely to 
be sent to school, than do those whose deafness is 
acquired. Another circumstance which may have had 
some influence in causing the difference in the per- 
centages is the relatively high proportion of Negroes 
among the congenital deaf-mutes, in view of the fact 
ah-eady noted that the percentage of school attendance 
is much lower among the Negroes than among the 
whites. 



EDUCATION. 



81 



Table 89 



EDUCATION". 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 6 TEARS OF AGE OE OVEE FOE WHOM SPEaAL SCHEDULES 
•WEEE KETUENED: 1910.' 



Total. 



Deafness— 



Congenita!. 



Acquired.' 



Total. 



At less than 
5 years of 



At 5 to 9 
years of 



At 10 years 

of age or 

over. 



At age not 
reported. 



Total. 



18,850 



Having attended school.. 



15,736 



Haying attended special school for the deaf. 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

Hi^h school or academy 

University or college 

Schools of miscellaneous character . . 
Schools of character not reported 



Having attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home. . 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 
Having attended- 
Common school only 

High school or academy 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 



Not having attended school.. 



15,388 
601 
430 
72 
34 
44 
21 

14,787 

14,667 

120 

348 

237 
24 
70 
17 

2,862 



Reporting private instruction at home. 
Reporting no instruction 



Not reporting as to education. 



112 
2,750 

252 



7,346 



5,861 



5,757 

145 

89 

22 

9 

18 

7 

5,612 

6,578 

34 

104 

61 

7 

32 

4 

1,406 



43 
1,363 



79 



11,504 



9,875 



9,631 
456 
341 
50 
25 
26 
14 

9,175 
9,089 



244 

176 
17 
38 
13 

1,456 



69 
1,387 

173 



9,147 



8,079 



7,935 

265 

184 

33 

20 

19 

9 

7,670 

7,601 

69 

144 

109 
14 
18 



996 



57 
939 



72 



1,594 



1,303 



1,253 

166 

141 

14 

5 

2 

.4 

1,087 

1,072 

15 

50 

42 
3 
3 
2 



11 

258 



22 



140 



67 



623 
426 



400 
18 



5 
1 

382 

380 

2 

28 

8 



17 
1 



124 



1 
123 

73 



PEE CENT DISTEIBUTION.* 



Total. 



100.0 



Having attended school.. 



84.6 



Having attended special school for the deaf. 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

Highschool or academy 

University or college 

Schools of miscellaneous character. . 
Schools of character not reported 



Having attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home. . 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 
Having attended — 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 



Not having attended school.. 



82.7 
3.2 
2.3 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

79.5 

78.9 

0.6 

1.9 

1.3 

. 0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

15.4 



Reporting private instruction at home. 
Reporting no instruction 



0.6 
14.8 



100.0 



0.7 



79.2 
2.0 
1.2 
0.3 
0.1 
0.2 
0.1 

77.2 

76.8 

0.5 

1.4 

0.8 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 

19.3 



0.6 
18.8 



100.0 



87.2 



85.0 
4.0 
3.0 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

81.0 

80.2 

0.8 

2.2 

1.6 
0.2 
0.3 
0.1 

12.8 



0.6 
12.2 



100.0 



9.0 



O 



87.4 
2.9 
2.0 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

84.5 

83.8 

0.8 

1.6 

1.2 
0.2 
0.2 



11.0 



0.6 
10.3 



100.0 



82.9 



79.7 
10.6 
9.0 
0.9 
0.3 
0.1 
0.3 

69.1 

68.2 

1.0 

3.2 

2.7 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 

17.1 



0.7 
16.4 



100.0 



50.0 



32.1 
5.2 
5.2 



26.9 
26.9 



17.9 
12.7 



5.2 
50.0 



50.0 



100.0 



77.5 



72.7 
3.3 
1.6 
0.5 



0.9 
0.2 

69.5 

69.1 

0.4 

4.7 

1.5 



3.1 
0.3 



22.5 



0.3 
22.4 



1 Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. 

' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

' Includes those reported as havmg lost their hearing in infancy but without statement as to the exact age. 

* Based upon the population reporting as to education. 

' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



The adventitious deaf-mutes losing hearing at the 
different ages also show some rather pronounced 
differences with respect to education. The proportion 
reporting education was highest (89 per cent, or nearly 
nine-tenths) among those who were less than 5 years 
of age when they lost their hearing. Among those 
who lost their hearing during the second quinquennium 
of life the proportion reporting school attendance was 
somewhat less (82.9 per cent, or about five-sixths), 
while only one-half of those who retained their hearing 
until they had reached the age of 10 or over reported 
that they had been to school. The precise reason for 
50171°— 18 6 



these differences is not apparent. It is probable, 
however, that the apparent decrease in the percentage 
of school attendance with the increase in age when 
hearing was lost is due in part to inaccurate returns. 
It was apparent from the returns in answer to the 
inquiry relative to education on the special schedule 
employed in connection with the census of the blind 
in 1910 that many blind persons had interpreted the 
inquiry as applying only to education after the loss 
of their sight and had consequently reported them- 
selves as having received no education in cases where 
as a matter of fact they had received more or less 



82 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



extended instruction at school, merely because the 
latter had been received before they became blind. 
It is not unreasonable to suppose that some deaf-mutes 
who had attended school before they lost their hearing 
may have similarly reported that they had received 
no instruction because they had not attended school 
after they became deaf. 

The difference in the percentages whose education 
had been received entirely at a special school for the 
deaf among the adventitiously deaf who lost their 
hearing at the respective ages was even more pro- 
noimced than the difference in the percentages report- 
ing school attendance without ^distinction as to kind 
of school. Of those who lost their hearing during the 
first five years of hfe, more than five-sixths (84.5 per 
cent) had attended only a school for the deaf, of those 
who lost it between the ages of 5 and 9, somewhat 
more than two-thirds (69.1 per cent), and of those 
who lost it after reaching the age of 10, somewhat 
more than one-fourth (26.9 per cent) . The proportion 
who had attended both a special school for the deaf 
and other schools was highest (10.6 per cent) among 
those who lost their hearing during the second quin- 
quennium of life, and next highest among those who 
lost it at the age of 10 or over (5.2 per cent), while it 
was only 2.9 for those who lost hearing after birth but 
during the first five years of life. The figures for those 



reporting instruction only at a school primarily for 
the hearing, however, present a pronounced contrast 
to those just noted, the proportion being 17.9 per cent, 
or more than one-sixth, for those who were 10 or over 
when they became deaf, as compared with percentages 
of only 3.2 for those who lost their hearing between 
the ages of 5 and 9 and 1.6 for those who lost it before 
reaching the age of 5. 

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION AND ABILITY TO READ 

LIPS. 

Means of communication. — ^A subject of special 
interest in connection with the deaf and dumb is that 
of the means of commimication which they employ. 
To secure information on this point, the following 
inquiry was inserted on the special schedule : 

30. In communicating with others, does he employ any or all 
of the following methods (write "yes" or "no" after each)? 

Speech Writing 

linger spelling The "sign" language 

(Full information is desired aa to the ordinary and usual means 
of communication employed) 

The results obtained from this inquiry are summa- 
rized in Table 90, which classifies the total and 
the male and female deaf-mutes 10 years of age 
or over in 1910 for whom special schedules were 
rettimed according to the means of communication 
ordinarily employed. 



Table 90 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 



Total. 



Keporting as to means of communicatiaa.. 



Using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as — 

Speech, writing, finger spelling, and sign language.. 

Speech, writing, and finger spelling 

Speech, writing, and sign language 

Speech, finger speUlng, and sign umguage 

Speech and writing 

Speech and finger spelling 

Speech and siaa language 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 



Not using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as — 

Writing, finger spelling, and sign language . 

Writing an(fmiger spelling 

Writing and sign language 

Finger spelling and sign language 

Writing only 

Finger spelling only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous methods 

Reporting no means of communication 



Not reporting as to means of communication . 



Reporting themselves as able to speak — 
Reporting themselves as unable to speak. 
Not reporting as to ability to speak 



Reporting use of— 

Speech 

Writing 

Finger spelling 

Sign language 

Miscellaneous methods. 



DEAJT AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEAES OP AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES 
WERE returned: 1910.1 



Number. 


Per cent of total. 


Both sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


17,000 


9,328 


7,672 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


16,367 


9,004 


7,363 


96.3 


96.5 


96.0 


4,057 


2,036 


2,021 


23.9 


21.8 


26.3 


2,880 


1,457 


1,423 


16.9 


15.6 


18.6 


154 


82 


72 


0.9 


0.9 


0.9 


100 


50 


SO 


0.6 


0.5 


0.7 


84 


32 


52 


0.5 


0.3 


0.7 


463 


223 


240 


2.7 


2.4 


3.1 


31 


17 


14 


0.2 


0.2 


0.2 


53 


33 


20 


0.3 


0.4 


0.3 


127 


59 


68 


0.7 


0.6 


0.9 


165 


83 


82 


1.0 


0.9 


1.1 


12,310 


6,968 


5,342 


72.4 


74.7 


69.6 


8,273 


4,796 


3,477 


48.7 


61.4 


45.3 


521 


310 


211 


3.1 


3.3 


2.8 


291 


202 


89 


1.7 


2.2 


1.2 


625 


260 


365 


3.7 


2.8 


4.8 


218 


130 


88 


1.3 


1.4 


1.1 


142 


69 


73 


0.8 


0.7 


1.0 


375 


217 


158 


2.2 


2.3 


2.1 


1,767 


923 


844 


10.4 


9.9 


11.0 


98 


61 


37 


0.6 


0.7 


0.5 


633 


324 


309 


3.7 


3.5 


4.0 


125 


61 


64 


0.7 


0.7 


0.8 


443 


233 


210 


2.6 


2.5 


■3.7 


65 


30 


35 


0.4 


0.3 


0.5 


4,057 


2,036 


2,021 


23.9 


21.8 


26.3 


12,900 


7,250 


6,650 


75.9 


77.7 


73.6 


12, 710 


7 023 


6,687 


74.8 


75.3 


74.1 


12,681 


7,047 


6,634 


74.6 


75.5 


73.4 


1,894 


982 


912 


11.1 


10.5 


11.9 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 



83 



Nearly one-half (48.7 per cent) of the deaf-mutes 10 
years of age or over in 1910 for whom special schedules 
were retximed reported that they used writing, finger 
spelling, and the sign language as means of commimi- 
cation with others, writing presumably being used in 
communicating with normal persons unacquainted 
with the sign language or the finger alphabet, and 
finger speUing and the sign language in commimicating 
with other deaf-mutes, members of the family, and 
others who had learned these means of communica- 
tion. About one-sixth (16.9 per cent) reported that 
they used speech in addition to the means just men- 
tioned, these two groups representing 65.6 per cent, or 
nearly two-thirds, of the total number. The only other 
group of any importance numerically was that com- 
prising persons reported as employing miscellaneous 
methods without speech, who represented one-tenth 
(10.4 per cent) of _ the total; these consisted for the 
most part of persons who had never been to school, and 
who communicated with others mainly by natural 
signs, motions, gestures, etc. 

The distribution according to means of communica- 
tion employed differs somewhat for male and female 
deaf-mutes. Of the males more than one-half (51.4 
per cent) employed the combination of writing, finger 
spelling, and sign language, as compared with 45.3 per 
cent of the females. The proportion reporting the use 
of speech in addition to the methods just stated was, 
however, higher for females than for males, the per- 
centages being 18.5 and 15.6, respectively. The per- 
centage communicating solely by miscellaneous meth- 
ods was also slightly higher for females (11 as com- 
pared with 9.9). 

Of the individual means of conmaunication, writing 
was the method most frequently reported, being em- 
ployed by three-fourths (75.9 per cent) of the total. 
The proportions reporting the use of finger spelling and 
of the sign language were, however, nearly as great 
(74.8 and 74.6 per cent, respectively). The great 
progress that has been made in the teaching of speech 
to the deaf is reflected by the fact that nearly one- 
foiuiih (23.9 per cent) of the deaf-mutes included in the 
tabulation stated that they employed speech as a 
means of communication. The actual proportion of 
the deaf-mute population who had learned to speak was 
probably even higher, since many deaf-mutes were not 
reported as deaf and dumb by the population enumera- 
tors for the reason that because of their ability to speak 
they were not regarded as coming within the scope of the 
enumeration. That this must have been an important 
factor is indicated by the circumstance that among 
the totally deaf returned at the census of 1900 who lost 
their hearing before reaching the age of 10 the propor- 
tion reporting the use of speech as a means of commu- 
nication was even higher (26.3 per cent) than that 
shown for 1910 in Table 90, although the latter would 
normally have been expected to be the larger, by reason 
of the deaths during the decade among the older deaf- 



mutes who had never been taught to speak and of the 
general increase in the teaching of speech to the 
deaf which has taken place in recent years. 

It wiU be observed from Table 90 that 165 deaf- 
mutes reported speech as the only means of communi- 
cation employed. These probably were in a large pro- 
portion of instances persons who had lost their hearing 
in the earher years of the second quinquennium of fife, 
after they had learned to speak fairly weU, and who 
had never lost the faculty thus acquired, although in 
some cases they doubtless were persons who had been 
taught in exclusively oral schools. The 98 persons 
tabulated as reporting no means of communication 
comprise persons suffering from physical or mental 
infirmities which prevented them from effective com- 
munication with others. 

In examining the returns as to method of commu- 
nication employed, it became evident that many per- 
sons had reported themselves as using the sign lan- 
guage who did not, properly speaking, employ the for- 
mal means of communication among the deaf known 
as "the sign language," but communicated with others 
by means of motions, gestures, or signs devised by 
themselves which did not necessarily form a part of the 
stereotyped sign-language code. It was decided, 
therefore, to tabulate as using the "sign language" 
only persons who had been to schools for the deaf, 
or who otherwise, as by the use of finger spelling or 
through having relatives who had attended schools for 
the deaf, showed that they had had opportunity to 
become acquainted with this method of communica- 
tion. Although under the operation of this rule some 
persons actually using the sign language were doubtless 
excluded, so that the figures shown under this head in 
Table 90 and other tables relating to means of commu- 
nication are to a certain extent xmderstatements, it is 
believed that the resultant error is much less than 
would have been the case if every person reporting the 
use of the sign language had been so tabulated. 

In addition to the inquiry as to means of communi- 
cation, the special schedule contained inquiries asking 
whether the deaf person was able to speak well or im- 
perfectly, or was able to speak at all. In a certain 
number of cases persons failing to specify speech 
among the methods of commimication employed stated 
in answer to these inquiries that they were able to 
speak. It was believed that in most cases where 
speech actually constituted an effective means of com- 
mimication the inquiry in regard to its use for this pur- 
pose would be specifically answered in the affirmative; 
and in fact, in some instances where a person reported 
that he was able to speak but did not specify speech 
among the means of commimication employed, the 
schedule stated definitely that he was able to speak 
only a few more or less isolated words or phrases and 
showed plainly that he did not have sufficient com- 
mand of speech to employ it as an effective means of 
communication with others. For these reasons it was 



84 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



decided in tabulating the statistics as to means of com- 
munication to disregard the answers to the inquiries 
as to abUity to speak, except in cases where the 
inquiry relating to means of communication was left 
entirely unanswered, for which, as a matter of interest, 
a segregation was made between persons who answered 
the inquiries in regard to ability to speak in the aflSrma- 
tive and those who answered them in the negative. 
The total number failing to answer the former inquiry 
but stating that they could speak was, however, com- 
paratively small, amounting to only 125, or less than 1 
per cent of the total included in the tabulation; these 
are not included among the 4,057 persons shown in 
Table 90 as reporting the use of speech as a means of 
communication. It must be borne in mind, therefore, 
that, the tables in this report do not show the total 
number of deaf-mutes returning schedules who re- 
ported that they could speak, but only the number 
who stated specifically that they employed speech as an 
ordinary means of communication with others. 

When the statistics for the two sexes are compared, 
the interesting fact is disclosed that the proportion 
reporting the use of speech as a means of communica- 
tion was considerably higher for females than for males, 
the percentage being 26.3, or more than one-fourth, for 
the former and 21 .8, or only about one-fifth, for the lat- 
ter. While the returns as to the method of commu- 
nication were not tabulated by sex at the census of 
1900, such a tabulation was made of the replies to the 
inquiry as to abiUty to speak, with somewhat similar 
results, although in this instance allowance must be 
made for the fact that the investigation covered all 
the deaf, regardless of ability to speak or age when 
hearing was lost, or whether deafness was total or 
partial. According to this tabulation the proportion 
of females was highest among the deaf who were able 
to speak well, next highest among those who were able 
to speak imperfectly, and lowest among those who 
were unable to speak at all, the percentages being 49, 
45.7, and 44.6, respectively. On the whole, the sta- 
tistics would seem to bear out the opinion which has 
frequently been expressed by teachers of the deaf that 
females acquire speech by instruction more readily 
than males. The proportion reporting the use of mis- 
cellaneous means of communication in 1910 was also 
higher for females than for males. The proportions 
reporting the use of writing, finger spelling, and the 
sign language were, however, somewhat higher for 
males; the difference is greatest for writing, possibly 
because it is used mainly for communication with nor- 
mal persons and in the case of females is supplanted 
by speech to a greater extent relatively than in the 
case of males. 



General Table 25 (p. 160) classifies the deaf and 
dumb population 10 years of age or over in 1910 for 
whom special schedules were returned in each division 
and state according to the means of communication 
employed. Table -91 shows the distribution, both 
numerically and on a percentage basis, for each 
division. 

The divisions differ widely in respect to the rela- 
tive importance of the different methods of com- 
munication. In each division the largest group was 
that comprising persons reporting that they employed 
writing, finger spelling, and the sign language in com- 
municating with others. The proportion which this 
group formed of the total, however, varied from 59 
per cent, or about three-fifths, in the Pacific division 
to 40.5 per cent, or two-fifths, in New England, being 
over one-half in the West North Central, West South 
Central, and East North Central divisions, as well as 
in the Pacific division. The group comprising per- 
sons who reported the use of all the important methods 
of communication (speech, writing, finger spelling, 
and the sign language), which ranked second numeri- 
cally for the United States as a whole, held this posi- 
tion for only six of the nine divisions, being outranked 
in the three southern divisions by that comprising 
persons employing only miscellaneous methods. The 
proportion which the group reporting the use of aJl four 
of the chief methods of communication formed of the 
total ranged from 23.4 per cent, or nearly one-fourth, in 
the Middle Atlantic division to 11.4 per cent, or less 
than one-eighth, in the two South Central divisions ; the 
largest proportion shown for any division other than 
the Middle Atlantic was that for tihe Mountain division 
(19.6 per cent), although that for the New England 
division was .nearly as great (19.2 per cent). Persons 
employing miscellaneous methods of conununication 
only represented more than 10 per cent of the total in 
the three southern divisions and the Mountain division. 
The proportion was highest (17.8 per cent, or more than 
one-sixth) in the East South Central division, but was 
nearly as great (16.9 per cent and 15.8 per cent, re- 
spectively) in the South Atlantic and West South 
Central divisions. 

The number reporting the use of speech was largest 
relatively in the New England and Middle Atlantic 
divisions, representing more than one-third (35.6 and 
34.7 per cent, respectively) of the total in each case. 
The proportion was one-fourth (25 per cent)- in the 
Pacific division. The percentage was lowest (14.8, or 
about one-seventh) in the West South Central division, 
but was nearly as low (15.3) in the East South Central; 
in the South Atlantic and West North Central divi- 
sions also the proportion was less than one-fifth. 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 



85 



Table 91 



UEANS OF COMHUKICATION. 



Total. 



Reporting as to means of communication . 



Using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as — 

Speech, writing, flngerspelling, and sign language. 

Speech, writing, and finger spelling 

Speech, writing, and sign language 

Speech, finger spelling, and sign language 

Speech and writing 

Speech and finger speUing 

Speech and sign language 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 



Not using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as — 

Writiig, finger speUing, and sign 1 anguage . 

Writing and finger spelling 

Writing and sign language 

Finger spelling and sign language 

Writing only 

Finger spelling only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous methods 

Reporting no means of communication 



Not reporting as to means of communication. 



Reporting themselves as able to speak 

Reporting themselves as unable to speak . 
Not reporting as to ability to speak 



Reporting use of— 

Speech : 

Writing 

Finger spelling 

Sign language 

Miscellaneous methods . 



Total ■ 

Reporting as to means of communication 

Using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as — 

Speech, writing, finger spelling, and sign language 

Speech, writing, and finger spelling 

Speech, writing , and sign language 

Speech, finger spelling, and sign language 

Speech and writing 

Speech and finger spelling 

Speech and sign language 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 

Not using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as- 
Writing, finger spelling, and sign language 

Writing and finger spelling 

Writing and sign language 

Finger spelling and sign language 

Writing only 

Finger spelling only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous methods 

Reporting no means of communication 

Not reporting as to means of communication 

Reporting themselves as able to speak 

Reporting themselves as unable to speak 

Not reporting as to ability to speak 

Reporting use of— 

Speech 

Writing 

Flngerspelling 

Sign language 

Miscellaneous methods 



deaf and dvmb popttlation 10 years of age or over foe whom special schedules were 

returned: i9io.> 



United 
States. 



New 
England 
division. 



17,000 



16,367 



4,057 

2,880 

154 

100 

84 

463 

31 

53 

127 

165 

12,310 

8,273 
521 
291 
625 
218 
142 
375 

1,767 
98 

633 



125 

443 
65 



4,057 
12,900 
12,710 
12, 681 

1,894 



100.0 



96.3 



23.9 

16.9 
0.9 
0.6 
0.5 
2.7 
0.2 
0.3 
0.7 
1.0 

72.4 

48.7 
3.1 
1.7 
3.7 
1.3 
0.8 
2.2 

10.4 
0.6 

3.7 



0.7 
2.6 
0.4 



23.9 
75.9 
74.8 
74.6 
11.1 



Middle 
Atlantic 
division. 



North 
Central 
division. 



West 

North 

Central 

division. 



South 
Atlantic 
division. 



East 

South 

Central 

division. 



West 

South 

Central 

division. 



Moun- 
tain 
division. 



Pacific 
division. 



NUMBER. 



1,059 



1,013 



377 

203 

23 

13 

9 

76 

8 

4 

7 

34 



429 
27 
22 
33 
23 

9 
18 
67 

8 

46 



377 
816 
741 
731 
74 



3,537 



3,981 



3,409 



1,228 

826 
54 
31 
17 

239 

8 

10 

19 

24 

2,181 

1,516 
99 
61 

106 
52 
30 
59 

242 
16 

128 



3,812 



923 

683 
35 
24 
15 
89 
5 
10 
22 
40 

2,889 

2,033 
89 
82 
147 
61 
34 
88 
320 
35 

169 



1,228 
2,878 
2,656 
2,626 
261 



36 

119 

14 



923 
3,096 
3,041 
3,082 

342 



2,538 



2,467 



491 

382 
11 
14 
12 
16 
1 

10 
24 
21 

1,976 

1,441 
71 
51 
87 
20 
14 
58 
219 
15 

71 



491 
2,006 
2,019 
2,055 

243 



2,012 



1,626 



1,428 



312 



1,893 



378 

282 

12 

6 

7 

20 

2 

8 

15 

26 

1,515 

863 
84 
20 
91 
19 
18 
70 

341 
9 

119 



10 
85 
24 



378 
1,306 
1,359 
1,347 

356 



1,568 I 1,404 



248 

186 
5 
4 

14 
7 
3 
4 

17 
8 

1,320 

774 
86 
21 
63 
27 
26 
29 

289 
5 

58 



18 

34 

6 



248 
1,110 
1,157 
1,095 

306 



211 

163 
9 
2 
7 
6 
2 
1 

16 
5 

1,193 

771 

52 

10 

75 

10 

9 

38 

225 

3 

24 



211 
1,023 
1,088 
1, 067 

241 



306 



PER CENT OF TOTAL. 



100.0 



95.7 



35.6 

19.2 
2.2 
1.2 
0.8 
7.2 
0.8 
0.4 
0.7 
3.2 

60.1 

40.5 
2.5 
2.1 
3.1 
2.2 
0.8 
1.7 
6.3 
0.8 

4.3 



0.4 
3.7 
0.3 



35. S 

77.1 

70.0 

69.0 

7.0 



100.0 



6.4 



34.7 

23.4 
1.5 
0.9 
0.5 
6.8 
0.2 
0.3 
0.5 
0.7 

61.7 

42.9 
2.8 
1.7 
3.0 
1.5 
0.8 
1.7 
6.8 
0.5 

3.6 



09 
2.5 
0.3 



34.7 
81.4 
75.1 
74.2 
7.4 



100.0 



95.8 



23.2 

17.2 
0.9 
0.6 
0.4 
2.2 
0.1 
0.3 
0.6 
1.0 

72.6 

51.1 
2.2 
2.1 
3.7 
1.5 
0.9 
2.2 
8.0 
09 

4.2 



0.9 
3.0 
0.4 



23.2 
77.8 
76.4 
77.4 
8.6 



100.0 



97.2 



19.3 

15.1 
0.4 
0.6 
0.5 
0.6 

(")«. 
0.4 

0.9 

0.8 

77.9 

56.8 
2.8 
2.0 
3.4 
0.8 
0.6 
2.3 
8.6 
0.6 

2.8 



0.7 
1.8 
0.3 



19.3 
79.0 
79.6 
81.0 
9.6 



100.0 



94.1 



18.8 

14.0 
0.6 
0.3 
0.3 
1.0 
0.1 
0.4 
0.7 
1.3 

75.3 

42.9 
4.2 
1.0 
4.5 
0.9 
0.9 
3.5 

16.9 
0.4 

5.9 



0.5 
4.2 
1.2 



18.8 
64 9 
67.5 
66.9 
17.7 



100.0 



96.4 



15.3 

11.4 
0.3 
0.2 
0.9 
0.4 
0.2 
0.2 
1.0 
0.5 

81.2 

47.6 
5.3 
1.3 
3.9 
1.7 
1.6 
1.8 

17.8 
0.3 

3.6 



1.1 
2.1 
0.4 



15.3 
68.3 
71.2 
67.3 
18.8 



100.8 



98.3 



14.8 

11.4 
0.6 
0.1 
0.5 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 
1.1 
0.4 

83.5 

54.0 
3.6 
0.7 
5.3 
0.7 
0.6 
2.7 

15.8 
0.2 

1.7 



0.4 
1.2 
0.1 



14.8 
71.6 
76.2 
74.7 
16.9 



74 

61 
3 
1 
1 
2 



3 
1 
2 

232 

147 

6, 

13 

12 

1 

2 

8 

^0 

3 

6 



74 
234 
232 
246 

41 



100.0 



98.1 



23.7 

19.6 
1.0 
0.3 
0.3 
0.6 



1.0 
0.3 
0.6 

74.4 

47.1 
1 9 
4.2 
3.8 
0.3 
0.6 
2.6 

12.8 
1.0 

1.9 



1.9 



23.7 
75.0 
74.4 
78.8 
13.1 



507 



495 
127 



94 
2 
5 
2 
8 
2 
3 
6 
5 

368 



7 
11 
11 

S 



7 

24 

4 

12 



1 
11 



127 
431 
417 
432 
30 



100.0 



97.6 



25.0 

18.5 
0.4 
1.0 
0.4 
1.0 
0.4 
0.6 
1.2 
1.0 

72.6 

59.0 
1.4 
2.2 
2.2 
1.0 



1.4 
4.7 
0.8 

2.4 



0.2 
2.2 



25.0 
85.0 
82.2 
86.3 
6.9 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



86 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



In contrast to the high proportion reporting the 
use of speech in the New England division, the pro- 
portions reporting the use of finger spelling and the 
sign language were below the average in this division, 
the percentage using the former method being lower 
than for any other division except the South Atlantic, 
and that for the latter method lower than for any other 
division except the South Atlantic and East South Cen- 
tral. The percentage reporting the use of writing was 
also lower in this division than in any other except 
the three southern divisions and the Mountain divi- 
sion. Moreover, in the Middle Atlantic division, 
where the proportion reporting the use of speech was 
also high, the proportion reporting the use of the sign 
language was lower than in any other division except 
the South Atlantic, East South Central, and New 
England. The percentages reporting the use of writ- 
ing, finger spelling, and the sign language were higher 
in the Pacific division than in any other, being in 
excess of four-fifths (85, 82.2, and 85.2, respectively) 
in each case. The only other divisions where any of 
these methods was reported by as many as four-fifths 
of the total were the Middle Atlantic, in which 81.4 
per cent of the total employed writing, and the West 
North Central, in which 81 per cent used the sign 
language. The use of writing was reported more fre- 
quently than that of any other method in the New 
England, Middle Atlantic, and East North Central 
divisions, the use of finger spelling in the three southern 
divisions, and the use of the sign language in the West 
North Central, Mountain, and Pacific divisions. 

These differences between the divisions in regard to 
the means of communication employed reflect very 
largely differences in regard to the prevaUing methods 
taught in the schools for the deaf in these divisions. 
The high percentages reporting the use of speech in 
the New England and Middle Atlantic divisions are 
probably due in large measure to the fact that the 
teaching of speech to the deaf has been carried on for 
a longer period of time in these divisions than in 
the others, and also is much more general. In this 
connection it will be observed that the proportion 
reporting speech as the sole means of communication 
was much higher in the New England division than in 
any other (3.2 per cent), this being the only division 
except the South Atlantic in which the proportion 
exceeded 1 per cent. The generally low percentages 
reporting all the more usual means of communication 
and the high percentages reporting miscellaneous 
methods in the three southern divisions are explained 
to a considerable extent by the large Negro popula- 
tion of this section of the country, as deaf-mute Negro 
children appear to be sent to school less frequently 
than are deaf-mute children among the whites; in 
addition, one of the states in the West South Central 
division makes no provision for the education of deaf- 
mute Negroes. Furthermore, it is possible that white 
deaf-mutes do not attend school to the same extent in 



the South as in other sections of the country. The 
relatively small proportions reporting the use of finger 
spelling and the sign language in the New England 
division are due to the fact that certain institutions in 
this division employ the oral method almost exclu- 
sively and give little or no instruction in finger spelling 
or the sign language. 

Table 92 presents statistics as to the means of com- 
munication employed for the different race and nativity 
classes among the deaf and dumb 10 years of 
age or over in 1910 for whom special schedules were 
returned. 

In the two white classes the most important group 
numerically with regard to means of communication 
was that made up of persons employing writing, finger 
spelling, and the sign language, which comprised more 
than one-half (51.7 per cent) of the total in the case of the 
native whites, and about two-fifths (39 per cent) in the 
case of the foreign-bom whites. Among the Negroes, 
however, by far the largest group was that made up of 
persons who employed only miscellaneous methods of 
commimication, such as natural signs, gestures, etc., who 
constituted about three-eighths (37.8 per cent) of the 
total number, this being due of course to the relatively 
small proportion of Negro deaf-mutes who had ever 
been to school. Persons using all the three methods 
of communication first mentioned ranked second in 
importance among the Negroes, representing 24.5 per 
cent, or about one-fourth, of the total. In the two 
white classes persons using speech, writing, finger 
spelling, and the sign language together ranked second 
in numerical importance, forming approximately one- 
sixth of the total in each case (17.9 and 15.8 per cent, 
respectively); but among the foreign-bom whites the 
proportion employing miscellaneous methods only was 
nearly as great (14.6 per cent, or about one-seventh). 
Only 5.4 per cent of the Negroes were reported as using 
aU the four principal methods of communication. Of 
the 60 persons included under the head of "AU other" 
in the table, nearly all of whom were Indians, 36, or 
three-fifths, used only natTiral signs, gestures, etc., in 
communicating with others. 

The proportion using speech as a means of communi- 
cation was about the same for the two white classes, 
being 24.5 per cent for the native whites and 26.6 per 
cent for the foreign-bom whites, or about one-fourth in 
each case. The fact that the percentage was sHghtly 
higher for the latter class is probably due to the cir- 
ciunstance that certain institutions for the deaf in New 
York City which contained among their pupils a 
large number of foreign-bom children and which gave 
instruction mainly by the oral method appear to have 
made a special effort to secure a retmn of the schedules 
for their pupils. The proportions reported as using 
writing, finger spelling, and the sign language were, 
however, lower for the foreign-bom than for the native 
whites and the proportion using miscellaneous methods 
higher; in fact, only 8.5 per cent of the native whites 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 



87 



were reported as losing natural sign's and similar means 
of commnni cation. Only 11.1 per cent of the Negroes 
were reported as using speech, and only about two-fifths 
were reported as using any of the three other conven- 



tional methods of communication. Of the individual 
methods, writing was the one most frequently reported 
by the white classes; but among the Negroes finger 
spelling was reported more frequently than any other. 



Table 92 



MEANS 07 COMMUmCAHON. 



DEAT AND DITMB POPULATION 10 YEAES OF AGE OE OVEE FOE WHOM SPECIAt SCHED- 
ULES WEEE EETUBNED: 1910." 



All classes. 



White. 



Total. 



Native. Foreign-bom. 



Negro. 



All other. 



Total.. 



Reporting as to means ol communication.. 



Using speech as a means of communication.. 



Reporting means of communication as — 

Speech, writing, finger spelling, and sign language. 



Speech, writing, and finger spelling. , 

Speech, writing, and sign language 

Speech, finger spelling, and sign language . 

Speech and writing 

Speech and finger spelling. 

Speech and sign language 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 



Not using speech as a means of communication 

Reportm^ means of communication as— 

Writmg, finger spelling, and sign language . 

Writing and finger spelling 

Writing and sign language 

Finder spelling and sign language 

Writing only 

Finger spelbng only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous methods 

Reporting no means of communication 



Not reporting as to means of communication. 



Reporting themselves as able to speak 

Reporting themselves as unable to speak. 
Not reporting as to ability to speak 



use of— 



Finger spelling 

Sign language 

MlsceUaneous methdds . 



Total.. 



Reporting as to means of communication. . 



Using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as — 

Speech, writing, finger spelling, and sign language . 

Speech, writing, and finger spelling 

Speech, writing,andsignlanguage 

Speech, finger spelling, and sign language 

Speech and writing 

8i>eech and finger spelling 

Speech and sifQ language 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 



Not using sj>eech as a means of communication 

Reportmg means of communication as — 

Writing, finger spelling, and sign language . 

Writing and finger spelling 

Writing and sign language 

Finger spelling and sign language 

Writing only 

Finger spellmg only 

Sign language only a. 

Miscellaneous methods 

Reporting no means of communication 



Not reporting as to means of communication. 

Reporting themselves as able to speak 

Reporting themselves as unable to speak. 
Not reporting as to ability to speak 



Reporting use of— 

Speech 

Writing 

Finger spelling 

Sign language 

Miscellaneous methods . 



17,000 



16,367 



4,057 

2,880 

154 

100 

84 

463 

31 

53 

127 

165 

12,310 

8,273 
521 
291 
625 
218 
142 
375 

1,767 



633 



125 

443 

65 



4,057 
12,900 
12,710 
12,681 

1,894 



100.0 



96.3 



23.9 

16.9 
0.9 
0.6 
0.5 
2.7 
0.2 
0.3 
0.7 
1.0 

72.4 

48.7 
3.1 
1.7 
3.7 
1.3 
0.8 
2.2 

10.4 
0.6 



0.7 
2.6 
0.4 



23.9 
75.9 
74.8 
74.6 
11.1 



15,957 



15,411 



3,943 

2,826 

148 

98 

80 

456 

29 

48 

111 

147 

11,468 

8,024 
461 
276 
584 
200 
132 
345 

1,359 
87 

546 



113 

382 

51 



3,943 
12,489 
12,284 
12,281 

1,470 



14,212 



13,766 



3,478 

2,550 

131 

76 

75 

366 

25 

36 

97 

122 

10,288 

7,344 
425 
239 
534 
167 
109 
292 

1,105 
73 

446 



97 

305 

44 



3,478 
11,298 
11,193 
11,146 

1,202 



1,745 



1,645 



465 

276 

17 

22 

5 

90 

4 

12 
14 
25 

1,180 



36 
37 
50 
33 
23 
53 
254 
14 

100 



465 
1,191 
1,091 
1,135 

268 



PEE CENT OF TOTAL. 



100.0 



96.6 



24.7 

17.7 
0.9 
0.6 
0.5 
2.9 
0.2 
0.3 
0.7 
0.9 

71.9 

50.3 
2.9 
1.7 
3.7 
1.3 
0.8 
2.2 
8.5 
0.5 

3.4 



0.7 
2.4 
0.3 



24.7 
7&3 
77.0 
77.0 
9.2 



100.0 



96.9 



24.5 

17.9 
0.9 
0.5 
0.5 
2.6 
0.2 
0.3 
0.7 
0.9 

72.4 

51.7 
3.0 
1.7 
3.8 
1.2 
0.8 
2.1 
7.8 
0.5 

3.1 



100.0 



94.3 



0.7 
2.1 
0.3 



24.5 
79.5 
7&8 
78.4 
8.5 



26.6 

15.8 
1.0 
1.3 
0.3 
5.2 
0.2 
0.7 
0.8 
1.4 

67.6 

39.0 
2.1 
2.1 
2.9 
1.9 
1.3 
3.0 

14.6 
0.8 

5.7 



0.9 
4.4 
0.4 



26.6 
68.3 
62. S 
65.0 
15.4 



903 



109 

53 
6 
2 
4 
6 
2 
5 
15 
16 

794 

241 
60 
15 
39 
17 
10 
29 

372 
11 

80 



109 
400 
415 
388 
387 



100.0 



91.9 



11.1 

5.4 
0.6 
0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
0.2 
0.5 
1.5 
1.6 

80.8 

24.5 
6.1 
1.5 
4.0 
1.7 
1.0 
3.0 

37.8 
1.1 

8.1 



1.0 
5.7 
1.4 



11.1 
40.7 
42.2 
39.5 
39.4 



60 

5 
1 



K') 



P) 






m 



8 






(») 



48 

8 



1 
36 



6 
U 
11 
12 
37 



(») 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



> Per cent distribution not shown, as base is less than 100. 



88 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 93 shows the per cent distribution according 
to means of conunTmication of the deaf and dumb 10 
years of age or over in 1910 for whom special schedules 
were returned, classified according to age when hearing 
was lost. The absolute numbers upon which this table 
is based are given in General Table 27 (p. 163). 

The various groups with respect to age when hearing 
was lost differ more or less from each other in regard 
to the methods of comimTmication employed. For both 
the congenitally and the adventitiously deaf, persons 
using writing, finger spelling, and the sign language 
outnumbered any other group with respect to means 
of commimication, such persons constituting 48 per 
cent of the former class and 49. 1 per cent of the latter, 
or nearly one-half in each case. Among those whose 
deafness was acquired, persons using aU of the four 
leading methods of communication ranked second in 
importance, representing practically one-fifth (19.4 
per cent) of the total; among the congenitally deaf, 
however, those using only miscellaneous methods, such 



as natural signs, held second place, with 14.2 per cent, 
or one-seventh, of the total, although the proportion 
using all of the four leading methods was nearly as 
great (12.9 per cent, or one-eighth). It was of course 
to be expected that speecih would be used by a larger 
proportion of those whose deafness was acquired than 
of those who were born deaf, as many of the former had 
already learned to speak to some extent before their 
hearing was lost; in addition, it is probable that a 
larger number relatively of the adventitiously than of 
the congenitally deaf retain vestiges of hearing which 
may be of assistance in acqmring the faculty of speech. 
The higher proportion using natural signs, etc, for 
the congenitally deaf of course reflects the smaller per- 
centage of school attendance reported for this class; 
and even without this factor a similar result would 
probably be shown, by reason of the greater difficulty 
in teaching persons who have never been able to em- 
ploy any of the methods of communication in general 
use among normal persons. 



Table 93 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 



Total. 



Bei>orting as to means of communication 

Using speech as a means of communication 

Keporting means of communication as— 

Speech, writing, finger spelling, and sign language. 

Speech, writing, and finger spelling 

Speech, writing, and sign language 

Speech, finger spelling, and sign language 

Speech and writing 

Speech and finger spelling 

Speech and sign language 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 



Not using speech as a means of communication 

Reportmg means of communication as — 

Writing, finger spelling, and sign language. 

Writing ana finger spelling 

Writing and sign language 

Finger spelling and sign language 

Writing only 

Finger spelhng only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous methods 

Reporting no means of communication 



Not reporting as to means of communication.. 

Reporting themselves as able to speak 

Reporting themselves as unable to speak. 
Not reporting as to ability to speak 



Reporting use of— 

Speech 

Writing 

Finger spelling 

Sign language 

Miscellaneous methods . 



PER CENT OF TOTAL DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OF AGE OE 
OVEEFOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDin.ES WERE RETURNED: 1910.1 



Total. 



100.0 



96.3 



23.9 

16.9 
0.9 
0.6 
0.5 
2.7 
0.2 
0.3 
0.7 
1.0 

72.4 

48.7 
3.1 
1.7 
3.7 
1.3 
0.8 
2.2 

10.4 
0.6 

3.7 



Deafness- 



Congenital. 



Acquired.' 



Total. 



100.0 



95.7 



0.7 
2.6 
0.4 



23.9 
75.9 
74.8 
74.6 
11.1 



18.5 

12.9 
0.6 
0.6 
0.4 
2.1 
0.1 
0.3 
0.6 
0.8 

77.3 

48.0 
3.7 
1.6 
4.4 
1.3 
1.1 
2.4 

14.2 
0.6 

4.3 



100.0 



96.6 



27.2 

19.4 
1.1 
0.6 
0.6 
3.1 
0.2 
0.3 
0.8 
1.1 

69.4 

49.1 
2.7 
1.8 
3.2 
1.3 
0.7 
2.1 
8.0 
0.6 

3.4 



At less 
than 5 
years of 



100.0 



97.5 



0.6 
3.4 
0.4 



18.5 
70.8 
71.2 
70.5 
14.8 



0.8 
2.1 
0.4 



27.2 
79.0 
77.0 
77.1 
8.9 



25.2 

18.5 
1.0 
0.6 
0.5 
2.7 
0.2 
0.3 
0.6 
0.7 

72.3 

53.4 
2.8 
1.8 
3.3 
1.0 
0.7 
2.1 
6.8 
0.4 

2.5 



At 5 to! 
years 
of age. 



0.7 
1.6 
0.2 



25.2 
81.9 
80.5 
80.6 
7.4 



100.0 



95.9 



40.6 

28.1 
1.6 
0.6 
0.6 
4.2 
0.3 
0.6 
1.9 
2.7 

55.3 

34.4 
2.5 
1.4 
3.2 
1.7 
0.5 
1.6 
9.7 
0.3 

4.1 



At 10 

years of 

age or 

over. 



1.6 
2.1 
0.3 



40.6 
74.3 
71.1 
70.6 
11.7 



100.0 



90.0 



6.4 



2.1 
2.1 



0.7 

'iii 



83.6 

20.7 
5.7 
2.9 
3.6 
6.4 
2.1 
1.4 

40.0 
0.7 

10.0 



2.9 
5.7 
1.4 



6.4 
40.7 
36.4 
30.7 
41.4 



1 Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. 

' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

> Includes those reported as having lost their hearing in infancy but without statement as to the exact age. 



The adventitiously deaf who lost their hearing at the 
different ages also differ to some extent in regard to 
means of communication. Both among those who 
lost their hearing when less than 5 years of age and 



among those who lost it between the ages of 5 and 9, 
persons using writing, finger spelling, and the sign lan- 
guage ranked first in numerical importance and those 
using all four of the leading methods of communica- 



ABILITY TO READ LIPS. 



89 



tion second. The relative importance of the two 
groups differed widely, however, the first-mentioned 
group with respect to methods of commimication em- 
ployed representing considerably more than one-half 
(53.4 per cent) of those who lost their hearing during 
the first five years of life, as compared with a corre- 
sponding percentage of 18.5, or less than two-fifths, for 
the second group, while among those who list their 
hearing during the second quinquennimn the differ- 
ence had largely disappeared, the former group repre- 
senting 34.4 per cent, or sUghtly more than one-third, 
of the total and the second group 28.1 per cent, or 
considerably more than one-fourth. Of those who lost 
their hearing after the completion of the first decade 
of life, two-fifths (40 per cent) used miscellaneous 
methods only, this being due in part to the fact that 
they comprised persons who lost their hearing too late 
in life to attend a school for the deaf and who subse- 
quently lost the faculty of speech which they had ac- 
quired before loss of hearing and also a few persons 
whose loss of speech was due to mental or physical 
infirmity not connected with their deafness. 

Of the congenitally deaf only 18.5 per cent Gess than 
one-fifth) reported the use of speech as a means of com- 
munication, as compared with 27.2 per cent, or more 
than one-fourth, of the adventitiously deaf. Among 
those whose deafness was acquired when they were 
less than 5 years of age, the proportion reporting the 
use of speech was about one-fourth (25.2 per cent) ; but 
of those who were from 5 to 9 years of age when they 
became deaf, two-fifths (40.6 per cent) reported the 
use of speech. By reference to General Table 27 it wiU 
be seen that 9 persons who lost their hearing after reach- 
ing the age of 10 reported the use of speech as a means 
of communication. Inasmuch as persons who became 
deaf after reaching that age were included in the tabula- 
tion only when it appeared from the schedule that they 
had lost the power of speech as an effective means of 
communication with others, these were probably per- 
sons who used an occasional isolated word or phrase 
and on the strength of this reported themselves as 
using speech as a means of communication. 

Finger spelling was reported with greater frequency 
than any other method of communication by the con- 
genitally deaf. Among the adventitiously deaf as a 
group, however, as well as among those who lost their 
hearing during each of the first two quinquennia of 
life, writing was the means most frequently reported, 
while among those who lost their hearing after reach- 
ing the age of 10 the number using miscellaneous meth- 
ods exceeded the number using any of the ordinary 
means, although the number using writing was nearly 
as great. The proportions xising the three chief silent 
methods of communication were somewhat larger 
among the adventitiously deaf than among the con- 
genitally deaf, and among the former decreased with 
each succeeding group with respect to age when hear- 
ing was lost. The decrease was least pronounced in 



the case of writing, which was used by four-fifths 
(81.9 per cent) of those who lost their hearing under 
the age of 5 and two-fifths (40.7 per cent) of those who 
lost it after the age of 10, and most pronounced for the 
sign language, which was used by practically the same 
proportion of those who lost their hearing during the 
first quinquennium (80.6 per cent) as reported the use 
of writing, but by less than one-third (30.7 per cent) of 
those who lost it after reaching the age of 10; the pro- 
portion using finger spelUng decreased from 80.5 per 
cent among those who lost their hearing under the age 
of 5, or practically the same as the proportions using 
writing and the sign language, to 36.4 per cent among 
those who were 10 years of age or over when they 
became deaf. These differences of course result from 
the fact that persons who lose their hearing after the 
completion of the first decade of life have in the great 
majority of instances been to school and learned writ- 
ing, and the further fact that it is probably easier for 
such persons to learn finger spelling, which is merely 
a special method of expressing themselves in a lan- 
guage which they have abeady learned, than the more 
or less arbitrary code of the sign language, which in- 
volves almost as great difficulties as the acquisition 
of an entirely new language. 

Ability to read lips. — Closely related to the subject 
of methods employed in communicating with others 
is that of abihty to read lips, since the deaf who are 
taught to rely mainly on speech, supplemented by 
writing, as a means of communication with others 
are as a. rule taught to depend chiefly on lip reading 
as a means of learning what other persons wish to 
tell them. With a view to obtaining information 
as to the extent to which lip reading was practiced 
by the deaf and dumb, the following inquiry was 
inserted on the special schedule at the census of 1910: 

29. Can he understand what people say by watching the motion 
of their lips? 

The statistics obtained by means of this inquiry 
are summarized in Table 94 for the total and the male 
and female deaf and dumb 10 years of age or over in 
1910 for whom special schedules were returned. 



Table 94 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OP AGE OB 
OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE EE- 
TVRNBD: 1910.' 


SEX. 


Total. 


Able to read lips. 


Unable 

to read 

lips. 


Not re- 
porting 




Number. 


Percent 
of total.: 


as to 
abUity 
to read 

lips. 


Total 


17,000 


S,457 


32.9 


11, 154 


389 






Male 


9,328 
7,672 


2,682 
2,775 


29.4 
37.0 


6,431 
4,723 


215 


Female 


174 







1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

3 Based upon the population reporting as to ability to read lips. 

Of the 17,000 deaf-mutes 10 years of age or over 
in 1910 for whom special schedules were returned, 
5,457, representing about one-third (32.9 per cent) 



90 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



of the total number answering the inquiry on this 
subject, stated that they were able to understand 
what people said by watching the motion of their 
lips. It is doubtful, however, whether the number 
who habitually received communications from others 
through the medium of hp reading was so great, as 
instances were found where persons reported them- 
selves as able to read the hps who gave no evidence 
of ever having received any special instruction in 
schools for the deaf or elsewhere to assist them in 
overcoming the handicap of their defect. There is, 
of course, no question that even persons without 
special training may by watching the lips of others 
gain a certain idea of what they are saying, but it is 
questionable whether sufficient f acUity in lip reading 
to make it a permanently effective substitute for hear- 
ing is acquired in any considerable proportion of cases 
without such instruction. Another circumstance which 
makes it seem possible that the number reporting 
themselves as able to read the lips is somewhat too 
large is the fact that in a number of cases where the 
person returning the schedule claimed to be able to 
read the hps, the answer to the inquiry was of such a 
nature as to make it apparent that the abihty to read 
the lips was so slight as to be of little real value in 
taking the place of hearing. Although all such 
persons were tabulated as unable to read the lips, it is 
probable that other persons possessing no greater 
facihty in lip reading answered the inquiry on this 
point with an unquahfied affirmative and were ac- 
cordingly tabulated as able to read the lips. On the 
other hand, there is the circumstance that a con- 
siderable proportion of deaf-mutes who were not re- 
ported as deaf and dumb by the population enumer- 
ators because they were able to speak were also in 
all probability able to read the lips, although it is 
somewhat doubtful whether such persons would be 
sufficiently numerous to overcome the effect of the 
number erroneously answering the inquiry regarding 
lip reading in the affirmative. In addition to the 
considerations already mentioned as tending to sup- 
port the supposition that the percentage stating 
that they were able to read the Hps is above the true 
figure, it seems probable that those who failed to 
answer the inquiry on this subject did so in the great 
majority of instances because they did not under- 
stand it; this, of course, would imply that they 
actually could not read the lips, as if they did so they 
would most certainly have understood the inquiry.' 

* Cf. the following from the report for 1900: 

"Failure to reply to the simple question whether the person 
could or could not read the lips can only be taken as an indication 
of ignorance as to what is meant by the term 'lip-reading.' This 
involves the further point that the persons who failed to reply were, 
as a matter of fact, unable to read the lips, for if they could do so thjey 
would have known the meaning of the question, and no apparent 
reason exists why they should not have answered it. It is hardly 
conceivable that several thousands of persons should have failed 
to answer 'yes' or 'no' to that particular question while freely 
answering others, if they understood it.'— The Blind and the 
Deaf: 1900, p. 88. 



The proportion stating that they were able to read 
the lips was considerably higher for females than for 
males, 37 per cent, or more than one-third, of the 
females answering the inquiry reporting themselves 
as able to read the lips, as compared with 29.4 per 
cent, or considerably less than one-third, of the males. 
This higher percentage for females is, of coui-se, a 
natural Consequence of the larger percentage using 
speech as a means of communication, since lip read- 
ing, as already stated, is used chiefly as an adjunct to 
speech by those employing the latter as their prin- 
cipal means of communication. 

General Table 25 (p. 160) shows for each geographic 
division and state the number of deaf-mutes 10 years 
of age or over in 1910 for whom special schedules were 
returned who reported that they could read the lips. 
Table 95 summarizes the statistics in regard to the 
use of lip reading for the different divisions. 



Table 96 


DEAF AND DXmB POFTTLATION 10 YEABS OF AGE OB 
OVER FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEBE 

betubned: iiao.> 


DIVUUON. 


Total. 


Able to read lips. 


Unable 

to read 

lips. 


Not re- 
porting 




Number. 


Percent 
of total.' 


as to 
abiUty 
to read 

lips. 


United States 


17,000 


5,457 


32.9 


11,154 


389 






New England 


1,059 
3,537 
3,981 
2,538 
2,012 
1,626 
1,428 
312 
507 


464 
1,432 
1,249 
709 
566 
457 
363 
105 
112 


45.1 
41.6 
32.3 
28.5 
28.7 
28.7 
25.7 
34.3 
22.5 


564 
2,008 
2,623 
1,782 
1,407 
1,136 
1,047 
201 
386 


31 


Middle Atlantic 


97 


East North Central 


109 


West North Central 


47 


South Atlantic, 


• 39 


East South Central ... 


33 


West South Central 


18 


Mountain 


Q 


Padflc 


9 







> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

' Based upon the population reporting as to ability to read lips. 

The two divisions in which speech was most exten- 
sively usqd as a means of communication are also the 
ones in which the use of lip reading was most general, 
considerably more than two-fifths (45.1 per cent) of 
the deaf-mutes 10 years of age or over in 1910 for 
whom special schedules were returned and who an- 
swered the inquiry on this subject in the New England 
division, and 41.6 per cent of those in the Middle 
Atlantic division, reporting that they could read the 
lips. The proportion was in excess of one-third (34.3 
per cent) for the Mountain division also; on the other 
hand, it was less than one-foiu-th (22.5 per cent) in 
the Pacifio division, and in the West South Central 
division about one-fourth. In general, the order of 
the different divisions in respect to the percentage 
able to read the lips corresponds to their order in re- 
spect to the percentage using speech as a means of 
communication, the only important exception being 
the Pacific division, which ranks third in regard to the 
percentage using speech as a means of oommimication, 
but last in the percentage practicing lip reading. 

General Table 26 (p. 162) classifies the total and 
the male and female deaf-mute population 10 years 



ABILITY TO READ LIPS. 



91 



of agiB or over in each race and nativity class according 
to their ability to read the lips. Table 96 shows the 
number and proportion reporting that they could read 
the lips for each class without distinction of sex. 



Table 96 


deaf and dumb popx7lati0n 10 years of age oe 
ovek fob whom special schedules webe 
eetubned: 1910.1 


EACE AND NATEVITT. 


Total. 


Able to read lips. 


Unable 

to read 

lips. 


Not re- 
porting 




Number. 


Per cent 
of total. » 


as to 
ability 
to read 

lips. 




17,000 


5,457 


32.9 


11,154 


389 








15,957 


5,163 


33.1 


10,423 


371 






Native 


14,212 
1,745 

1,043 


4,535 
628 

294 


32,7 
36.9 

28.7 


9,351 
1,072 

731 


326 


Foreigxi-boni. .-.-- 


45 


Colored...................... 


18 








983 
60 


280 
14 


29.0 


686 
45 


17 


other colored.-- -..-.... 


1 







' Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

' Based upon the population reporting as to ability to read lips. 

' Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 

The number reporting themselves as able to read 
the lips was larger relatively among the foreign-born 
whites than in any other race and nativity class, 36.9 
per cent, or considerably more than one-third, of the 
persons in this nativity class who answered the in- 
quiry as to lip reading stating that they were able to 
do so, as compared with corresponding percentages of 
32.7, or less than one-third, for the native whites, and 
29, or about two-sevenths, for the Negroes. It is 
doubtful, however, whether lip reading is actually 
practiced to a greater extent by foreign-born whites 
than by native whites, as the high percentage for the 
former class is probably due in considerable measure to 
the fact that certain large institutions for the deaf ia 
New York City, which employ mainly the oral method, 
involving instruction in hp reading,and which comprise 
a considerable number of foreign-born white pupils, 
appear to have made a special effort to obtain the re- 
turn of the schedules sent to theirpupils. In addition, 
it must be borne in mind that persons reported as deaf 
and dumb by the population enumerators but failing 
to return the special schedide, who represented in large 
measure the more illiterate and uneducated deaf- 
mutes, probably formed a higher proportion of the 
foreign-born than of the native whites, while the deaf- 
mutes omitted by the population enumerators as not 
deaf and dumb for the reason that they had acquired 
the faculty of speech were probably, in the majority 
of instances, native whites, so that complete returns 
for all deaf-mutes would have resulted in a greater 
reduction relatively in the percentage reporting them- 
selves as able to read the hps in the case of the foreign- 
born than of the native whites. The circumstances 
just mentioned also make it seem probable that the 
actual difference between the Negroes and the two 
white classes in regard to the proportion able to read the 
hps was likewise much greater than is shown in the 



table; moreover, instances where the inquiry on this 
subject was erroneously answered in the affirmative 
are in all probability more numerous relatively among 
the Negroes than among the whites. 

Table 97 classifies the number who lost their hearing 
at the different ages among the deaf and dumb 10 
years of age or over in 1910 for whom special sched- 
ules were returned according to their abiUty to read 
the lips. 



Table 97 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OF AGE OE 
OVEB FOE WHOM SPECLUi SCHEDULES WERE EE- 
TUBNED: 1910.1 


AGE WHEN HEAEDfG WAS 
LOST. 


Total. 


Able to read lips. 


Unable 

to read 

lips. 


Not re- 
porting 




Number. 


Per cent 
oftotal.« 


as to 
ability 
to read 

lips. 


Total.. 


17,000 


5,457 


32.9 


11,154 


389 






Deafness congenital 


6,466- 
10,534 


1,796 
3,661 


28.5 
35.5 


4,498 
6,656 


172 


Deafness acQuiied '.- 


217 


At age of— 

Less than 5 years* 

.'5to9years 




8,305 

1,543 

140 

546 


2,699 

759 

34 

169 


33.1 
49.8 
25.0 
33.4 


6,453 
764 
102 
337 


153 
20 


10 years or over 

At age not reported 


4 
40 



1 Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. 
s Based upon the population reporting as to ability to read lips. 
> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 
* Includes those reported as having lost their nearing in infancy but without 
statement as to the exact age. 

The differences as regards ability to read the lips be- 
tween the various groups with respect to age when 
hearing was lost are of the same nature as the differ- 
ences in the extent to which speech is used as a means 
of communication. Of those who reported that their 
deafness was acquired and answered the inquiry as to 
lip reading, more than one-third (35.5 per cent) stated 
that they were able to read the hps, the corresponding 
percentage for the congenitaUy deaf being 28.5, or 
somewhat more than one-fourth. Practically one-half 
(49.8 per cent) of the adventitiously deaf who lost 
their hearing between the ages of 5 and 9 were able 
to read the Hps, as compared with about one-third 
(33.1 per cent) of those who lost it during the first 
quinquennium and one-fourth (25 per cent) of those 
who lost it after the completion of the first decade. 

The close relationship between the use of speech as a 
means "^of communication and the use of hp reading is 
brought out more clearly by Table 98, on the next page, 
whichshowsfor the deaf-mutes 10 years of age or overia 
1910 for whom schedules were returned, classified ac- 
cording to means of communication employed, the 
number and percentage who were able to read the lips. 

The fact that Hp reading is used mainly as an ad- 
junct of speech is brought out clearly by the circum- 
stance that of those who reported the use of speech 
and answered the inquiry as to Hp reading three- 
fourths (75.8 per cent) reported that they could 
read the Hps, while for those using the other lead- 
ing methods of coromunication the proportion was 
only about one-third (34.6 per cent in the case of 
those using writing, 32.1 per cent in the case of those 



92 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



using finger spelling, and 31.9 per cent in the case of 
those using the sign language). Moreover, among 
those using speech the proportion reading the lips 
was higher for those who used speech either alone or 
in combination with writing only than for those using 
it in combination with finger spelhng or the sign 
language, the two methods of communication peculiar 
to the deaf, practically nine-tenths (89.5 per cent) of 
those reporting that they used speech and writing 
only as means of communication and nearly seven- 
eighths (86.5 per cent) of those using speech only 
stating that they could read the hps, while the high- 
est proportion for any of the other groups was 79.1 
per cent, or nearly four-fifths, for those using speech, 
writing, and finger spelling. 



Table 98 



MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 



Total 

Keporting as to means of communication. . 

Usin^ speech as a means of communica- 
tion 

Reporting means of communication 

as— 
Speech, writing, finger spelling, and 

sign language 

Speech, writing, and finger spelling.. 
Speech, writing, and sign language. . 
Speech, finger spelling, and sign lan- 

gu^e 

Speech and writing 

Speech and finger spelling 

Speech and sign langu^e 

Speech and miscellaneous methods. . 
Speech only 



Not using speech as a means of commu- 
nication 

Keporting means of communication 
as- 
Writing, finger spelling, and sign 

language 

Writing and finger spelliag 

Writing and sign language 

Finger spelling and sign language 

Writing only 

Finger spelling only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous meuods 

Reporting no means of communication. 

Not reporting as to means of communica- 
tion 



Reporting themselves as able to speak. 
Reporting themselves as unable to speal 
Not reporting as to ability to speak 



Reporting use of— 

^eecb 

Writing 

Finger spelling 

Sign language 

Miscellaneous methods . 



DEAP AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS 
OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED; 1910.1 



Total. 



17,000 



16,367 



4,057 



2,880 
154 
100 

S4 

463 

31 

53 

127 

165 



12,310 



8,273 
521 
291 
625 
218 
142 
375 

1,767 
98 



633 



125 

443 

65 



4,057 
12,900 
12,710 
12,681 

1,894 



Able to read 
lips. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent of 
total.* 



5,457 



5,301 



3,044 



2,113 
121 



60 
409 
21 
37 
73 
141 



2,257 



1,396 

117 

81 

135 

83 

44 

86 

312 

3 



156 



3,044 
4,389 
4,007 
3,977 
385 



32.9 



33.0 



75.8 



74.1 
79.1 
69.0 

(') 

89.5 

(») 

(') 

57.5 

86.5 



18.7 



17.2 
22.9 
28.2 
22.1 
39.2 
32.6 
23.6 
18.0 
(») 



28.9 



67.9 
16.4 
(») 



75.8 
34.6 
32.1 
31.9 
20.7 



Unable 

to read 

lips. 



Not re- 
port- 
ing as 

to 

ability 

to read 

lips. 



11,154 



10,770 



974 



738 
32 
31 

24 
48 
9 
16 
54 
22 



9,796 



6,708 

394 

206 

476 

129 

91 

279 

1,419 

94 



384 



35 

321 

28 



974 
8,286 
8,472 
8,478 
1,473 



389 

"iii 



29 
1 



2 
257 



169 
10 

4 
14 

6 

7 

10 
36 

1 



93 



16 
59 
18 



39 
225 
231 
226 

36 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

< Based upon the population reporting as to ability to read lips. 

a Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 

Inasmuch as those reporting the use of miscellaneous 
methods of communication comprise for the most 
part persons who had never received any special 
instruction after the loss of their hearing, the fact that 
one-fifth (20.7 per cent) of them also claimed to be able 
to read the lips gives further support to what has 
already been said as to the probability that the num- 
ber reporting themselves as able to read the Hps ex- 



ceeded the number actually possessing a sufficient 
facility in lip reading to render it of substantial assist- 
ance in communicating with others. It is, of course, 
possible that a certain number had actually mastered 
the art of lip reading so that they were able to a con- 
siderable extent to make it a substitute for hearing, 
but most of them probably possessed little, if any, 
more facility in reading the lips than is possessed by 
normal persons, to whom the movements of the lips 
are frequently of assistance in understanding the 
speech of others. The fact that among the deaf and 
dumb who reported as to means of communication 
employed but did not specify speech among the meth- 
ods used the proportion stating that they could read 
the hps was highest (39.2 per cent, or nearly two-fifths) 
for those using writing only also tends to confirm this 
view. The circumstance that among the groups re- 
porting as to means of communication the percentage 
able to read the hps was lowest (17.2 per cent, or 
slightly more than one-sixth) in the case of those re- 
porting that they used all of the leading means of 
communication except speech, who presumably were 
the best educated among those who did not employ 
speech, brings out still further the close connection 
between the use of speech and hp reading. 

OCCUPATIONS AND ECONOMIC STATUS. 

One of the most interesting and important subjects 
which can be considered in any statistical study of the 
deaf-mute population is that of their occupations, by 
reason of the fact that on account of their defect they 
are restricted to a certain extent in their choice of 
occupations and also, at least in a considerable pro- 
portion of cases, affected as to their earning capacity. 
In order to bring out the relative extent to which the 
deaf and dumb returning schedules were carrying on 
gainful occupations, Table 99 is presented, which 
shows the number and percentage gainfully employed 
among the male and the female deaf-mutes 10 years 
of age or over in each race and nativity class in 1910 
for whom schedules were returned. 



Table 99 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF 
AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECTAL SCHEDULES 
WERE RETURNED: 1910.1 


PER CENT 

GAINFULLY 

EMPLOYED 

IN GENERAL 


BACE AND 


Male. 


Female. 


10 YEARS OF 
AGE OB 
OVERl OF 
SAME BACE 
AND NATIV- 
ITY: 1910. 


NATIVITY. 


Total. 


Gainfully em- 
ployed. 


Total. 


Gainfully em- 
ployed. 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
cent of 
total. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


All Classes- 


9,328 


6,659 


60.7 


7,672 


1,213 


16.8 


81.3 


23.4 


White 


8,760 


8,320 


60.7 


7,197 


1,039 


14.4 


80.6 


19.6 




Native 

Foreign-bom. 

Colored 


7,786 
974 

568 


4,667 
653 

339 


59.9 
67.0 

59.7 


6,426 
771 

475 


858 
181 

174 


13.4 
23.5 

36.6 


77.9 
90.0 

87.0 


19.2 
21.7 

63.7 




Negro 

Other colored. 


535 
33 


325 
14 


60.7 
(«) 


448 
27 


170 

4 


37.9 
(«) 


87.4 
80.8 


64.7 
17.6 



I Includes the small number whose age was not repwted. 
' Per cent not shown where base is less than 100. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



93 



Of the 9,328 male deaf-mutes 10 years of age or over 
in 1910 for whom schedules were returned, 5,659, 
representing 60.7 per cent, or about three-fifths, were 
reported as being gainfully employed, as compared 
with a corresponding percentage of 81.3 for the total 
male population of that age. Of the 7,672 female 
deaf-mutes of the same age returning schedules, 1,213, 
representing 15.8 per cent, or about one-sixth, were 
reported as gainfully employed, the corresponding per- 
centage for the general population being 23.4. In 
view of the fact that deaf-mutes ordinarily enter and 
leave school at a later age than hearing persons, and 
consequently commence earning their living later in 
life, it is possible that a comparison based upon the 
population 20 years of age or over would be somewhat 
more favorable to the deaf and dumb. The figures 
make it evident, however, that deaf-mutism is the 
cause of a serious economic loss to the community, the 
loss apparently being greatest relatively in the case of 
females. This is probably to be explained in large 
measure by the fact that gainful employment is not a 
matter of necessity for women to the same extent that 
it is for men, so that the former are perhaps more likely 
to be deterred fj-om such employment by physical 
defects than are the latter. Another factor which 
may have some influence in this connection is the 
circimastance that the proportion of persons who have 
received any education and thus are equipped in some 
measure for overcoming the disadvantages attendant 
upon their defect is smaller among female deaf-mutes 
than among males. It must, however, be remembered 
that some of the females not reporting a gainful em- 
ployment were engaged in household tasks in the home, 
work of distinct economic value to the community. 

Of the several race and nativity classes for which 
the percentages gainfully employed among the 
deaf and dumb are given in the table, the foreign- 
bom whites show the highest percentage among 
the males (67) and the native whites the lowest 
(59.9), although that for Negroes was nearly as low 
(60.7). In the case of the females the Negroes 
show the highest percentage (37.9) and the native 
whites the lowest (13.4). These differences reflect in 
a general way the differences in the corresponding per- 
centages in the general population, although the 
variations among the several classes for the total and 
the deaf and dumb population differ somewhat in 
degree. It will be observed that in the case of males 
the difference between the percentage gainfully em- 
ployed among the deaf and dumb and in the total 
population was greatest relatively for the Negroes and 
least for the native whites, a circumstance which is 
probably due to the difference in the extent to which 
the deaf-mutes in the respective race and nativity 
classes have been to a special school for the deaf 
and learned a trade or other occupation. In the case 
of females, however, the relative difference between 
the percentages gainfully employed in the general 
population and among the deaf and dumb returning the 



special schedules was approximately the same for the 
native whites and the Negroes, •vvhile for the foreign- 
bom whites the percentage was actually higher among 
the deaf and dumb represented in the tabulation 
than in the general popidation (23.5 as compared 
with 21.7). This latter variation is, however, some- 
what difficult to explain. 

The population enumerators were instructed, in 
making their returns as to occupation, to make the 
entry own income in the case of all persons who 
followed no specific occupation but had an independent 
income upon which they were living. An examina- 
tion of the returns makes it apparent that there was a 
considerable diversity of interpretation in the applica- 
tion of these instructions, some enumerators reporting 
"own income" only when such income was adequate 
for the support of the person enumerated, while others 
went so far as to make this return for persons receiving 
coimty poor reUef. For this reason statistics on this 
subject are somewhat inaccurate; as a matter of in- 
terest, however, a separate tabulation was made of the 
persons for whom this return was made. The total 
number of such persons, as wiU be seen from General 
Table 28 (p. 166), was 140, representing only 1.4 per 
cent of the total deaf and dumb population 10 years 
of age or over not gainfully employed for whom special 
schediiles were retm-ned; most of these were whites, 
only 5 being colored. 

General Table 28 (p. 164) presents statistics as to the 
occupations of the male and female deaf and dumb pop- 
ulation 10 years of age or over in 1910 for whom spe- 
cial schedides were returned, classified according to race 
and nativity. In order to bring out more clearly the 
important occupations for the deaf and dumb. Table 
100, on the following page, is presented, showing 
the leading occupations, arranged in order of numerical 
importance, for the male deaf-mutes 10 years of age 
or over, classified according to race and nativity. 

Practically three-fifths (59.5 per cent) of the male 
deaf-mutes reporting an occupation were employed 
in some one of the 10 leading occupations shown in 
the table, comprising all in which as many as 100 
males were employed. Farmers were most important 
numerically, representing 14.8 per cent, or about one- 
seventh, of the total number of deaf and dumb males 
gainfully employed and returning schedules; it is in- 
teresting to note that this percentage is approximately 
the same as the corresponding proportion for the 
general male population 10 years of age or over 
gainfully employed (18.8 per cent). Agricultural 
laborers, not including those on the home farm or 
connected with the stock raising industry, ranked 
next, forming 12.1 per cent (or about one-eighth) of 
the total, and agricultural laborers on the home farm 
third, with 8 per cent of the total. These three occu- 
pations together comprised 34.8 per cent, or a httle 
more than one-third, of the total, a proportion prac- 
tically the same as that for the total male population 
10 years of age or over gainfully employed (33.8 per 



94 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



cent). Laborers "not otherwise specified" ranked 
fourthj with 6 per cent of the total; these included 
maialy persons reporting that they were laborers 
without indicating any industry and were presuma- 
bly in the great majority of instances common manual 
laborers, but in a considerable number of cases they 



were persons who picked up a more or less precari- 
ous living by doing odd jobs and chores. Persons 
engaged in the various printing trades ranked fifth, 
with 4.7 per cent of the total; the importance of this 
class of occupations for the deaf and dumb is well 
known. 



Table lOO 


MALE DEAF AND DXJMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OP AGE OR OVER GAnWULLT EMPLOYED FOR WHOM SPECIAL 

SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910.' 


OCCUPATION. 


Number. 


Per cent distribution. 




All 
classes. 


White. 


Colored. 


AU 
classes. 


White. 


Colored.* 




Total. 


Native. 


For- 
eign- 
born. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Other 
col- 
ored. 


Total. 


Native. 


For- 
eign- 
bom. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Total 


5,659 


5,320 


4,667 


653 


339 


325 


14 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 








836 
684 
452 
340 
266 

216 
187 
142 
139 
104 

84 
83 
82 
65 
1,979 


807 
591 
398 
303 
264 

211 
184 
142 
136 
102 

70 
83 
79 
65 
1,885 


743 
541 
366 
269 
244 

177 
165 

89 
121 

87 

63 
70 
62 
56 
1,614 


64 
50 
32 
34 
20 

34 
19 
53 
15 
15 

7 
13 
17 

9 
271 


29 
93 
54 
37 
2 

5 

3 




27 
90 
53 
35 
2 

5 
3 


2 
3 
1 
2 


14.8 
12.1 
8.0 
6.0 
4.7 

3.8 
3.3 
2.5 
2.5 
1.8 

1.5 
1.5 
1.4 
1.1 
35.0 


15.2 

11.1 

7.5 

5.7 

5.0 

4.0 
3.5 
2.7 
2.6 
1.9 

1.3 
1.6 
1.5 
1.2 
35.4 


15.9 

11.6 

7.8 

5.8 

5.2 

3.8 
3.5 
1.9 
2.6 
1.9 

1.3 
1.5 
1.3 
1.2 
34.6 


9.8 
7.7 
4.9 
5.2 
3.1 

5.2 
2.9 
8.1 
2.3 
2.3 

1.1 
2.0 
2.6 
1.4 
41.5 


8.6 
27.4 
15.-9 
10.9 

0.6 

1.5 
0.9 


8.3 


Agricultural laborers (working out, not in stock raising). 
Agricultural laborers (home farm) 


27.7 
16.3 


Laborers (not otherwise specified) 


10 8 


Printers, lithographers, and pressmen 


6 


Custom work and repairing on boots and shoes 


1 5 


Carpenters 


9 


Tailors 




Painters, glaziers, and vamishers 


I 
14 


3 
2 

13 


1 


0.9 
0.6 

4.1 


9 




6 


T.nTnber-TTiin wnrVftrs .... 


4 


Cabinet workers 




Tobacco and cigar workers 


3 


3 




0.9 


9 


Foundry and metal-working establishment workers 




All others 


94 


89 


5 


27.7 


27 4 







1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



2 Per cent distribution ot "Other colored" not shown, as base is less than 100. 



Some difference exists between the respective race 
and nativity classes in regard to the leading occupa- 
tions for the deaf and dumb males. In the case of 
the native whites the rank of the principal occupations 
is practically the same as for all classes combined, 
and the distribution among the various occupational 
groups is also approximately the same. For the 
foreign-bom whites also farmers ranked first in im- 
portance, although they formed a much smaller pro- 
portion of the total than in the case of the native 
whites (9.8 per cent, or about one-tenth, as com- 
pared with 1 5.9 per cent, or nearly one-sixth) . Tailors, 
however, who ranked only eighth for all classes com- 
bined and ninth for the native whites, ranked second 
for the foreign-bom whites, representing 8.1 per cent 
of the total. Agricultural laborers working out, not 
in stock raising, ranked third, with 7.7 per cent of the 
total, whUe laborers "not otherwise specified" and 
persons engaged in custom work and repairing on 
boots and shoes followed, each with 5.2 per cent of the 
total. Among the Negroes agricultural laborers work- 
ing out constituted the most numerous class, repre- 
sentiQg 27.7 per cent, or more than one-fourth, of the 
total number of males reporting an occupation. Agri- 
cultural laborers on the home farm ranked second, with 
16.3 per cent, or about one-sixth, of the total, and 
laborers "not otherwise specified" third, with 10.8 
per cent, or one-tenth, of the total. The three occu- 
pations just mentioned gave employment to consid- 
erably more than one-half (54.8 per cent) of the Negro 
males reported as gainfully employed. Farmers 



ranked fourth, constituting 8.3 per cent of the total, 
and lumber-mill workers fifth, with 4 per cent of the 
total. Of the 14 males included imder the heading of 
"Other colored" who were reported as gainfully em- 
ployed, 9 were engaged in agricultural or kindred pur- 
suits (see General Table 28, p. 164). 

Table 101 shows for the female deaf-mutes return- 
ing schedules statistics similar to those shown in Table 
100 for males. 

Nearly one-half (48.6 per cent) of the female deaf- 
mutes gainfully employed and returning schedules 
were employed in one of the four leading occupations 
shown in the table, these comprising all occupations 
giving employment to as many as 60 females. Serv- 
ants were most numerous, forming 20.5 per cent, or 
about one-fifth, of the total, while dressmakers ranked 
second, with 10.2 per cent, or about one-tenth, of the 
total; the number of laundresses, who ranked third, 
was practically the same as the number of dressmakers, 
forming 1 0. 1 per cent of the total. Seamstresses ranked 
fourth and agricultural laborers on the home farm fifth. 

The differences between the several race and nativ- 
ity classes with respect to the principal occupations 
reported for the female deaf and dumb are on the 
whole somewhat less pronounced than was the case 
with the males. For the native whites, as for aU 
classes combined, servants and dressmakers ranked 
first and second, respectively, representing practically 
the same proportions of the total as for all classes 
combined (20.4 per cent and 11 per cent). Laim- 
dresses and seamstresses exchanged places, the latter 



OCCUPATIONS. 



95 



representing 8.2 per cent of tlie total and the former 
6.1 per cent, while housekeepers ranked fifth, although 
it is possible that the latter class includes some mar- 
ried women living at home who were erroneously re- 
ported as having a gainful occupation. Servants and 
dressmakers ranked first among the foreign-bom whites, 
each group contributing 15.5 per cent, or nearly one- 
sixth, of the total; as in the case of the native whites, 
seamstresses ranked third and laundresses fourth, with 
9.4 and 8.8 per cent, respectively. Fifth place among 
the foreign-bom white females, however, was held by 
taUoresses, who ranked only eleventh for all classes 
combined. The importance of the clothing industries 
as a means of occupation for foreign-bom white female 
deaf-mutes appears from the fact that dressmakers, 
seamstresses, tailoresses, and other garment workers 
(including shirt, collar, and cuff makers), taken 
together, comprised 33.7 per cent, or about one- 



third, of the total number returning schedules who 
were reported as gainfully occupied. This probably 
results in part from the fact that the foreign-bom 
whites are largely concentrated in cities, where the 
clothing industry is most extensively carried on. Of 
the Negroes, nearly one-third (31.8 per cent) were 
laimdresses or washerwomen and more than one- 
fourth (27.1 per cent) servants, while agricultural la- 
borers working out ranked third, with 19.4 per cent, or 
nearly one-fifth, of the total, and agricultural laborers 
on the home farm fourth, with 14.1 per cent, or about 
one-seventh, of the total. The four occupations speci- 
fied comprised 92.4 per cent, or more than nine-tenths, 
of the female Negro deafrmutes for whom an occupa- 
tion was reported, this narrow range of occupations 
bringing out the fact that Httle progress has yet been 
made towards helping this class of deaf-mutes to over- 
come the handicap resulting from their defect. 



Table lOl 



OCCUPATION. 



Total.. 



Servants (not including waitresses). 

DressmakeTs 

Laundresses (not in lavindries) 

Seamstresses 

Agricultural laborers (home (arm). . . 



All other and not specified agricultural laborers. 

Fanners (including dairy farmers) 

Housekeepers 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Cotton-mill operatives 



Tailoresses 

Garment workers (not otherwise specified) . 

Boot and shoe factory workers 

Professors, school principals, and teachers . . 
Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 



Lace and embroidery makers 

Tobacco and cigar workers 

Canvassers and agents (not elsewhere classified) . 
All others 



FEMALE DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEAKS OF AGE OE OVEE GAINFULLY EMPLOYED FOE WHOM SPEaAL 

SCHEDULES WEEE EETURNED: W10.> 



Number. 



All 
classes. 



1,213 



249 
124 
123 
93 
57 

51 
48 
46 
28 
27 

24 
23 
20 

ig 

17 

16 
13 
13 

222 



White. 



Total. 



1,039 



203 
122 
68 
87 
33 

18 
45 
45 
28 
27 

24 
22 
20 
19 
17 

16 

13 

13 

219 



Native. 



858 



175 
94 
52 
70 
31 

16 
39 
41 
24 
20 

14 
17 
17 
17 
16 

15 

11 

13 

176 



For- 
eign- 
bom. 



181 



43 



Colored. 



Total. 



174 



Negro. 



170 



Other 
col- 
ored. 



Per cent distribution. 



All 



100.0 



20.5 

10.2 

10.1 

7.7 

4.7 

4.2 
4.0 
3.8 
2.3 
2.2 

2.0 
1.9 
1.6 
1.6 
1.4 

1.3 

1.1 

1.1 

18.3 



White. 



Total. 



100.0 



19.5 
11.7 
6.5 
8.4 
3.2 

1.7 
4.3 
4.3 
2.7 
2.6 

2.3 
2.1 
1.9 
1.8 
L6 

1.5 

1.3 

1.3 

21.1 



Native. 



100.0 



20.4 
11.0 
6.1 
8.2 
3.6 

1.9 
4.5 
4.8 
2.8 
2.3 

1.6 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
1.9 

1.7 

1.3 

1.5 

20.5 



For- 
eign- 
bom. 



100.0 



15.5 

15.5 

8.8 

9.4 

1.1 

1.1 
3.3 
2.2 
2.2 
3.9 

5.5 
2.8 
1.7 
1.1 
0.6 

0.6 
1.1 



23.8 



Colored.' 



Total. 



100.0 



26.4 
LI 

3L6 
3.4 

13.8 

19.0 
L7 
0.6 



0.6 



1.7 



Negro. 



100.0 



27.1 
L2, 

3L8 
3.5 

14.1 

19.4 
L2 
0.6 



1.2 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



' Per cent distribution of "Other colored" not shown, as base is less than 100. 



Obviously there are certain general classes of occu- 
pations from which deaf-mutes are by reason of their 
defect more or less debarred, whereas in others their 
defect would be little, if any, handicap. It thus be- 
comes of interest to compare the distribution among 
the general groups of occupations of the deaf and 
dumb for whom schedules were returned with the cor- 
responding distribution of the general population. 
While the main occupational groups forming the basis 
of the tabulation of the occupation statistics for the 
deaf and dumb differed slightly from those used in 
the general occupation tabulation, the resultant in- 
comparability is not sufficient to affect the significance 
of such a comparison, which is therefore presented in 
Table 102, on the following page. 

From this table it appears that deaf-mutism con- 
stitutes less of a bar to employment in manufacturing 



and mechanical pursuits and building and hand trades 
than in any other broad occupational group, 47.7 per 
cent, or nearly one-half, of those gainfully employed 
and returning schedules being engaged in occupations 
of this character, as compared with a corresponding 
percentage of only 29.3, or less than one-third, for 
the general population. If the occupational classi- 
fication for the deaf and dumb and the general popu- 
lation had been identical, it is probable that the 
difference would have been even greater, as laborers 
"not otherwise specified," who in the statistics for 
the deaf and dumb were tabiJated as engaged in 
unclassifiable occupations, appear in the general 
occupational tabiilation to have been classified for 
the most part in the manufacturing and mechanical 
group. The proportions engaged in agrioulttire and 
aUied industries were almost identical, being 35 



96 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



per cent for the deaf and dxunb and 34.7 per cent for 
the general population, or somewhat more than one- 
third in each case. The percentages engaged in all 
the other occupational groups shown in the table 
were, however, substantially higher for the general 
population than for the deaf and dumb. The differ- 
ence is especially marked in the case of those engaged 



in transportation and trade, who represented 7.2 and 
9.9 per cent, respectively, of the general population 
gainfully employed, as compared with only 1.4 and 
2.6 per cent, respectively, of the deaf and dumb ; it is 
obvious that for such occupations deaf-mutism woidd 
ia the great majority of instances be an insuperable 
bar. 



Table 102 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OF AGE OB OVER GAINFULLY 
EMPLOYED FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 
1910.' 


per cent distribution of 
total population 10 years 
of age oh over gainfully 
employed: 1910.8 


OCCUPATIONAL GROUP. 


Both 


sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 






Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


"Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Number. 


Per cent 
distribu- 
tion. 


Female. 


Total 


6,424 


100.0 


5,239 


100.0 


1,185 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 






Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries 


2,246 
51 

3,067 
91 

170 
20 
141 
638 


35.0 
0.8 

47.7 
1.4 

2.6 
0.3 
2.2 
9.9 


2,083 
51 

2,547 
89 

149 

19 

113 

188 


39.8 
1.0 

48.6 
1.7 

2.8 
0.4 
2.2 
3.6 


163 


13.8 


34.7 
2.6 

. 29.3 
7.2 

9.9 

1.3 

4.6 

10.4 


37.5 
3.3 

30.5 
8.7 

10.9 
1.5 
3.2 
4.3 


24.2 


ExtraRt.inTi of miTierals 


(') 


Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits and building and hand 
trades 


520 
2 

21 

1 

28 

450 


43.9 
0.2 

1.8 

0.1 

2.4 

38.0 


24.3 


Transportation ; 


1.4 


Trade 


6.3 


Public service (not elsewhere classified) 


0.2 




9.8 




33.8 







1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. Persons tabulated in General Table 28 as in occupations not peculiar to any industry or service group and 
in imclassifiable occupations are excluded. 

2 Includes those whose age was not reported. Persons in clerical occupations are excluded. 
' Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 



When comparisons are made for males and females 
certain variations appear. For males not only the 
proportion engaged in manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits and building and hand trades but also the 
proportion engaged in agricultural and kindred pur- 
suits was higher among the deaf and dumb than in 
the general population. For females, on the other 
hand, the proportion of the deaf and dumb engaged 
in agricultural and kindred pursuits was only 13.8 
per cent, as compared with 24.2 per cent in the general 
population; this, however, is probably due in part to 
the small proportion of Negroes returning schedides, 
since nearly three-fifths (58.1 per cent) of the females 
reported as engaged in agricultural and kindred pur- 
suits at the census of 1910 belonged to this race. The 
proportion engaged in domestic and personal service 
was shghtly higher for deaf and dumb females than for 
the total female population, the percentages being 
38 and 33.8, respectively. It is interesting to 
observe that the difference between the proportions 
engaged in manufacturing, mechanical, and allied 
pursxiits was even greater relatively for females than 
for males, the percentage being 43.9 for the deaf and 
dumb and 24.3 for the general population in the former 
instance, as compared with corresponding percentages 
of 48.6 and 30.5 for males. 

In the occupation tabulation for the general popu- 
lation "clerical occupations," under which head were 
included bookkeepers, stenographers and typewriters, 
clerks (except clerks in stores), and others in related 
occupations, were shown as a separate main group. 
Partly by reason of the shght extent to which such 
occupations would be carried on by the deaf and 



dumb, a similar separation was not made in the occu- 
pation statistics for the deaf and dimib, but the small 
number engaged in such occupations were grouped 
with a few others as "in occupations not peculiar to 
any one industry or service group." While an exact 
comparison between the relative numbers engaged in 
clerical occupations among the deaf and dmnb and in 
the total population is for this reason not obtainable, 
a general indication of the difference in relative impor- 
tance may be obtained by comparing the figures for 
bookkeepers, cashiers, and accountants, clerks (not in 
stores), and. stenographers and typewriters. Persons 
engaged in these occupations constituted 4 per cent of 
the total number of persons 10 years of age or over 
gainfully employed in the general population. Among 
the deaf and dumb, on the other hand, only 56 persons 
were reported as engaged in bookkeeping or kindred 
occupations or as clerks other than in stores; the 
number of stenographers and typewriters, if any, was 
not tabulated separately, but even if it be assumed 
that the 19 persons shown in General Table 28 under 
the head of "All others" for occupations not peculiar 
to any one industry or service group were all stenog- 
raphers and typewriters, which is of course not the 
case, the proportion of the gainfully employed deaf 
and dumb returning schedtdes included in these three 
occupational classes woidd be only 1.1 per cent. 

The only foreign coimtries for which detailed sta- 
tistics in regard to the occupations of the deaf and 
dumb are available are England and Wales, Scotland, 
and Ireland. Table 103 shows for these ooxmtries 
the five leading occupations reported, respectively, 
for the male and the female deaf and dumb in 1911, 



OCCUPATIONS. 



97 



together with the percentage which the number 
employed in the respective occupations and in the 
five leading occupations taken together represented 
of the total reporting an occupation. 



Table 103 


N. 




DEAF AND DUMB 
POPULATION EE- 
POETINO SPECI- 
FIED OCCUPATION. 


COUNTET, SEX, AND OCCTTPATIC 


Number. 


Per cent 
of total 
reporting 
an occu- 
pation. 


England and Wat.es: 1911.' 

MAT.F.a. 

Alloccuoations... . 


4,830 


100.0 












1,777 


36.8 












657 
429 

304 
201 
186 

1,760 


13.6 


Tailors 


8.9 


Agricultural laborers, farm servants, 


not 


otherwise 


6.3 


Oftblnfttmakors . , , 


4.2 


G^Anfiral laborers 


3 9 


FEMALES. 

All occupations 


100 










Five leading occupations 


1,074 


61 












348 

277 
227 
134 

88 

1,145 


19.8 


Domestic indoor servants, other than in 


hotels, lodging 


15.7 


Laundry workers; washers, ironers, manglers 
Tailors 


,etc 


12.9 
7.6 




5.0 


Ibelaitd: 1911. 

MALES. 


100 










Five leadine occuDations 


930 


81 2 












394 
214 
169 
106 
47 

470 


34.4 


Fanners 


18 7 


Tailors 


14.8 




9.3 


Saddlers 


4 1 


FEMALES. 

All occupations 


100 












354 


75 3 










Servants 


166 
66 
58 
45 

19 
1,242 


35 3 


MilliTiPTs, <1ressmalfprR 


14 




12 3 




9 6 


Tactory workers (including winders, reelers 


spinners. 


4.0 


MALES. 

All occupations - - - 


100 












334 


26.9 










Tailors 


145 
75 
44 

40 
30 

543 


11.7 


Boot, f?hoo makers 


6 




3.5 


Agricultural laborers, farm servants. 


not 


otherwise 


3.2 


Bookbinders 


2.4 


FEMALES. 

All occupations 


100 










Five leading occupations 


242 


44 6 










, Dressmakers 


86 

68 
32 
29 
27 


15.8 


Domestic indoor servants, other than in 
houses, and eating houses 


hotels, lodging 


12.5 


Laundry workers; washers, ironers, manglers, etc 

Hemp, jute, manufacture *. 


5.9 
5.3 


Tailors 


6 







• Figures include persons returned simply as dumb. 

2 Figures cover the deaf, the dumb, and the deaf and dumb. 

The leading occupations for the deaf and dumb ia 
the cotmtries shown in the table are, to a considerable 
extent, the same as in the United States. Thus serv- 

50171°— 18 7 



ants, who rank first among the female deaf-mutes 
in the United States, also rank first among the deaf 
and dumb females in Ireland and second in England 
and Wales and in Scotland, while dressmakers, who 
hold second place in the United States, are first in 
England and Wales and in Scotland. Farmers, who 
lead among males in the United States, rank second 
in Ireland, and agricultural laborers, who are next in 
importance to farmers in the United States, rank 
third in England and Wales and fourth in Scotland, 
while general laborers are also among the five leading 
classes in England and Wales and Scotland and 
laborers in Ireland, these latter classes corresponding 
to laborers "not otherwise specified" for the United 
States, the occupational class ranking next to agri- 
cultural laborers among male deaf-mutes. 

The report on the census of the deaf and dumb in 
the German Empire in 1900 also gives statistics as to 
the occupations of the deaf and dumb, the classifica- 
tion, however, being by industry groups. According 
to this report, occupations connected with agricul- 
ture, gardening, and animal husbandry gave employ- 
ment to a larger number, both' of deaf and dumb 
males and of deaf and dumb females, than any other 
industry group named, comprising 5,307, or 32.2 per 
cent, of the 16,490 deaf and dumb males, and 3,412, 
or 41.7 per cent, of the 8,182 deaf and dumb females 
reported as having an occupation. The group of 
occupations included under the heading "Clothing 
and cleansing" ranked second both for males and 
for females, with 4,635, or 28.1 per cent of the total, 
in the former instance, and 2,648, or 32.4 per cent of 
the total, in the latter. "Woodwork and carving" 
ranked third for males, with 1,668, and the group 
included under the heading "Household service (in- 
cluding personal service) and labor of miscellaneous 
character" for females, with 1,307. Separate sta- 
tistics were presented for those who had been deaf- 
mutes "since earhest youth" and those whose deaf- 
mutism had occurred later; there was, however, no 
very material difference in the relative importance of 
the principal occupation groups for the two classes. 

With a view to ascertaining more definitely the eco- 
nomic status of the deaf and dumb in the United States, 
so far as it could be determined from statistics relative 
to their occupations, questions were inserted on the 
special schedule asking whether, if the person for whom 
the schedule was returned was gainfully employed, he 
was self-supporting and was dependent on the occu- 
pation for a living, and also the amount of his annual 
earnings. General Table 29 (p. 167) contains a tabu- 
lation by occupation of the data obtained by means 
of these inquiries. Table 104 classifies the male and 
female deaf and dumb 10 years of age or over in 1910 
gainfully employed and returning special schedules 
according to their situation as to self-support and 
dependence on their occupation and also according to 
their annual earnings. 



98 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 104 



STATUS AS TO SELP-SUPPOET, DEPENDEKCE ON 
OCCUPATION, AND ANNUAL EASNINOS. 



Total. 



Reporting as to ability for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not self-supporting 

Not reporting as to ability for self-support 

Reporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation for living 

Not dependent on occupation for living 

Not reporting as to dependence on occupation . . 

Reporting annual earnings from occupation 

Reporting annual earnings of^ 

Less than $100 

JlOO but less than $200 

$200 but less than $300 

$300 but less than $400 

$400 but less than $500 

$500 but less than $600 

$600 but less than $800 

$800 but less than $1,000 

$1,000 but less than $1,200. 

$1,200 but less than $1,500 

$1,500 or over 

Not reporting annual earnings from occupation. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 
TEAKS OF AGE OR OVEB GAIN- 
FULLY EMPLOYED FOB WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RE- 
TURNED: 1910.1 



Male. 



Num- 
ber. 



5,659 



5,369 

4,386 
983 
290 

5,370 

4,640 

730 

289 

4,06ff 

375 

531 

486 

517 

455 

477 

665 

303 

137 

58 

65 

1,590 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tribu- 
tion. 



100.0 
81.7 
18.3 



100.0 
86.4 
13.6 



100.0 

9.2 

13.0 

11.9 

12.7 

11.2 

11.7 

16.3 

7.4 

3.4 

1.4 

1.6 



Female. 



Num- 
ber. 



1,213 



1,152 

753 

399 

61 

1,155 

818 

337 

58 

795 

242 

186 

131 

117 

61 

32 

16 

8 

1 



1 
418 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tribu- 
tion. 



100.0 
65.4 
34.6 



100.0 
70.8 
29.2 



100.0 

30.4 

23.4 

16.5 

14.7 

7.7 

4.0 

2.0 

1.0 

0.1 



0.1 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

Of the 6,521 deaf and dumb persons returning special 
schedules who were gainfully employed and reported 
as to whether or not they were self-supporting, 5,139, 
or nearly four-fifths (78.8 per cent), answered the in- 
quiry in the aflBrmative. The proportion was consider- 
ably higher for males than for females, 81.7 per cent, 
or more than four-fifths, of the former being self- 
supporting, as compared with 65.4 per cent, or nearly 
two-thirds, of the latter. 

In order to imderstand the fuU significance of the 
statistics regarding the situation as to self-support, 
however, the figures relating to the dependence of the 
deaf and dumb person on his occupation for a living 
must be taken into consideration. The number of 
males reporting that they were self-supporting was 
4,386, whereas 4,640 stated that they were dependent 
on their occupation for a living, so that 254 must have 
required assistance from friends or charitable agencies, 
either private or governmental. Similarly, while 753 
females stated that they were self-supporting, 818 
stated that they were dependent on their occupation 
for A living. These figures probably exaggerate the 
situation somewhat, as there is evidence that the in- 
quiry in regard to dependence on the occupation for a 
living was, in some cases at least, misunderstood; in- 
stances were found, for example, where a young deaf and 
dumb person living with his parents stated that he was 
dependent on his occupation for a living, although it is 
improbable that his dependence could have been very 
great. So far as the information on the schedule per- 
mitted, however, those only were tabulated as de- 
pendent on their occupation for a Hving who, in so far 
as their occupation did not support them, would have 



to depend upon charity for the necessities of life. The 
proportion dependent on their occupation was much 
higher for males than for females, being 86.4 per cent, 
or nearly seven-eighths, for the former, and 70.8 per 
cent, or somewhat more than two-thirds, for the latter. 
This difference results from the fact that a consider- 
able nmnber of the females tabidated as gainfully em- 
ployed were deaf and dumb women living with their 
families. Taking everything into consideration it is 
apparent that while the loss to the commimity result- 
ing from deaf-mutism should not be minimized, the 
deaf and dumb are, with proper training, in the great 
majority of instances able to make themselves pro- 
ductive and self-sustaining members of society. 

In this connection a comparison of the statistics 
relating to the economic status of the deaf and dumb 
with the statistics on the same subject obtained for the 
blind at the census of 1910 is of interest. Of the 1 7,000 
deaf-mutes 10 years of age or over in 1910 who re- 
turned schedules, 6,872, representing 40.4 per cent, or 
two-fifths, were reported as gainfully employed; but 
of the 28,501 blind persons of the same age returning 
schedules, only 4,782, representing 16.8 per cent, or 
one-sixth, were reported as employed. This com- 
parison is perhaps unduly favorable to the deaf and 
dumb, by reason of the fact that blindness is a defect 
peculiarly incident to old age, so that a considerable 
number of the blind had imdoubtedly retired from 
active employment when they lost their sight or 
would have done so before the date of the enumera- 
tion even if they had retained their vision. When 
the comparison is confined to the blind who lost their 
sight during the same period of life in which most of 
the deaf-mutes lost their hearing, namely, before 
reaching the age of 10, however, the contrast is nearly 
as marked, since out of the 5,577 blind persons 10 years 
of age or over returning schedules whose sight was lost 
before the completion of the first decade of life, only 
1,465, representing 26.3 per cent, or a little more than 
one-fourth, were engaged in a gainful occupation. 
The contrast is even more pronoimced when the sta- 
tistics as to self-support and dependence on the occu- 
pation for a living are considered. Of the 4,782 blind 
persons returning schedules who reported themselves 
as gainfully employed, only 1,891, or about two-fifths, 
stated that they were self-supporting, whereas 3,129 
stated that they were dependent on their occupation 
for a hving, so that at least 1,238 must have required 
outside assistance, as compared with a corresponding 
figure of only 319 in the case of the deaf and dumb, out 
of a total number gainfully employed which was larger 
by 2,100. These figures make it apparent that, as 
compared with the blind, deaf-mutes occupy a rela- 
tively fortxinate position. 

The figures in regard to annual earnings in Table 
104 make it clear, however, that the earning capacity 
of the deaf and dvunb is by no means high, and that in 
all probability it has been considerably restricted by 



ECONOMIC STATUS. 



99 



reason of their defect. Of the deaf and dumb males 
reporting as to their annual earnings, more than one- 
third (34.2 per cent) reported earnings of less than 
$300; this proportion, however, is much smaller than the 
corresponding proportion for the blind (65.1 per cent, 
or nearly two-thirds). To a certain extent the figure 
above given exaggerates the true situation, as a con- 
siderable number of deaf and dumb farmers apparently 
reported as their annual earnings merely the amount 
of cash actually received from the sale of farm prod- 
ucts, without taking into account the value of farm 
products produced during the year but consumed on 
the farm, and it is possible that similar understate- 
ments may have been made by some of those engaged 
in other occupations. On the other hand, those report- 
ing annual earnings of $1,000 or over constituted 
only 6.4 per cent of the total. In this case a compari- 
son with the blind is more favorable to the latter, of 
whom 8.1 per cent reported earnings of $1,000 or over; 
this is mainly due to the fact that blindness is ordi- 
narily not so much of a bar to occupations in trade or 
professional service, which are probably among the 
most highly remunerative, as is deaf-mutism. The 



median earnings of the deaf and dumb males returning 
schedules, on the assumption that those reporting 
were evenly distributed within the individual groups, 
were $427.58. The earnings of female deaf-mutes 
were much smaller than those of males, more than 
one-half (53.8 per cent) reporting earnings of less than 
$200, and more than two-thirds (70.3 per cent) earn- 
ings of less than $300. On the other hand, only 7.3 
per cent reported earnings of $500 or over, and ojily 
0.3 per cent earnings of $1,000 or over. The median 
earnings of the females reporting were $183.60. 

Table 105 shows the distribution according to status 
as to self-support, dependence on occupation for a 
living, and annual earnings of the male and female 
native white, foreign-bom white, and colored deaf- 
mutes 10 years of age or over in 1910 for whom special 
schedules were returned. While the Negroes and the 
other colored were not tabulated separately, the sta- 
tistics for the colored shown in the table may be 
regarded as affording an accurate representation of 
conditions among the Negroes, since of the 513 gain- 
fully employed colored persons returning schedules, 
all but 18 were Negroes. 



Table 105 



SIATtrS AS TO SELF-SUPPORT, DEPENDENCE ON 
OCCUPATION, AND ANNUAL EABNINGS. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OP AGE OR OVER GAINFULLY EMPLOYED FOE WHOM SPECLIL SCHEDULES 

WERE returned: 1910.1 



White. 



Native. 



Uale. 



Num- 
ber. 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



Female. 



Num- 
ber. 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



Foreign-born. 



Male. 



Num- 
ber. 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



' Female. 



Num- 
ber. 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



Colored. 



Male. 



Num- 
ber. 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



Female. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per cent 
distri- 
bution. 



Total 

Reporting as to ability for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not self-supporting 

Not reporting as to ability for self-support 

Reporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation for livme 

Not dependent on occupation for living 

Not reporting as to dependence on occupation. 

Reporting annual earnings from occupation 

Reporting annual earnings of— 

Less tlian $100 

SlOO but less tha&S200 

t200 but less than S300 

S3D0 but less than $400 

$400 but less than $500 

$500 but less than $600 

$600 but less than $800 

$800 but less than $1,000 

$1,000 but less than $1,200 

$1,200 butl6ssthan$l,500 

$1,500 or over 

Not reporting annualearnings from occupation 



4,667 



858 



653 



181 



174 



4,414 

3,593 

821 

253 

4,419 

3,822 

597 

248 

3,345 

281 

435 

401 

433 

376 

402 

547 

252 

112 

50 

56 

1,322 



100.0 
81.4 
18.6 



100.0 

86.5 
13.5 



100.0 

8.4 

13.0 

12.0 

12.9 

11.2 

12.0 

16.4 

7.5 

3.3 

1.5 

1.7 



812 

540 

272 

46 

811 

568 

243 

47 

556 

146 

134 

97 

86 

46 

25 

13 

7 

1 



100.0 
66.5 
33.5 



100.0 
70.0 
30.0 



100.0 

26.3 

24.1 

17.4 

15.5 

8.3 

4.5 

2.3 

1.3 

0.2 



1 
302 



0.2 



631 

563 

68 

22 

625 

553 

72 

28 

508 

21 
35 
53 
60 
66 
71 

112 

50 

24 

8 

8 

145 



100.0 
89.2 
10.8 



100.0 

88.5 
11.5 



100.0 

4.1 

6.9 

10.4 

11.8 

13.0 

14.0 

22.0 

9.8 

4.7 

1.6 

1.6 



174 
136 



176 

127 

49 

5 

1,28 

18 

29 

30 

27 

14 

6 

3 

1 



100.0 
78.2 
21.8 



100.0 
72.2 
27.8 



100.0 

14.1 

22.7 

23.4 

21.1 

10.9 

4.7 

2.3 

0.8 



324 

230 

94 

15 

326 

265 

61 

13 

216 

73 

61 

32 

24 

13 

4 

6 

1 

1 



100.0 
71.0 
29.0 



100.0 
81.3 
18.7 



100.0 



28.2 
14.8 
11.1 
6.0 
1.9 
2.8 
0.5 
0.5 



166 

77 



168 

123 

45 

6 

111 

78 
23 

4 
4 
1 
1 



100.0 
46.4 
53.6 



100.0 
73.2 
26.8 



100.0 

70.3 
20.7 
3.6 
3.6 
0.9 
0.9 



53 



1 
123 



0.5 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



Both for males and for females the number of the 
gainfully employed deaf and dumb for whom schedules 
were returned who, were self-supporting was larger 
relatively amor^ the foreign-born whites than for 
either of the other two classes shown in the table, 89.2 
per cent, or about nine-tenths, of the foreign-born 
white males and 78.2 per cent, or more than three- 
fourths, of the females who answered the inquiry on 



this point stating that they were self-supporting. This 
is probably due in part to the fact that the foreign-born 
whites are largely concentrated in cities, where there 
are more opportunities than elsewhere for industrial 
employment, in which deaf-mutism appears to be less 
of a handicap than in the case of most occupations, 
and it is also probable that the number living with 
relatives who contribute in part to their support is not 



100 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



so great, comparatively speaking, among the foreign- 
born whites as among the native classes; it -will be 
seen, for example, by reference to Table 100 that agri- 
cultm-al laborers working on the home farm comprised 
a larger proportion of the total in the case of the native 
white and the colored males than in that of the foreign- 
born white. It is possible, however, that the figures 
give too favorable an impression of the economic status 
of foreign-born white deaf-mutes, as there is reason 
to believe that persons failing to return the special 
schedule, who probably include to a considerable ex- 
tent the more ignorant and uneducated deaf-mutes, 
and who would therefore be less satisfactorily situated 
as to economic condition than those returning the 
schedules, were relatively numerous ia the case of the 
foreign-bom whites. Of the native white males, 81.4 
per cent, or more than four-fifths, stated that they 
were self-supporting, and of the females, 66.5 per cent, 
or about two-thirds; among the colored the proportions 
were 71 per cent, or somewhat more than two-thirds, for 
the males and 46.4 per cent, or less than one-half, for 
the females. It wUl be observed that the number both 
of males and of females among the foreign-bom whites 
who reported that they were self-supporting was 
greater than the number who reported that they were 
dependent on their occupation for a living, although 
the proportion reporting such dependence was higher 
for males among the foreign-born whites than in 
either of the other classes. 

When the statistics relative to annual earnings are 
compared for the several classes, the foreign-born 
whites agaia make the best showing. Of the foreign- 
born white males reporting as to their earnings, only 
21.5 per cent, or a little more than one-fifth, reported 
earnings of less than $300, as compared with 33.4 per 
cent, or one-third, of the native whites and 76.9 per 
cent, or more than three-fom-ths, of the colored. On 
the other hand, 7.9 per cent of the foreign-born 
whites reported earnings of $1,000 or over, while 
the proportion for the native whites was 6.5 per cent 
and that for the colored 0.9 per cent. The contrast 
is even more pronoimoed when comparison is made of 
the proportion reporting earnings of $500 or over, 
which was 53.7 per cent, or more than one-half, for the 
foreign-born whites, 42.4 per cent, or somewhat more 
than two-fifths, for the native whites, and 6 per 
cent, or about one-sixteenth, for the colored. Of the 
colored males who reported as to their earnings, in fact, 
one-third (33.8 per cent) reported earnings of less than 
$100, and 62 per cent, or more than three-fifths; earn- 
ings of less than $200. 

A comparison of the earnings for females in the 
several classes gives in the main similar results. The 
proportion reporting earnings of less than $300 was 
60.2 per cent, or three-fifths, for foreign-born white 
females, 67.8 per cent, or more than two-thirds, for 
the native whites, and 94.6 per cent, or about nineteen- 
twentieths, for the colored. A larger number rela- 



tively of the native than of the foreign-born white 
females reported annual earnings of $500 or over, the 
respective percentages being 8.5 and 7.8; only 1 
colored female reported earnings amounting to this 
figure. Considerably more than two-thirds (70.3 per 
cent) of the colored females reported earnings of less than 
$100, and more than nine-tenths (91 per cent) earn- 
ings of less than $200. From these latter figures, 
taken in conjunction with those for males, it is evident 
that there has as yet been comparatively little progress 
in making Negro deaf-mutes self-supporting, espe- 
cially when the fact that those reporting were probably 
the most favorably situated from an economic stand- 
point is taken into consideration. 

Table 106 shows the median earnings reported for 
the gainfully employed deaf and dumb in 1910 for 
whom schedules were returned in the three race and 
nativity classes for which figures are given in Table 105. 



Table 106 

1 

BACE AND NATIVITT. 


median ankxtal earnings 
op gainrullt emploted 
deaf and dumb popula- 
tion 10 years of age ob 
over fob whom special 
schedules webe 
eetuened: 1910.' 




Male. 


Female. 


All classes. - 


$427.58 


$183.60 








432.58 
526.76 
157.38 


198.51 




256.67 


Colored 


71.15 







1 Based upon the population reporting as to annual earnings, including the small 
number whose age was not reported. 

Both for males and for females the median earnings 
of the foreign-born whites were higher than those for 
any other class. In the case of males the median for 
this class was $526.76, nearly $100 higher than that 
for the native whites ($432.58) and more than three 
times as great as that for the colored ($157.38). For 
females the difference between the median for the 
foreign-bom whites ($256.67) and that for the native 
whites ($198.51) was not so great, amounting to only 
about $60; but the contrast between the median for 
the colored ($71.15) and those for the two white 
classes was fully as pronounced relatively as in the case 
of males. 

Table 107 shows the distribution according to status 
as to self-support, dependence on occupation for a 
living, and annual earnings of the deaf and dumb in 
each occupation carried on by as many as 100 persons 
for whom schedules were received. 

A larger number relatively of tailors reported them- 
selves as self-supporting than of persons in any other 
occupation shown in the table, the proportion being 
88.6 per cent, or more than seven-eighths. Farmers 
ranked second in this respect, with a percentage of 
86.6, or nearly seven-eighths, closely followed by 
printers, lithographers, and pressmen, of whom 86.3 
per cent reported themselves as self-supporting. The 
proportion also exceeded four-fifths in the case of 



ECONOMIC STATUS. 



101 



boot and shoe factory w^orkers, carpenters, and 
painters, glaziers, and vamishers. The number was 
smallest relatively for launderers and 'laimdresses not 
in laundries, of whom only two-fifths (40 per cent) 
were self-supporting. Agricidtural laborers on the 



home farm followed, only 54.7 per cent, or somewhat 
more than one-half, reporting themselves as self- 
supporting, while laborers "not otherwise specified" 
ranked next in this respect, with 61.7 per cent, or a 
httle more than three-fifths. 



Table 107 



STATUS AS TO SELP-StTPPORT, DEPENDENCE ON OCCU- 
PATION, AND ANNUAL EARNINGS. 



Fanners (includ- 
ing dairy farmers). 



Total 

Reporting as to ability for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not self-supporting 

Not reporting as to ability for self-support 

Reporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation for living 

Not dependent on occupation for living 

Not reporting as to dependence on occupation. . 

Reporting annual earnings from occupation 

Reporting annual earnings of— 

Less than $100 

$100 but less than $200 

$200 but less than $300 

$300 but less than $400 

$400 but less than $500 

$500 but less than $600 

$600 but less than $800 

$800 but less than $1.000 

$1,000 but less than $1,200 

$1,200 but less than $1,500 

$1,500 or over 

Not reporting annual earnings from occupation 



DEAF AND DUUB POPULATION 10 TEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN I9I0 ' FOR 'WHOM SPECLAL SCHEDULES WERE 

RETURNED GAINFULLY EMPLOYED AS— 



Num- 
ber. 



884 



848 

734 

114 

36 

843 

775 

68 

41 

518 

66 
102 
70 



32 
20 
23 

8 

18 

366 



Per cent 
distri- 
bution. 



100.0 
86.6 
13.4 



100.0 

91.9 

8.1 



100.0 

12.5 

19.7 

13.5 

16.0 

5.6 

13.1 

6.2 

3.9 

4.4 

1.5 

3.5 



Agricultural 

laborers (not on 

home farm and 

not specified). 



Num- 
ber. 



735 



695 

521 

174 

40 



61S 
81 
36 

457 

120 

149 

9S 

57 

15 

5 

9 

1 

3 



278 



Per cent 
distri- 
bution. 



100.0 
75.0 
25.0 



100.0 
88.4 
11.6 



100.0 

26.3 

32.6 

21.4 

12.5 

3.3 

1.1 

2.0 

0.2 

0.7 



Agricultural 

laborers (borne 

farm). 



Num- 
ber. 



509 



446 
241 
202 



453 

247 

206 

56 

185 



56 
28 
12 
4 
3 
1 
1 



324 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



100.0 
54.7 
45.3 



100.0 
54.5 
45.5 



100.0 

43.2 
30.3 
15.1 
6.5 
2.2 
1.6 
0.5 
0.5 



T^aborers (not 
otherwise speci- 
fied). 



Num- 
ber. 



347 



316 
195 
121 
31 

321 

260 

61 

26 

245 

54 
63 
61 
28 
26 

8 
14 

1 



1 

'102 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



100.0 
61.7 
38.3 



100.0 
81.0 
19.0 



100.0 

22.0 

25.7 

20.8 

11.4 

10.2 

3.3 

5.7 

0.4 



0.4 



Servants (not in- 
cluding waiters). 



Num- 
ber. 



295 



282 

215 

67 

13 

283 

230 

53 

12 

186 

67 

78 

23 

11 

2 

1 

3 



109 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



100.0 
76.2 
23.8 



100.0 
81.3 
18.7 



100.0 

36.0 
41.9 
12.4 
5.9 
1.1 
0.5 
1.6 



0.5 



Printers, lithog- 
raphers, ana 
pressmen. 



Num- 
ber. 



270 



262 

226 

36 

8 

261 

219 

42 

9 

232 

4 

9 

14 

22 

29 

33 

5S 

30 

18 

9 

6 

38 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bution. 



100.0 
86.3 
13.7 



100.0 
83.9 
16.1 



100.0 

1.7 

3.9 

6.0 

9.5 

12.6 

14.2 

25.0 

12.9 

7.8 

3.9 

2.6 



STATUS AS TO SELF-SUPPORT, DEPENDENCE ON OCCU- 
PATION, AND ANNUAL EARNINGS. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OF AGE OB OVER IN 1910 • FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 
RETXmNED GAINFULLY EMPLOYED AS— 



Boot and shoe 
custom workers 
and repairers. 



Num- 
ber. 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



Carpenters. 



Num- 
ber. 



Percent 
distri- 
bution. 



Tailors. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bution 



Painters, 

glaziers, and 

vamisners. 



Launderers 
and laundresses 
(not in laun- 
dries). 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bution. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bution. 



Dressmakers. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
distri- 
bution. 



Boot and 

shoe factory 

workers. 



Num- 
ber. 



Per 
cent 
dis- 
tribu- 
tion. 



Total 

Reporting as to ability for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not self-supporting 

Not reporting as to ability for self-support 

Reporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation lor living 

Not dependent on occupation for living. . . 

Not reportmg as to dependence on occupation. 

Reporting annual earnings from occupation . . . 
Reporting annual earnings of— 

Less than $100 

$100 but less than $200 

$200 but less than $300 

$300 but less than $400 

$400 but less than $500 

$600 but less than $600 

$600 but less than $800 

$800 but less than $1,000 

$1,000 but less than $1,200 

$1,200 but less than $1,500 

$1,500 or over 

Not reporting annual earnings from occupation 



218 



187 



166 



141 



125 



124 



124 



204 

151 

63 

14 

204 

176 

29 

14 

144 

11 
20 
17 
23 
11 
21 
16 
13 
10 
2 
1 
74 



100.0 
74.0 
26.0 



100.0 
86.8 
14.2 



100.0 

7.6 

13.9 

U.8 

16.0 

7.6 

14.6 

10.4 

9.0 

6.9 

1.4 

0.7 



181 

155 

26 

6 

181 

162 

19 

6 

148 

8 

9 

13 

22 

18 

22 

34 

14 

4 

3 

1 



100.0 
85.6 
14.4 



166 

147 

19 



100.0 
88.6 
11.4 



U0.0 
89.6 
10.6 



100.0 

6.4 

6.1 

8.8 

14.9 

12.2 

14.9 

23.0 

9.6 

2.7 

2.0 

0.7 



162 

140 

22 

4 

139 

1 

3 

9 

14 

21 

23 

37 

19 

8 

3 

1 

27 



100.0 
86.4 
13.6 



100.0 

0.7 

2.2 

6.5 

10.1 

15.1 

16.5 

26.6 

13.7 

6.8 

2.2 

0.7 



136 

111 

24 

6 

136 

125 

11 

6 

105 

6 

6 

13 

12 

18 

11 

28 

7 

3 

2 



100.0 
82.2 
17.8 



100.0 

91.9 

8.1 



100.0 

4.8 

6.7 

12.4 

11.4 

17.1 

10.5 

26.7 

6.7 

2.9 

L9 



120 

48 

72 

6 

122 

85 

37 

3 

93 

63 

21 

7 

10 



100.0 
40.0 
60.0 



100.0 
69.7 
30.3 



100.0 

67.0 
22.6 

7.5 
10.8 

2.2 



36 



32 



112 
72 
40 
12 

112 
64 
48 
12 

66 

13 

13 

13 

10 

9 

7 

1 



100.0 
64.3 
36.7 



100.0 
67.1 
42.9 



100.0 

19.7 
19.7 
19.7 
15.2 
13.6 
10.6 
1.6 



120 

103 

17 

4 

118 

106 

13 

6 

103 

2 

7 

10 

11 

21 

16 

28 

6 

2 



100.0 
85.8 
14.2 



100.0 
89.0 
11.0 



100.0 

L9 

6.8 

9.7 

10.7 

20.4 

15.5 

27.2 

5.8 

1.9 



68 



21 



1 Include* the small number whose age was not reported. 



The highest earnings were reported by those en- 
gaged in the printing trades, of whom 14.2 per cent, 
or one-seventh, stated that their annual earnings 
amounted to $1,000 or over, and 2.6 per cent reported 
earnings of $1,500 or over. Farmers were next in 



this respect, 9.5 per cent, or about one-tenth, report- 
ing earnings of $1,000 or over and 3.5 per cent earn- 
ings of $1,500 or over; this latter percentage was 
higher than the corresponding figure for any other 
occupational class shown in the table. The proportion 



102 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



reporting earnings of $1,000 or over was nearly as 
high, however, (9 per cent) for those engaged in cus- 
tom work and repairing on boots and shoes. TaUors 
and carpenters were the only other classes for which 
the proportion whose earnings reached this figure 
exceeded 5 per cent, the percentage being 8.6 in the 
former instance and 5.4 in the latter. The group re- 
porting the lowest earnings was that made up of 
launderers and laundresses, of whom 57 per cent, or 
nearly three-fifths, had earnings amounting to less 
than $100 a year, 79.6 per cent, or four-fifths, earn- 
ings of less than $200, and 87.1 per cent, or seven- 
eighths, earnings of less than $300. Agricultural 
laborers on the home farm ranked next in respect to 
the proportion in the lowest earnings group, 43.2 per 
cent, or more than two-fifths, reporting earnings of 
less than $100; nearly three-fourths (73.5 per cent) 
reported earnings of less than $200, and more than 
seven-eighths (88.6 per cent) earnings of less than 
$300. The percentage reporting earnings of less than 
$300 was higher for servants than for any other class 
shown in the table (90.3 per cent, or nine-tenths), 
while more than three-fourths (77.9 per cent) re- 
ported earnings of less than $200, and more than one- 
third (36 per cent) earnings of less than $100; it is 
probable, however, that some of these may have lived 
with their employer and faded to take into account 
the value of their board. About four-fifths (80.3 per 
cent) of the agricultural laborers workiag out, more 
than two-thirds (68.6 per cent) of the laborers "not 
otherwise specified," and nearly three-fifths (59.1 per 
cent) of the dressmakers also reported annual earn- 
ings of less than $300. 

Greneral Table 30 (p. 170) shows the situation as to 
self-support, dependence on occupation, and annual 
earnings for the gainfully employed deaf and dumb 
10 years of age or over in 1910 for whom special 
schedules were returned, classified according to educa- 
tion, race and nativity, and sex. Table 108 shows for 
the main classes with respect to education, by sex, 
the percentage gainfully employed. 

As would be expected, the number gainfully em- 
ployed was larger relatively among those who had 
attended a special school for the deaf than among 
those who had not, representing 40.9 per cent, or two- 
fifths, of those who reported attendance at such schools, 
as compared with 35 per cent of those who had been 
only to schools other than for the deaf and 38.8 per 
cent of those who stated that they had never been to 
school. The proportion was somewhat higher for 
those who had been both to a special school for the 
deaf and other schools than for those who had been 
only to a special school for the deaf (43.9 per cent as 
compared with 40.7 per cent). This probably re- 
sults in part from the circumstance that those who 
had been to other schools comprised for the most part 
persons who had lost their hearing after they had to 
a greater or less extent acquired the faculty of speech. 



so that their defect did not constitute so much of an 
impediment to their intercourse with others as is the 
case where hearing has been lost earher in life; in 
addition, in a certain number of instances where deaf- 
mutes had been both to a school for the deaf and some 
other school, the latter was an institution of higher 
education, attendance at which made them better 
quahfied to pursue a gainful occupation. It wiU be ob- 
served that the proportion gainfully employed among 
those who had never attended school was higher than 
that among persons who had attended school but had 
never been to an institution for the deaf. The reason 
for this is not altogether clear, although it may be due 
in part to the fact that the latter class comprised a 
relatively large proportion of persons who lost their 
hearing after they had acquired the power of speech 
in fuU, so that their loss of speech was probably in a 
large number of cases due to some special cause, such 
as physical or mental infirmity, which might also have 
interfered with their capacity for employment. 



Table 108 


deaf and dumb popula- 
tion 10 yeaesof age or 
ovee fob whom spe- 
cial schedules were 
eeturned: 1910.' 


EDUCATION. 


Total. 


Gainfully 
employed. 




Num- 
ber. 


Per 

cent 

of 

total. 




Both Sexes. 


Total 


17,000 


6,872 


40.4 






Having attended school 


14,470 


5,893 


40.7 






Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 


14,161 
572 

13,589 
309 

2,294 
236 


5,785 
251 

5,534 
106 

890 
89 


40.9 
43.9 


Having attended no other school 


40.7 


Not having attended special school for the deaf . . . . 
Not having attended school 


35.0 
38.8 


Not reporting as to education 


37.7 








MALE. 


Total 


9,328 


8,659 


60.7 






Having attended school 


8,017 


4,942 


61.6 






Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 


7,847 
313 

7,534 
170 

1,177 
134 


4,861 

200 

4,661 

81 

643 
74 


61.9 
63.9 


Having attended no other school 


61.9 


Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school 


47.6 
54.6 


Not reporting as to education 


55.2 








FEMALE. 


Total 


7,672 


1,213 


15.8 






Having attended school 


6,453 


951 


14.7 






Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 


6,314 
259 

6,055 
139 

1,117 
102 


924 
51 

873 
27 

247 
15 


14.6 
19.7 


Having attended no other school 


14.4 


Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school 


19.4 
22.1 


Not reporting as to education '.. 


14.7 







' Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

The difference between the several classes as to edu- 
cation in respect to the relative number gainfully em- 
ployed is especially pronounced for males. Of those 
who had attended a special school for the deaf, more 



ECONOMIC STATUS. 



103 



than three-fifths (61.9 per cent) were gainfully em- 
ployed, as compared with 47.6 per cent, or considerably 
less than one-half, of those whose education had been 
confined to other schools and 54,6 per cent, or some- 
what more than one-half, of those reporting no edu- 
cation. The proportion reporting an occupation was 
higher for those who had been both to schools for the 
deaf and other schools than for those who had attended 
only a school for the deaf (63.9 per cent as compared 
with 61.9 per cent), and was considerably higher for 
those reporting no school attendance than for those 
reporting education only at a school primarily for the 
hearing (54.6 per cent as compared with 47.6 per cent). 
The statistics for females show an interesting diflFer- 
ence in one respect from those for males with regard to 
the relative number in the different classes who were 
gainfully employed. The proportion reporting an occu- 
pation was smaller relatively among those who had been 
to a special school for the deaf, taken as a group, than in 
any other class of those who reported as to their educa- 
tion, only 14.6 per cent, or about one-seventh, of the fe- 
males in this class being engaged in a gainful occupation, 
as compared with 19.4 per cent, or nearly one-fifth, of 
those who had been to school but had not attended a 



school for the deaf, and 22.1 per cent, or more than 
one-fifth, of those who had never been to school. It 
is probable that this results from a larger proportion 
of married women in this class, since deaf-mutes who 
through attendance at a school for the deaf have 
acquired facility in communicating with others and 
have been brought in contact with persons suffering 
from the same misfortune as themselves are probably 
more hkely to marry than those who have not enjoyed 
these advantages, and married women are not so 
likely to pursue a gainful occupation as those who are 
more or less dependent upon themselves for support. 
As in the case of males, the proportion gainfully occu- 
pied was higher for those who had been both to a 
school for the deaf and to schools primarily for the 
hearing than for those who had been only to a school 
for the deaf, and higher for those who had never been 
to school than for those who had been only to a school 
primarily for the hearing. 

Table 109 classifies the male and female deaf and 
dumb population 10 years of age or over and gainfully 
employed in 1910 according to education and status 
as to self-support, dependence on occupation, and 
annual earnings. 



Table 109 



BIATVS AS TO SELF-SUFPOBT, DEPENDENCE ON 
0CCT7FAIION, AND ANNUAL EABNINQ3. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEABS OP AGE OE OVER GAINPULLT EMPLOYED FOE WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WEBE BETUBNED: 1910.' 



Male. 



Total. 



Having attended school. 



Total. 



Spe- 
cial 
school 
for the 
deaf 
and 
other 
schools 



Special 

school 

for the 

deaf 

only. 



other 
schools 
only- 



Not 
hav- 
ing at- 
tended 
school. 



Notre- 
j»ort- 
ingas 
to edu- 
cation. 



Female. 



Total. 



Having attended school. 



Total. 



Spe- 
cial 
school 
for the 
deaf 
and 
other 
schools 



Spe- 
cial 
school 
for the 
deaf 
only. 



other 
schools 
only 



Not 
hav- 
ing at- 
tended 
school. 



Not 
re- 
port- 
ing as 
to 

edu- 
ca- 
tion. 



Total 

Beporting as to ability for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not self-supporting 

Not reporting as to ability for self-support 

Beporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation for livinp 

Not dependent on occupation for living; 

Not reporting as to dependence on occupation . 

Beporting annual earnings from occupation 

Beporting annual earnings of— 

Less than $100 

SlOO but less than t300 

1300 but less than 1500 

(500 but less than $1,000 

(1,000 or over 

Not leporting annual earnings from occupation 

Beporting as to atdlity for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not setfiBupporting 

Beporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation for livmg 

Not dependent on occupation for living 

Reporting annual earnings from occupation 

Bepcnrting annual earnings of— ' 

Less than (100 

(100 but less than (300 

(300 but less than (500 

(500 but less than (1,000 

(1,000 or over 



5,659 



5,369 

4,386 

983 

290 

5,370 

4,640 

730 

289 

4,069 

375 
1,017 

972 
1,445 

260 
1,590 



4,942 



4,694 

3,905 

789 

248 

4,694 

4,089 

605 

248 

3,611 

258 
849 
894 

1,367 
243 

1,331 



200 



194 

171 

23 

6 

190 

171 

19 

10 

154 

8 
24 
27 
68 
27 



4,661 



4,423 

3,666 

757 



4,426 

3,848 

578 

235 

3,401 

246 
816 
853 

1,274 
212 

1,260 



81 



643 



74 



615 

430 

185 

28 

614 

493 

121 

29 

410 

114 

156 

65 

63 

12 

233 



1,213 



1,152 

753 

399 

61 

1,155 

818 

337 

58 

795 

242 
317 
178 
56 
2 
418 



951 



904 

618 

286 

47 

906 

640 

266 

45 

638 

153 
273 
158 
52 
2 
313 



51 



17 



873 



570 

259 

44 



587 

243 

43 

590 

148 
253 
142 
45 
2 
283 



27 



24 

18 

6 

3 

25 

16 

9 

2 

14 

1 
9 
3 
1 



13 



247 



237 

124 

113 

10 

240 

170 

70 

7 

150 

86 

42 

18 

4 



97 



PEB CENT DISTBIBUTION. 



100.0 
81.7 
18.3 

100.0 
86.4 
13.6 

100.0 

9.2 
25.0 
23.9 
36.5 

6.4 



100.0 
83.2 
16.8 

100.0 
87.1 
12.9 

100.0 

7.1 
23.5 
24.8 
37.9 

6.7 



100.0 
88.1 
11.9 

100.0 
90.0 
10.0 

100.0 

6.2 
15.6 
17.6 
44.2 
17.6 



100.0 
82.9 
17.1 

100.0 
86.9 
13.1 

100.0 

7.2 
34.0 
25.1 
37.5 

6.2 



100.0 
69.9 
30.1 

100.0 
80.3 
19.7 

100.0 

27.8 
38.0 
15.9 
15.4 
2.9 



(«) 



100.0 
65.4 
34.6 

100.0 
70.8 
29.2 

100.0 

30.4 

39.9 

22.4 

7.0 

0.3 



100.0 
68.4 
31.6 

100.0 
70.6 
29.4 

100.0 

24.0 

42.8 

24.8 

8.2 

0.3 



(•) 



100.0 
68.8 
3L2 

100.0 
70.7 
29.3 

100.0 

26.1 

42.9 

24.1 

7.6 

0.3 



100.0 
52.3 

47.7 

100.0 
70.8 
29.2 

100.0 

67.3 

28.0 

12.0 

2.7 



15 



11 
11 



(? 



{•) 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



' Per cent distribution not shown, as base is less than 100. 



104 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Of the males who had attended both a special school 
for the deaf and other schools and reported as to their 
ability for self-support, more than seven-eighths (88.1 
per cent) reported that they were self-supporting, as 
compared with 82.9 per cent, or nearly five-sixths, of 
those who had been only to a special school for the 
deaf and 69.9 per cent, or seven-tenths, of those who 
had not been to school. The only groups for which 
significant comparisons can be made for females are 
those comprising persons who had been to a special 
school for the deaf only and persons who had never 
been to school, 68.8 per cent, or more than two-thirds, 
of the former reporting themselves as self-supporting, 
as compared with only about one-half (52.3 per cent) 
of the latter. It will be observed that among males 
who had been both to a special school for the deaf and 
other schools the numbers reporting themselves as self- 
supporting and as dependent on their occupation for a 
living were exactly the same, but that for aU other 
classes the number reporting themselves as dependent 
upon their occupation for a hving exceeded the num- 
ber who reported themselves as self-supporting. 

In the case of males the class reporting the highest 
earnings was made up of persons who had been both 
to a special school for the deaf and to other schools, 
among whom 17.5 per cent, or one-sixth, of those 
answering the inquiry on this poiat reported earnings 
of $1,000 or over, 61.7 per cent, or more than three- 
fifths, earnings of $500 or over, and only 20.8 per 
cent, or about one-fifth, earnings of less than $300. 
Of those whose education had been confined to a 
school for the deaf, on the other hand, only 6.2 per 
cent reported earnings of $1,000 or over and 43.7 per 
cent, or somewhat more than two-fifths, earnings of 



$500 or over, while 31.2 per cent, or nearly one-third, 
reported earnings of less than $300. Of those who had 
not been to school, 18.3 per cent, or less than one- 
fifth, reported earnings of $500 or over and 65.9 per 
cent, or nearly two-thirds, earnings of less than $300. 
Only 8 per cent of the females whose education had 
been confined to a special school for the deaf reported 
earnings of $500 or over. Although the per cent dis- 
tribution on the basis of annual earnings of the other 
classes reporting school attendance is not given in the 
table by reason of the smallness of the numbers in- 
volved, it will be seen that the percentage just given 
is below the average for all females reporting school 
attendance (8.5), as a result of a larger proportion 
reporting earnings of $500 or over among those who 
had attended both a special school for the deaf and a 
school primarily for the hearing. More than two-thirds 
(68 per cent) of those females who had been to a special 
school for the deaf only reported earnings of less than 
$300, this proportion being slightly above the average 
for all females reporting school attendance. Of the 
gainfully employed females who had never been to 
school, nearly three-fifths (57.3 percent) reported earn- 
ings of less than $100 and more than five-sixths (85.3 
per cent) earnings of less than $300, while only 2.7 per 
cent, or about 1 in 37, reported earnings of $500 or 
over. 

Table 110 shows the distribution according to status 
as to self-support, dependence on occupation for a 
living, and annual earnings of the native white, foreign- 
bom white, and colored deaf and dumb 10 years of age 
or over and gainfxiUy employed in 1910 for whom 
special schedules were returned, classified according to 
education. 



ECONOMIC STATUS. 



105 



Table llO 



STATUS A3 TO SELF-SUPFOBT, DEPENDENCE ON 
OCCUPATION, AND ANNUAL EABNINQS. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OP AGE OR OVER GAINPULLT EMPLOYED FOR WHOM SPEOAL SCHEDULES 

WERE returned: 1910.1 



Number. 



Total. 



Having attended school. 



Total 



Special 
scliool for 

the deaf 
and other 

schools. 



Special 

school for 

the deaf 

only. 



Other 

schools 

only. 



Not 
having 

at- 
tended 
school. 



Not re- 
porting 
as to 
educa- 
tion. 



Per cent distribution. 



Total. 



Having attended school. 



Total.a 



Special 
school for 

the deaf 
and other 

schools. 



Special 

school for 

the deaf 

only. 



Not 

having 

attended 

school. 



Total 

Reporting as to ability for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not self-supporting 

Not reporting as to ability for self-support 

Reporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation for living 

Not dependent on occupation for living 

Not reporting as to dependence on occupation . 

Reporting annual earnings from occupation 

Reporting annual earnings of— 

Less than $100 

$100 but less than $300 

$300 but less than $500 

$500 but less than $1 ,000 

$1 ,000 or over 

Not reporting annual earnings from occupation 



Total 

Reporting as to ability for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not self-supportinf; 

Not reporting as to ability for self-support 

Reporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation for living 

Not dependent on occupation for living 

Not reportmg as to dependence on occupation. 

Reporting annual earnings from occupation 

Reporting annual earnings of— 

Less than $100 

$100 but less than $300 

$300 but less than $500 

$500 but less than $1,000 

$1,000 or over 

Not reporting annual earnings from occupation 



5,525 



5,226 

4,133 

1,093 

299 

5,230 

4,390 

840 

295 

3,901 

427 
1,067 

941 
1,246 

220 
1,624 



834 



805 

699 

106 

29 

801 

680 

121 

33 

636 

39 
147 
167 
243 

40 
193 



Total 

Reporting as to ability for self-support 

Self-supporting 

Not self-supporting 

Not reporting as to ability for self-support 

Reporting as to dependence on occupation 

Dependent on occupation for hvmg 

Not dependent on occupation for bvin^ 

Not reportmg as to dependence on occupation. 

Reporting annual earnings from occupation 

Reporting annual earnings of— 

Less than $100 

$100 but less than $300 

$300 but less than $500 

$500 but less than $1,000 

$1,000 or over 

Not reporting annual earnings from occupation 



513 



490 
307 
183 



494 

388 

106 

19 

327 

151 

120 

42 

12 

2 

186 



5,012 



4,748 

3,829 

919 

264 

4,751 

4,020 

731 

261 

3,604 

327 
954 
901 

1,209 
213 

1,408 



656 



637 

553 

84 

19 

631 

540 

91 

25 

497 

27 
115 
122 
202 

31 
159 



225 



213 

141 

72 

12 

218 

169 

49 

7 

148 

57 
53 
29 
8 
1 
77 



NATIVE WHITE. 



210 



204 

172 

32 

6 

201 

174 

27 

9 

158 

10 
23 
32 
66 
27 
52 



4,715 



4,463 

3,584 

879 

252 

4,467 
3,773 



3,389 

317 
915 
855 

1,120 
182 

1,326 



87 



451 



429 

260 

169 

22 

431 

326 

105 

20 

263 

95 

104 

34 

27 

3 

188 



62 



100.0 
79.1 
20.9 



100.0 
83.9 
16.1 



100.0 

10.9 
27.4 
24.1 
31.9 
5.6 



100.0 
80.6 
19.4 



100.0 
84.6 
15.4 



100.0 

9.1 
26.5 
25.0 
33.5 

5.9 



100.0 
84.3 
15.7 



100.0 
86.6 
13.4 



100.0 

6.3 
14.6 
20.3 
41.8 
17.1 



FOREIGN-BORN WHITE. 



30 



616 



597 

521 

76 

19 

592 

509 

83 

24 

466 

26 
103 
115 
191 

31 
ISO 



10 



160 



153 

132 

21 

7 

154 
125 



124 

11 
31 

38 

36 

8 



18 



100.0 
86.8 
13.2 



100.0 
84.9 
15.1 



100.0 

6.1 
23.1 
26.3 
38.2 

6.3 



100.0 
86.8 
13.2 



100.0 
85.6 
14.4 



100.0 

5.4 
23.1 
24.5 
40.6 

6.2 



(») 



11 



6 



203 



192 

131 

61 

11 

197 

153 

44 

6 

136 

51 
51 
25 
8 
1 
67 



11 



279 



270 

162 

108 

9 



106 



269 


7 


212 


7 


.57 




10 


2 


173 


6 


94 




B3 


4 


11 


2 


4 




1 





100.0 
62.7 
37.3 



100.0 
78.5 
21.5 



100.0 

46.2 

36.7 

12.8 

3.7 

0.6 



100.0 
66.2 
33.8 



100.0 
77.5 
22.5 



100.0 

38.5 

35.8 

19.6 

5.4 

0.7 



100.0 
80.3 
19.7 



100.0 
84.5 
15.5 



100.0 

9.4 
27.0 
25.2 
33.0 

5.4 



100.0 
87.3 
12.7 



100.0 
86.0 
14.0 



100.0 

5.6 
22.1 
24.7 
41.0 

6.7 



100.0 
68.2 
31.8 



100.0 
77.7 



100.0 

37.5 

37.5 

18.4 

5.9 

0.7 



100.0 
60.6 
39.4 



100.0 
75.6 
24.4 



100.0 

36.1 
39.5 
12.9 
10.3 
1.1 



100.0 
86.3 
13.7 



100.0 
81.2 
18.8 



100.0 

8.9 
25.0 
30.6 
29.0 

6.5 



100.0 
60.0 
40.0 



100.0 
78.8 
21.2 



100.0 

54.3 

36.4 

6.4 

2.3 

0.6 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

' Per cent distribution of those who attended schools other than for the deaf only and of the foreign-bom white and colored who attended both special schools for the 
deaf and other schools not shown, as base Is less than 100 in each case. 



106 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



It is evident from this table that the differences in 
the economic status of the deaf-mutes in the several 
race and nativity classes are not due solely to the rela- 
tive extent to which they have attended school, as 
even within the same classes with respect to educar 
tion pronounced differences appear. Of the foreign- 
bom whites who had attended only a school for the 
deaf and answered the inquiry as to self-support, 
for example, 87.3 per cent, or seven-eighths, re- 
ported themselves as self-supporting, as compared 
with 80.3 per cent, or four-fifths, of the native whites 
and 68,2 per cent, or more than two-thirds, of the 
colored. Among those who had never been to school, 
the proportion reporting themselves as self-supporting 
was in the case of the foreign-bom whites nearly the 
same as for those who had attended schools for the 
deaf only (86.3 per cent, or nearly seven-eighths) ; but 
for the native whites and the colored the propor- 
tion was considerably smaller, being 60.6 and 60 per 
cent, respectively, or about three-fifths in each case. 
Among all classes of the foreign-bom whites for which 
significant comparisons can be made, the niunber re- 
porting themselves as self-supporting exceeded the 
number reporting themselves as dependent on their 
occupation for a living, a condition not found in the 
case of either the native whites or the colored. 

The statistics in respect to earnings present even 
more marked contrasts. Of the foreign-bom whites 
who had been only to a special school for the deaf, 

47.6 percent, or somewhat less than one-half, reported 
earnings of $500 or over, as compared with 38.4 per 
cent, or less than two-fifths, of the native whites and 
6.6 per cent of the colored. On the other hand, only 

27.7 per cent, or more than one-fourth, of the foreign- 
bom whites in this class reported earnings of less than 
$300, while the corresponding proportion for the native 
whites was 36.4 per cent, or more than one-third, and 
that for the colored 75 per cent, or three-fourths. 
Again, 35.5 per cent, or more than one-third, of the 
foreign-bom whites who had never been to school re- 
ported earnings of $500 or over, while among the 
native whites the proportion was only 11.4 per cent 
and among the colored only 2.9 per cent. Moreover, 
only 33.9 per cent, or about one-third, of the foreign- 
bom whites who stated that they had never been to 
school reported earnings of less than $300, as compared 
with 75.7 per cent, or three-fourths, of the native 
whites and 90.8 per cent, or nine-tenths, of the colored. 
To a considerable extent these differences are prob- 
ably due to more accurate returns, as the foreign-bom 
whites are for the most part employed in manufac- 
turing and mechanical occupations and the earnings 
reported by persons thus employed would, by reason 
of the fact that compensation in such occupations is 
ordinarily on a straight cash basis, be more likely to 
represent the actual earnings than would those re- 
ported by persons who, like the native whites and the 



colored, are largely engaged in agriculture and similar 
pursuits, where a large part of the year's income is re- 
ceived in forms such as board and lodging or produce 
consumed on the farm, items which are apt to be over- 
looked in estimating the amount of earnings. In ad- 
dition, the foreign-bom whites, being concentrated in 
cities, would necessarily be more generally engaged in 
industrial occupations, which probably, in the ma- 
jority of cases, are actually more remimerative than 
agricultural occupations, than would the other two 
classes, for whom the proportion living in rural com- 
munities is much higher. 

BLIND DEAF-MtTTES. 

Owing to the fact that an eniuneration of the blind, 
as weU as of the deaf and dumb, was made in con- 
nection with the population census of 1910, it is pos- 
sible to present special statistics concerning blind 
deaf-mutes — that is, persons bereft of sight, hearing, 
and speech, except so far as the latter faculty may 
have been acquired by special training. The total 
number of such persons for whom both blind and deaf 
schedules were received was 96; the number actually 
reported as both blind and deaf and dumb was consid- 
erably greater, but by reason of the large number of 
cases in which persons were erroneously reported by 
the enmnerators as beijig either blind or deaf and 
dumb it was decided to confine the tabulation for 
blind deaf-mutes to those returning both schedules, as 
these afforded an opportunity to verify the accuracy 
of the enumerators' returns. 

General Table 31 (p. 176) shows the principal data 
for the blind deaf-mutes returning special schedules. 

The geographic distribution of the blind deaf-mutes 
for whom special schedxiles were returned was as follows : 



United states 96 

New England division 8 

Maine J 

Massachusetts 7 

Middle Atlantic division 23 

NewYork 13 

NewJersey 4 

Pennsylvania 6 

East North Central division 21 

Ohio 6 

Indiana 2 

Illinois 5 

Michigan 4 

Wisconsin i 

West North Central division 8 

Minnesota 2 

Iowa 1 

Missouri 4 

Kansas 1 



South Atlantic division 13 

Maryland i 

Vir^nia 5 

WestVirginia 1 

North Carolina 2 

SouthCaroUna 3 

Florida 1 

East South Central division 9 

Kentucky 3 

Alabama 3 

Mississippi 3 

West South Central division 10 

Arkansas 1 

Oklahoma 1 

Texas 8 

Mountain division 2 



Idaho 

Colorado.. 



Pacific division 2 

Califomia 2 



The 96 blind deaf-mutes for whom schedules were 
returned comprised 52 males and 44 females; 79 were 
native whites, 11 foreign-born whites, and 6 Negroes. 
Nearly one-fourth (22) were under 20 years of age 
and practically the same proportion (23) 65 years of 
age or over. 



BLIND DEAF-MUTES. 



107 



Practically one-half (47) stated that their deafness 
was congenital, while 19 others lost their hearing be- 
fore the age of 5 ; only 8 lost their hearing after reach- 
ing the age of 10. Only 14, however, reported their 
blindness as congenital, while 15 others lost their sight 
before reaching the age of 5; onHhe other hand, 36 
lost their sight in adult life. The majority of the blind 
deaf-mutes were in fact deaf-mutes who had lost 
their sight from causes independent of any relation 
to their deafness. 

Cataract and meningitis were the causes of blind- 
ness most frequently reported, each being returned in 
9 cases J scarlet fever, reported 5 times, and atrophy of 
the optic nerve and accident, each reported 4 times, 
ranked next in frequency. Meningitis ranked first as 
a cause of deafness for those whose deafness was 
acquired, accounting for 9 cases, the same number 
as for bhndness; in 8 cases the disease had caused 
loss of both sight and hearing. Scarlet fever was 
returned as cause of deafness on 7 schedules and 
catarrh or colds 6n 4. No other definite cause of 
deafness was reported more than twice, the large num- 
ber of cases of congenital deafness accounting for the 
small number of returns for most of the adventitious 
causes. 

More than one-fifth (16) of the 77 persons who re- 
ported as to the relationship of their parents stated 
that their parents were first cousins. Five had defec- 
tive parents, 1 having a blind father, 3 a blind mother, 
and 1 a deaf father. Seven had both blind brothers 
or sisters and deaf brothers or sisters; 3 reported 
blind brothers or sisters but none deaf, and 12 deaf 
brothers or sisters but none blind. Only 3 reported 
children; of these, 2 stated that their children were 
neither blind nor deaf, while the third failed to an- 
swer the inquiries on this subject. In considering the 
figures as to the existence of defects among other mem- 
bers of the same family, what has previously been 
said (p. 65) as to the quasi-duphcation resulting from 
the return of schedules by two or more members of 
the same family shotild be borne in mind. 

Only 55 of the 95 blind deaf-mutes 5 years of age or 
over were reported as havLag received any education. 
Of these, 30 had been only to a special school for the 
deaf; 5 had attended so-called "dual" schools, that 
is, schools giving instruction to both the blind and the 
deaf; 2 had attended separate schools for the blind 
and the deaf; 2 had attended a school for the blind 
only; and 1 had attended a school giving instruction 
to both the blind and the deaf and also a separate 
school for the deaf. One who had been to a school 



for the deaf had also received instruction at an insti- 
tution for the adult blind, and 1 had received in- 
struction both at an institution for the blind and a 
school primarily for the seeing, the nature of the lat- 
ter, however, not being indicated. Three were re- 
ported as having attended special schools, but from 
the returns it was uncertain whether they had at- 
tended schools for the blind, for the deaf, or for both 
classes, while 1 was reported as having attended a 
school for the deaf, but the schedule did not make it 
entirely clear as to whether he had ever been to a 
school for the blind. One was an inmate of a home 
for defective children and 4 were inmates of institu- 
tions for the feeble-minded. Two had been only to 
common schools, 1 had received instruction at a con- 
vent, and 1 had been only to a school for the seeing 
but did not indicate its character. Of the remainder, 
35 were reported as having received no education, 
while for 5 no report was made on this subject. 

Only 17 blind deaf-mutes 5 years of age or over 
reported themselves as able to read raised type. Of 
the others, 72 were xmable to read raised type and 6 
failed to answer the inquiry. 

. Five of the blind deaf-mutes 10 years of age or over 
reported that they used speech as a means of communi- 
cation. Of these, 1 reported no other means, 2 stated 
that they also used writing, finger spelling, and the 
sign language, 1 used also writing, and 1 finger spelling. 
Of those who indicated definitely that they did not 
use speech as a means of commimication, 15 used both 
finger spelling and the sign language; 11 writing, 
finger spelling, and the sign language ; 10 finger spelling 
only; 1 writing and finger spelling; 1 the sign language 
only; and 22 miscellaneous methods, mainly motions. 
Five, by reason of physical and mental incapacity, 
were reported as using no means of commimication. 
Of those who failed to answer the inquiry as to means 
of communication, 1 answered the inquiry as to 
ability to speak in the affirmative and 17 in the 
negative, while 4 made no statement on this point. 

Only 5 blind deaf-mutes, all males, reported an occu- 
pation, 2 being broom makers, and 1 each a gardener, 
chair caner, and cabinet worker. One female reported 
an independent income. Of those gainfully employed, 
3 reported themselves as self-supporting and 2 as not 
self-supporting; 3 stated that they were dependent on 
their occupation for a liviag and 2 that they were not. 
One reported annual earnings of less than $100, 2 earn- 
ings of $100 but less than $200, and 1 earnings of $200 
but less than $300; the other did not state the anioxmt 
of his earnings. 



GENERAL TABLES 



(109) 



GENERAL TABLES. 



Ill 



Table 1 ^DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 

ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, AND SEX, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910. 











DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 


POE WHOM 


SPECIAL SCHEDULES 


WERE 


returned: 1910. 








All classes. 


White. 


Colored. 


DIVISION AMD STATE. 


Total. 


Native. 


Foreign-bom. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Other colored. 




Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Bcjth 
sexes. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


United States 


19,153 


10,507 


8,646 


18,016 


9,888 


8,128 


16,178 


8,855 


7,323 


1,838 


1,033 


805 


1,137 


619 


518 


1,069 


584 


485 


68 


35 


33 


Geoobaphic divisions: 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central.. 
West North Central.. 

South Atlantic 

East South Central . . 


1,187 
4,133 
4,329 
2,767 
2,326 
1,865 
1,613 
352 
581 


654 

2,331 

2,362 

1,532 

1,257 

1,005 

849 

203 

314 


533 

1,802 

1,967 

1,235 

1,069 

860 

764 

149 

267 


1,176 
4,074 
4,276 
2,688 
1,871 
1,581 
1,437 
339 
574 


650 

2,296 

2,336 

1,489 

1,010 

845 

755 

196 

311 


526 

1,778 

1,940 

1,199 

861 

736 

682 

143 

263 


940 
3,422 
3,755 
2,417 
1,848 
1,570 
1,403 
309 
514 


516 

1,926 

2,045 

1,348 

993 

837 

734 

176 

280 


424 

1,496 

1,710 

1,069 

855 

733 

669 

133 

234 


236 

652 

521 

271 

23 

11 

34 

30 

60 


134 

370 

291 

141 

17 

8 

21 

20 

31 


102 

282 

230 

130 

6 

3 

13 

10 

29 


11 

59 

53 

79 

455 

284 

176 

13 

7 


4 

35 

26 

43 

247 

160 

94 

7 

3 


7 

24 

27 

36 

208 

124 

82 

6 

4 


10 

55 

47 

57 

453 

284 

158 

4 

1 


4 

34 

23 

33 

245 

160 

82 

3 


6 

21 

24 

24 

208 

124 

76 

1 

1 


1 
4 
6 
22 
2 


...... 

3 
10 
2 


1 
3 
3 
12 


West South Central. . 
Mountain 


18 
9 
6 


12 

4 
3 


6 
5 


Pacific 


3 






New England: 

Maine 


166 
99 
62 
666 
113 
181 

2,348 

324 

1,461 

1,154 
634 

1,310 
660 
571 

499 
436 
872 
101 
109 
280 
470 

19 
388 

56 
376 
304 
504 
245 
348 

86 

664 
588 
317 
296 

336 

254 
304 
719 

48 
41 
14 
109 
59 
16 
58 
7 

152 
130 
299 


95 
53 
40 

306 
58 

102 

1,346 
188 
797 

601 
351 
720 
358 
332 

273 
249 
478 
54 
69 
155 
264 

10 
209 

31 
205 
162 
278 
129 
185 

48 

351 
315 
172 
167 

168 
143 
166 
372 

25 

68 
36 
10 
31 
4 

87 
66 
161 


71 
46 
22 
260 
55 
79 

1,002 
136 
664 

553 
283 
590 
302 
239 

226 
187 
394 
47 
50 
125 
206 

9 
179 

25 
171 
142 
226 
116 
163 

38 

313 
273 
145 
129 

168 
111 
138 
347 

23 
19 

7 
41 
23 

6 
27 

3 

65 

64 

138 


166 
99 
62 
561 
107 
181 

2,320 

318 

1,436 

1,138 
624 

1,292 
654 
568 

495 
435 
831 
98 
95 
280 
454 

17 
316 

39 
293 
297 
411 
161 
267 

70 

622 
517 
243 
199 

299 
212 
281 
645 

45 
40 
14 
106 
54 
IS 
58 

149 
129 
296 


95 
53 
40 

304 
56 

102 

1,331 
185 
780 

595 
346 
708 
355 
332 

272 
248 
455 
53 
50 
155 
256 

10 
169 

23 
160 
158 
232 

79 
143 

36 

326 
274 
134 
111 

148 
117 
161 
339 

24 
21 

7 
66 
34 

9 
31 

4 

85 

66 

160 


71 
46 
22 
257 
51 
79 

989 
133 
656 

543 
278 
584 
299 
236 

223 
187 
376 
45 
45 
125 
198 

7 
147 

16 
133 
139 
179 

82 
124 

34 

296 

243 

109 

88 

151 

95 

130 

306 

21 

19 
7 

40 

20 
6 

27 
3 

64 
63 
136 


142 
80 
47 

430 
89 

152 

1,852 

272 

1,298 

1,061 
602 

1,128 
543 
421 

398 
396 
797 
77 
76 
248 
425 

17 

304 

34 

292 
295 
410 
160 
266 
70 

614 
514 
243 
199 

297 
209 
273 
624 

39 
34 
12 
100 
54 
14 
49 
7 

137 
110 
267 


80 
44 
29 
228 
48 
87 

1,067 
161 
698 

559 
331 
616 
294 
245 

220 
229 
440 
44 
40 
136 
239 

10 
160 
20 

159 
156 
231 

78 
143 

36 

320 
272 
134 
111 

147 
115 
147 
325 

19 
17 

6 
62 
34 

9 
25 

4 

78 

57 

145 


62 
36 
18 
202 
41 
65 

785 
111 
600 

502 
271 
512 
249 
176 

178 
167 
357 
33 
36 
112 
186 

7 
144 

14 
133 
139 
179 

82 
123 

34 

294 

242 

109 

88 

150 

94 

126 

299 

20 
17 

6 
38 
20 

5 
24 

3 

59 
53 
122 


24 
19 
15 
131 
18 
29 

468 

46 

138 

77 

22 

164 

111 

147 

97 
39 
34 
21 
19 
32 
29 


15 
9 

11 

76 
8 

15 

264 
24 
82 

36 
15 
92 
61 
87 

62 
19 
15 
9 
10 
19 
17 


9 
10 

4 
55 
10 
14 

204 
22 
56 

41 
7 
72 
50 
60 

45 
20 
19 
12 
9 
13 
12 




















New Hampshire 




















Vermont . .* 




















Massachusetts 


5 
6 


2 
2 


3 
4 


5 
5 


2 
2 


3 
3 








Rhode Island 

Connecticut 


1 




1 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York 


28 

6 

25 

16 

10 

18 

6 

3 

4 
1 

41 
3 

14 


15 
3 

17 

6 

5 

12 

3 

1 

1 

23 

1 
9 


13 
3 

8 

10 
6 
6 
3 
3 

3 

"is' 

2 
5 


25 

6 

24 

16 
10 
17 
3 
1 

1 

1 

40 


14 

3 

17 

6 

5 

11 

1 

1 

1 

23 


11 
3 

7 

10 
6 

6 
Z 

1 


3 


1 


2 


New Jersey 




Pennsylvania 

East Noeth Central: 
Ohio 


1 




1 


Tndiana 








Illinois 


1 
3 
2 

3 


1 
2 




Michigan 






2 


West Noeth Centeal: 


3 


Iowa 




Missouri 


17 


1 
3 
14 


...... 

9 


1 


Nora Dakota 


2 


South Dakota 








6 


Nebraska 










Kansas 


16 

2 
72 
17 
83 

7 
93 
84 
81 
16 

42 
71 
74 
97 

37 
42 
23 

74 

3 

1 


8 

8 
45 

4 
46 
60 
42 
12 

26 
41 
38 
56 

20 
26 
15 
33 

1 
1 


8 

2 
32 

9 
38 

3 

47 
34 
39 

4 

17 
30 
36 
41 

17 

16 

8 

41 

2 


16 

2 
72 

17 
83 
7 
91 
84 
81 
16 

42 
71 
74 
97 

37 

42 

6 

74 

1 


8 

""w 

8 
45 

4 
44 
50 
42 
12 

25 
41 
38 
66 

20 

26 

3 

33 

1 


7 

2 
32 

9 
38 

3 
47 
34 
39 

4 

17 
30 
36 
41 

17 
16 
2 
41 


1 




1 


South An.ANTic: 

Delaware 




Maryland 


12 
5 
1 
2 

1 
1 

1 


9 
3 

1 
2 

1 
1 


3 
2 

...... 








District of Columbia. 








Virginia 








West Virginia 








North Carolina 

South Carolina 


2 


2 




Georgia 








Florfia 








East Soitth Central: 
Kentucky 


8 
3 


6 
2 


2 

1 








TtmrtKfunv 








Aifthamc, 








Mississippi 














West South Central: 
Arkansas 


2 

3 

8 

21 

6 
6 
2 
6 


1 

2 

4 

14 

5 
4 

1 
4 


1 
1 
4 
7 

I 
2 
1 
2 








T,ouisianft 








Oklahoma .' 


18 


12 


Q 


Texas 




Mountain: 


2 

1 


...... 


2 


Mahn 




Wyoming 












Colorado 


3 
6 
1 


2 
2 

1 


1 
3 


3 


2 


1 








New Mexico 


6 

1 


2 
1 


3 


ArisKma 


1 
9 


""6 


1 
3 










Utah 












Nevada 




















Pacoic: 

W>x!h<ngtOT1 


12 
19 
29 


7 
9 
15 


5 
10 

14 


3 

1 
3 


2 
...... 


1 
1 
2 








3 
1 
2 


2 
...... 


1 


Oregon T. 








1 


California 


1 




1 









112 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 2.— FOREIGN-BORN WHITE DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 
RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO COUNTRY OF BIRTH, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910. 







FOREIGN-BOKN WHITE DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR V?HOM SPBCLAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 








Total. 


Bom in — 


DryiSION AND STATE. 


Aus- 
tria. 


Bal- 
kan 
Penin- 
sula.> 


Canada and 
Newfouniiland. 


Den- 
mark. 


Eng- 
land 
and 
Wales. 


France. 


Ger- 
many. 


Hun- 
gary. 


Ire- 
land. 


Italy. 


Neth- 
er- 
lands 
and 
Bel- 
gium. 


Nor- 
way. 


Rus- 
sia 
and 
Fin- 
land. 


Scot- 
land. 


Swe- 
den. 


Swit- 
zer- 
land. 


Other 
coun- 
tries.* 




Of 
French 
parent- 
age. 


Of 
other 
parent- 
age. 


United States 


1,838 


131 


13 


97 


165 


13 


140 


15 


450 


38 


91 


103 


19 


54 


31"? 


37 


88 


33 


39 






Geographic divisions: 

New Kngland 


236 

652 

521 

271 

23 

11 

34 

30 

60 


6 
58 
20 
35 


9' 

1 

1 


74 
5 

10 
6 


55 
24 
61 
9 
1 
2 
2 
2 
9 


1 

""2 
5 

...... 

4 


15 
53 
45 
12 

1 
1 
1 
3 
9 


2 
4 
3 
3 

2 

i' 


12 

107 

225 

70 

8 

1 

9 

1 

17 


"'22' 
11 

5 


18 

35 

24 

6 

4 

2 


13 

75 
11 

1 
1 
1 


1 
2 
12 

1 


...... 

17 
32 


18 

211 

31 

34 

7 
3 

1 
3 
4 


12 
14 
5 
3 


6 

9 

20 

42 


....„ 

15 
5 


3 


Middle Atlantic 


18 


East North Central 


g 


West North Central 


1 


South Atlantic 


1 


East South Central 


1 
7 
4 


















West South Central 






1 

2 


1 

3 


i 

1 
1 


3 

4 
4 


3 
2 
3 


3 




2 


2 




1 

1 


...... 




Pacific 


5 






New England: 

Maine 


24 
19 
15 
131 
18 
29 

468 

46 

138 

77 
22 
164 
111 
147 

97 
39 
34 
21 
19 
32 
29 






7 
11 

4 
40 

8 

4 

5 


11 
5 
6 

31 
1 
1 

20 
2 
2 

3 




3 








3 
1 


















New Hampshire 








1 













1 
...... 

""3 

6 
4 
4 

1 

I 
2 

1 
...... 








Vermont 






...... 


1 
8 

1 
2 

30 

2 

21 

10 
1 

22 
5 
7 

1 
1 
5 




2 
5 
3 
3 

55 
9 
11 

2 






1 

14 

1 

2 

178 

3 

30 

4 

""19 
6 
3 

6 

I 
6 
6 

? 


1 
2 

1 
2 

2 
2 
5 

1 

""io' 

2 

7 

24 
9 
2 








5 
1 




1 

i" 

3 

i' 

1 

2 

2 


4 
2 
5 

62 
14 
31 

24 
15 
62 
33 
91 

21 

10 

14 

2 

4 

9 

10 




10 


1 






2 


Ehode Island 


nmiiiBotitrnt 


18 
1 
3 

6 


4 

22 

1 

12 

9 






1 
2 
2 

7 
2 
2 
1 
3 

1 


1 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York 


43 

4 

11 

5 


7 


1 

1 


1 


14 

1 
3 




Pennsylvania 


2 

1 


1 


East Nokth Central: 

Ohio 






2 


Indiana 


1 
5 
5 

1 


1 

7 

""9 

17 
4 




Illinois 


6 
3 
6 

13 

7 
2 


1 


3 
5 
1 

4 


8 

44 

6 

4 
1 


""2 

2 
2 


1 
....„ 

1 
""3 


9 
3 
3 


6 

1 
2 


3 
2 






West North Central: 
Minnpflota ,„.„, 


I 


Iowa 


3 
1 


...... 


1 




Missouri 










North Dakota 






4 


1 




5 
5 
1 






South Dakota 


1 
9 
3 




1 




1 








...... 


1 
4 
2 






Nebraska 






4 

1 


1 








2 
2 




Kansas 




1 






2 








South Atlantic: 

Delaware 














Maryland 


12 
5 
1 
2 

1 
1 
1 








1 








4 
2 




2 


1 






3 

2 

1 










District of Columbia 










1 
















Virginia 






























West Virginia 




















2 
















North Carolina 
















1 

1 




















South Carolina 




































Georgia 






















1 


1 










Horlda 




































East South Central: 

Elentucky 


8 
3 








1 
1 




1 




1 




2 








3 










Tennessee 


1 






1 












...... 


Alabama 








. 1 






















Mississippi 








































West South Central: 

Arkansas 


2 

3 

8 

21 

6 
6 
2 
6 
































1 


1 




Louisiana 














2 


1 
2 
6 


















Oklahoma 










1 


1 












1 


...... 


1 
1 

1 
1 


2 




Texas 


7 

1 

1 
2 






2 

1 








1 




3 


Mountain: 

Montana 






1 
2 


1 










1 




Idaho 


. 1 




1 












1 






Wyoming 




























Colorado 




1 


1 












1 








3 










New Mexico 






























Arizona 


1 

9 










1 




























Utah 






1 




2 












2 








2 


2 




Nevada 




























PAcmc: 

Washington 


12 
19 
29 






- 


4 
2 

3 








4 
8 
5 












1 
1 
2 


...... 


3 
...... 






Oregon 










3 

6 


1 












2 
1 


1 

4 






2 






1 


1 




3 





1 Includes Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Roumania, Serbia, and Turkey in Europe. 



s Includes persons bom at sea. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



113 



Table 3.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORD- 
ING TO AGE AND SEX, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910. 



DIVISION, STATE, AND SEX. 



United States. 



Male.... 
Female. 



aEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS. 



New England. 

Male 

Female. . . 



Middle Atlantic. 

Male 

Female 



East North Central. 

Male 

Female 



West North Central. 

Male 

Female 



South Atlantic. 

Male 

Female 



East South Central. 

Male 

Female 



West South Central. 

Male 

Female 



Mountain... 
Male.... 
Female. 



Facific 

Male.... 
Female. 



New England: 

Maine 

Male 

Female . . 



New Hampshire. 

Male 

Female 



Vermont 

Male.... 
Female. 



Massachusetts. 

Male , 

Female 



Rhode Island. 

Male 

Female. . . 



Connecticut. 
Male.... 
Female.. 



Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

Male 

Female 



New Jersey. 
Male.... 
Female. 



Pennsvlvania. 

Male 

Female... 



East Nobth Centbal: 

Ohio 

Male 

Female 



Tuf^iftflft 

Male.... 
Female. 



Illinois 

Male.... 
Female. 



Michigan 

Male.... 
Female. 



Wlscomin.. 
Male.... 
Female. 



DEAK and dumb population fob whom SPECUL schedules WEBE BETURNED: 1910. 



Total. 



19,153 

10,807 
8,646 



1,187 
654 
533 

4,133 
2,331 
1,802 

4,329 
2,362 
1,967 

2,767 
1,532 
1,235 

2,326 
1,257 
1,069 

1,865 

1,005 

860 

1,613 

849 
764 

352 
203 
149 

581 
314 
267 



166 
95 
71 

99 
53 
46 

62 
40 
22 

566 
306 
260 

113 

58 
55 

181 

102 

79 



2,348 
1,346 
1,002 

324 
188 
136 

1,461 
797 
664 



1,154 
601 
553 

634 
351 
283 

1,310 
720 
590 

660 
358 
302 

571 
332 
239 



Un- 
der 1 
year 
of 
age. 



lto4 

years 

of 

age. 



300 



162 
138 



22 
13 
9 

8 
5 
3 

11 

7 
4 

8 
3 
6 

11 
9 
2 



5to9 

years 

of 

age, 



1,850 



1,015 
835 



110 
60 
50 

550 
336 
214 

288 
152 
136 

193 
105 

88 

265 
146 
119 

196 
100 
96 

156 
72 
84 

31 
13 
18 

61 
31 
30 



375 
232 
143 

40 
27 
13 

135 
77 
58 



78 
39 
39 

36 
U 
25 

93 

57 
36 

35 
20 
15 

46 
25 
21 



10 to 

14 
years 

of 
age. 



2,569 



1,403 
1,166 



96 
52 
44 

639 
352 

287 

429 
246 
183 

384 
219 
165 

328 
177 
151 

318 
158 
160 

252 
131 
121 

54 
35 
19 



437 
249 
188 

32 
18 
14 

170 
85 
85 



80 
38 
42 

46 
29 
17 

193 
103 
90 

60 
40 
20 

60 
36 
14 



15 to 

19 
years 

of 



2,403 



1,337 
1,066 



100 
60 
40 

539 
315 
224 

413 
224 

189 

356 

187 



338 
178 
160 

330 
193 
137 

249 
133 
116 

34 
24 
10 

44 
23 
21 



336 
200 
13d 

46 
30 
16 

157 
85 
72 



101 
56 
45 

46 
25 
21 

179 
94 

85 

51 
32 
19 

36 
17 
M 



20 to 

24 
years 

of 



2,062 



1,193 



50 
36 

331 
194 
137 

403 
241 
162 

316 
207 
109 

300 
163 
137 

243 
139 
104 

267 
131 
136 

43 
21 
22 

73 
47 
26 



170 
96 
74 

33 
19 
14 

128 
79 
49 



124 
72 
52 

66 
41 
25 

117 
69 
48 

57 
38 
19 

39 
21 
18 



25 to 

29 

years 

of 

age. 



1,706 



917 
789 



93 
54 
39 

310 
170 
140 

432 
217 
215 

265 
135 
130 

218 
115 
103 

144 
87 
57 

154 
89 
65 

38 
23 
15 

52 
27 
25 



30 to 

34 

years 

of 

age. 



1,347 



651 



68 
38 
30 

264 
149 
115 



177 
192 



203 
107 



132 
70 
62 

120 
59 
61 

104 
51 
53 

35 
20 
15 

52 
25 

27 



35 to 

39 
years 

of 
age. 



1,517 



824 



16 


8 


11 


6 


5 


2 


154 


137 


83 


85 


71 


52 


32 


20 


18 


8 


14 


12 


124 


107 


69 


56 


55 


51 


110 


99 


54 


43 


66 


56 


58 


58 


32 


26 


26 


32 


130 


87 


65 


50 


65 


37 


80 


75 


36 


35 


44 


40 


64 


60 


30 


23 


24 


27 



121 
57 
64 

304 
162 
142 

445 
247 
198 

231 
134 
97 

124 
63 
61 

96 
48 
48 

102 
61 
41 

30 
17 
13 

64 
35 



143 

73 
70 

27 
17 
10 

134 
72 
62 



99 
67 
42 

79 
44 
35 

128 
67 
61 

63 
36 
27 

76 
43 



40 to 

44 
years 

of 
age. 



1,344 



733 
611 



102 
54 
48 

313 
171 
142 



224 
165 



173 
86 
87 



136 
69 
67 



45 to 

49 
years 

of 
age. 



1,251 



684 
567 



176 
91 
85 

25 
13 

12 

112 
67 
45 



94 
45 
49 

62 
38 
24 

121 
75 
46 

56 
31 
25 

66 
36 
21 



47 



246 
136 
110 

377 
215 
162 

222 
113 
109 

117 
60 
57 

74 
44 
30 

65 
35 
30 

19 
9 
10 

45 
25 
20 



50 to 

54 
years 

of 
age. 



517 
382 



108 
68 
40 

17 
9 
8 

121 
59 



104 
65 
39 

61 
39 
22 

87 
47 
40 



102 
67 

241 
125 
116 

135 
81 
54 

114 
73 
41 

72 
40 
32 

58 
33 
25 

12 

8 
4 

21 
13 

8 



55 to 

59 
years 

of 
age. 



603 



342 
261 



71 
46 
25 

119 

67 
52 

156 
88 
68 

85 
45 
40 



60 to 

64 
years 

of 
age. 



475 



226 



48 
24 
24 

20 
11 
9 

36 
20 
16 

24 
14 
10 

29 
19 
10 



63 
24 

29 

113 
55 
58 

124 
68 
56 

59 
35 
24 

45 
23 
22 

34 
19 
15 



65 to 

69 
years 

of 
^e. 



388 



211 
177 



45 
24 
21 

18 
10 

8 

27 
12 
16 

26 
16 
10 

8 
6 
2 



48 
24 
24 

92 
53 
39 

93 
49 

44 

53 
28 
25 

47 
28 
19 

24 
14 
10 

17 
10 
7 

4 
2 
2 

10 
3 

7 



70 to 

74 
years 

of 
age. 



207 



104 
103 



23 
14 
9 

48 
22 
26 

61 
31 
30 

25 
13 
12 

15 
8 

7 

16 
8 
8 

10 
5 
5 



75 to 

79 
years 

of 
age. 



122 



80 to 

84 
years 

of 
age. 



48 



85 

years 
of age 

or 
over, 



32 



Age 
not 
re- 
port- 
ed. 



27 



17 
10 



50171"— 18 8 



114 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 3.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORD- 
ING TO AGE AND SEX, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910— Continued. 







DEAP AND DXTMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE KETUBNED: 


1910. 






DIVISION, STATE, AND SEX. 


Total. 


Un- 
der 1 
year 
of 
age. 


lto4 

years 

of 

age. 


5t0 9 

years 

of 

age. 


10 to 

14 
years 

of 
age. 


IS to 

19 
years 

of 
age. 


20 to 

24 
years 

of 
age. 


25 to 

29 
years 

of 
age. 


30 to 

34 
years 

of 
age. 


35 to 

39 
years 

of 
age. 


40 to 

44 
years 

of 
age. 


45 to 

49 
years 

of 
age. 


50 to 

54 
years 

of 
age. 


55 to 

59 
years 

of 
age. 


60 to 

64 
years 

of 
age. 


65 to 

69 
years 

of 
age. 


70 to 

74 
years 

of 
age. 


75 to 

79 
years 

of 
age. 


80 to 

84 
years 

of 
age. 


85 
years 
of age 

or 
over. 


Age 
not 
re- 
port- 
ed. 


West North Central: 


499 
273 
226 

436 
249 
187 

872 
478 
394 

lOi 
54 
47 

109 
59 
50 

280 
155 
125 

470 
264 
206 

19 

10 

9 

388 
209 
179 

56 
31 
25 

376 
205 
171 

304 
162 
142 

504 
278 
226 

245 
129 
116 

348 
185 
163 

86 
48 
38 

664 
351 
313 

588 
315 
273 

317 
172 
145 

296 
167 
129 

336 
168 
168 

254 
143 
111 

304 
166 
138 

719 
372 
347 




10 
5 
5 

5 
2 
3 

6 
3 
3 

5 
4 
1 

4 
1 
3 

3 
2 

1 

3 
2 
1 


29 
18 
11 

18 
10 
8 

47 
22 
25 

18 

10 

8 

12 
4 
8 

29 
15 
14 

40 
26 
14 


77 
43 
34 

32 
19 
13 

127 
78 
49 

25 
11 
14 

7 
3 
4 

48 
27 
21 

68 
38 
30 

2 


88 
42 
46 

34 
16 
18 

118 
68 
50 

15 
7 
8 

12 
6 
6 

46 
25 
21 

43 
23 
20 

3 
1 
2 

55 
33 
22 

6 
2 

41 
17 
24 

56 
28 
28 

80 
48 
32 

35 
18 
17 

56 
29 
27 

6 
2 
4 

119 
76 
43 

107 
61 
46 

40 
22 
18 

64 
34 
30 

34 

17 
17 

44 
26 
18 

41 
20 
21 

130 
70 
60 


54 
33 
21 

42 
32 
10 

107 
69 
38 

7 
5 
2 

19 

17 

2 

36 
25 
11 

51 
26 
25 

2 

1 
1 

34 
17 
17 

6 
4 
2 

52 
29 
23 

36 
20 
16 

67 
34 
33 

30 
15 
15 

64 
37 
27 

9 
6 
3 

86 
44 
42 

79 
46 
33 

48 
32 
16 

30 
17 
13 

50 
23 
27 

44 
21 
23 

52 
31 
21 

121 
56 
65 


58 
28 
30 

50 
27 
23 

78 
42 
36 

3 
1 
2 

13 
7 
6 

16 
6 
10 

47 
24 
23 

2 

1 
1 

25 
9 
16 

4 
3 

1 

47 
21 
26 

22 

15 

7 

52 
30 
22 

28 
14 
14 

32 
18 

14 

6 
4 
2 

47 
27 
20 

39 
28 
11 

31 
16 

15 

27 
16 
11 

26 
15 
11 

25 

19 

6 

29 
16 
13 

74 
39 
35 


39 
21 
18 

32 
19 
13 

63 
33 
30 

3 
1 
2 

8 
4 
4 

19 

7 

12 

39 
22 
17 

4 
2 
2 

15 

10 

5 

12 

7 
5 

23 
16 

7 

14 
6 
8 

30 
13 
17 

14 

7 
7 

14 
5 
9 

6 
4 
2 

45 
24 
21 

35 
18 
17 

20 
5 
15 

20 
12 

8 

18 

11 

7 

12 

4 
8 

23 
12 
11 

51 
24 
27 


35 
16 
19 

51 
30 
21 

62 
37 
25 

8 
5 
3 

12 
5 
7 

18 

15 

3 

45 
26 
19 


34 
18 
16 

37 
19 
18 

44 
16 
28 

5 
3 
2 

5 
3 
2 

14 

7 

• 7 

34 
20 
14 

2 
2 


22 
IS 

7 

42 
20 
22 

87 
41 
46 

4 
2 
2 

7 
3 
4 

19 
8 
11 

41 
24 
17 


23 

17 
6 

33 
19 
14 

41 
21 
20 

1 

1 


11 
7 
4 

16 

10 

6 

36 
18 
18 


4 
2 
2 

21 

13 

8 

14 
6 
8 

1 
1 


6 
4 
2 

4 

22 
13 
9 

3 

1 
2 


6 
2 
4 

7 
4 
3 

5 
2 
3 

2 
2 


1 
1 

5 
2 
3 

6 
4 
2 


1 
...... 


1 
1 




Male 








Iowa 






Male 


















2 

1 
1 


2 
'""2 

1 


5 


Male 


4 




1 


North Dakota.. 




Male 














1 




South Dakota 


3 
3 

13 
6 
7 

21 

14 

7 

2 
2 


3 
1 
2 

7 
6 
1 

12 
3 
9 


1 




2 
2 


1 




Male 










* Female—.. 


1 

4 
3 

1 

14 
10 
4 

1 






1 






Nebraska 


4 
...... 

7 
3 
4 


2 

1 
1 

3 
2 
1 


1 
1 


1 
1 




Male 




Female 






2 
1 

1 

1 
1 








Male 
















South Atlantic: 

Delaware 








Male 


















Female... 








2 

91 
46 
45 

4 
3 

1 

35 
23 

12 

37 
19 

18 

62 
33 
29 

37 
20 
17 

38 
18 
20 

22 

15 

7 

112 
53 
69 

115 
56 
59 

45 
22 
23 

46 
27 
19 

53 
28 
25 

33 
16 
17 

51 
23 

28 

115 
64 
51 




1 

7 
6 

1 
















5 
2 
3 


51 
32 
19 

2 

1 
1 

31 
20 
11 

36 
19 
17 

72 
40 
32 

24 
10 
14 

41 
22 
19 

8 
2 
6 

64 
35 
29 

65 
26 
39 

26 
12 
14 

41 
27 
14 

37 
13 
24 

36 
25 
11 

28 
16 
12 

65 
18 
37 


14 
5 
9 

4 
3 

1 

25 
9 
16 

19 

10 

9 

15 

7 
8 

IS 
9 
6 

29 
19 
10 

3 
1 
2 

28 
15 
13 

33 
16 
17 

18 
11 

7 

17 

6 

11 

30 
17 
13 

15 
9 
6 

12 

7 
5 

45 
28 
17 


25 
12 
13 

7 
2 
5 

21 
10 
11 

18 

10 

8 

18 
10 
8 

19 
10 
9 

20 
10 
10 

6 
3 
3 

36 
14 
22 

21 
13 

8 

21 
10 
11 

14 
8 
6 

20 
13 

7 

9 
4 
5 

19 
12 

7 

29 
18 
11 


20 
12 

8 

3 
2 
1 

20 
12 

8 

17 
8 
9 

25 
12 
13 

12 

6 
6 

13 
5 
8 

7 
3 
4 

34 
19 
15 

15 

8 
7 

16 

12 

4 

9 
6 
4 

16 
7 
9 

6 
2 
4 

16 
12 

4 

27 
14 
13 


20 
11 
9 

4 
2 

2 

25 
15 
10 

15 
9 
6 

25 
17 
8 

12 
11 

1 

6 
4 
2 

5 
2 
3 

30 
13 
17 

17 

11 

6 

16 

11 

6 

9 
5 
4 

20 
12 

8 

4 
2 
2 

11 
6 
5 

23 
13 
10 


11 
7 
4 

2 


9 
5 
4 

1 
1 


1 

1 

1 
1 


2 

"'i' 


2 
1 

1 


1 




Male 






1 




District of Columbia 




Mate 




















2 

11 
9 

2 

8 
4 
4 

19 
10 
9 

6 
2 
4 

10 
4 
6 

1 
1 

23 
13 
10 

14 
5 
9 

'5 
2 
3 

6 

4 
2 

7 
5 
2 

3 

I 

7 
3 

4 

10 
8 
2 












Viiginia 


1 

1 

1 
....„ 


9 
5 

4 

6 
3 
3 

12 

10 

2 

6 
3 
3 

8 
5 
3 

3 
2 
1 

9 
3 
6 

16 

8 
8 

13 
6 

7 

5 
2 
3 

6 

1 
5 

4 
■ "i" 

4 
2 
2 

13 
6 

7 


13 
6 
7 

5 
2 
3 

8 
3 
5 

1 
1 

8 
4 
4 

2 

\ 

10 
6 

4 

11 
6 
5 

7 
3 
4 

6 
4 
2 

13 
6 

7 

8 
6 
2 

4 
2 
2 

7 
3 
4 


13 

7 
6 

6 

4 
2 

8 
4 

4 

3 
2 

1 

6 
4 
2 

1 

1 


3 
2 

1 

4 

1 
3 

2 
2 


4 
2 
2 

2 
1 
1 

5 
5 


1 

'""i' 

1 
1 


1 
1 


1 


llale 


Female....- -• 




West Virginia 


1 

1 


1 
1 


Male 






1 


1 


2 


Male 




1 


1 


2 


South Carolina 


2 
2 

2 

1 
1 


1 
1 


Male 
















Georgia 


1 








Male 










1 








Florida 




1 

1 




Male 










Female. 










East SotrrH Centeal: 


10 
5 
5 

10 
6 
4 

4 
3 
1 


6 
3 
3 

6 
4 
2 

3 

1 
2 

1 


2 

'""2 

'3 
2 
1 

4 
4 


2 
1 

1 

1 




1 


Male 


Female.— ■-- 




1 

1 
1 




Male 


Female 


1 










Male 
















ICJssissiDoi 






1 




K. 








Female 


2 


1 

1 






1 




ynai Soxtth Centeal: 

ArknTis^s 


1 


1 


1 


Male 


Female -. 


2 

4 
3 

1 

4 
2 

2 

7 
5 
2 


1 

3 
2 

r 

1 
....„ 

5 
3 
2 


1 

2 

1 
1 

2 
2 


1 




1 

1 
1 




Male 












Oldahoma 








Hale 








Female 










3 
2 

1 


2 

1 
1 




1 


Male 


Female 




1 



GENERAL TABLES. 



115 



Table 3 DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORD- 
ING TO AGE AND SEX, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910— Continued. 







DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECUL SCHEDULES WEBE HETUENED 


1910. 


DIVISION, STATE, AND SEX. 


Total. 


Un- 
der 1 
year 
ol 
age. 


lto4 

years 

of 

age. 


5t09 

years 

of 

age. 


10 to 

14 
years 

of 
age. 


15 to 

19 
years 

of 
age. 


20 to 

24 
years 

of 
age. 


25 to 

29 
years 

of 
age. 


30 to 

34 
years 

of 
age. 


35 to 

39 
years 

of 
age. 


40 to 

44 
years 

of 
age. 


45 to 

49 
years 

of 
age. 


50 to 

54 
years 

of 
age. 


55 to 

59 
years 

of 
age. 


60 to 

64 
years 

of 
age. 


65 to 

69 
years 

of 
age. 


70 to 

74 
years 

of 
age. 


75 to 

79 
years 

of 
age. 


80 to 

84 
years 

of 
age. 


85 
years 
of age 

or 
over. 


Age 
not 
re- 
port- 
ed. 


Mountak: 


4S 
25 
23 

41 
22 
19 

14 
7 

7 

109 
68 
41 

59 
36 
23 

16 

10 

6 

58 
31 
27 

7 
4 
3 

152 
87 
65 

130 
66 
64 

299 
161 
138 




1 


2 


9 
4 
5 

2 

1 
1 

1 
1 


4 
2 
2 

5 

4 
1 

1 
1 


7 
4 
3 

6 
3 
3 

3 


7 
4 
3 

7 
4 
3 


4 

1 
3 

3 

1 
2 

1 


3 

1 
2 

4 
4 


4 
4 

1 

1 


3 
2 

1 

4 
2 
2 


1 
1 




1 
1 


1 
1 




1 








Male 












1 
1' 


2 

5 

1 
4 

3 
1 
2 

8 
7 
1 

6 
3 
3 

1 




1 








Idaho 


1 
1 


2 
1 

1 


1 












Male 














Female 




1 

2 
2 


1 














WvominE 




2 

1 
1 

8 
5 
3 

2 
1 

1 

1 














^S!:::. ...:::::::::: 


















Female 


3 

8 

6 
5 

1 

1 

1 


13 
8 
5 

4 

1 
3 

1 

1 


1 

12 
7 
5 

4 

4 

4 
4 


15 
8 
7 

3 
2 
1 

1 






















1 
1 


16 

10 

6 

10 
9 

1 

3 
2 
1 

13 
8 
5 


? 
2 

9 
5 
4 

1 
1 


3 
1 
2 

6 
2 
4 


4 
2 
2 

2 
1 

1 

1 
1 


3 
3 


1 
1 


1 
1 










1 


•Male 










1 














New Mexico 






4 
3 

1 


1 


1 


1 










Male 














Female 






1 


1 


1 
1 










Arizona 




1 










Male 
















Female 




1 

3 
3 


1 

5 

5 

1 
1 


1 

4 
2 
2 


1 

4 
2 
2 










1 










Utah 


5 
4 

1 


4 
1 
3 

2 

1 
1 

24 
13 
11 

16 

H 

5 

33 
23 
10 


5 
4 
1 

1 
1 

15 

8 
7 

9 
3 
6 

28 

16 
12 


5 
2 
3 

2 
1 

1 

12 
6 
6 

13 
7 
6 

27 
12 
15 


3 
2 

1 


3 
2 
1 


2 
....„ 

1 


1 
1 


1 










Male 












Female 


1 












Nevada 
















Male 


















































1 

1 
1 
















Pacific: 

Washinrton 




6 
4 
2 

1 


20 

8 

12 

12 
5 
7 

29 
18 
11 


15 

10 

5 

19 
8 
11 

35 
15 
20 


15 
9 
6 

6 
3 
3 

23 
U 

12 


13 
9 
4 

13 

8 
5 

38 
18 
20 


13 
8 
5 

10 
6 

4 

17 
9 

8 


5 
3 
2 

17 
9 

8 

23 
13 
10 


4 
4 


5 
2 
3 

2 
1 

1 

3 
2 

1 


1 
...... 

4 

1 
3 

5 
2 
3 


2 

1 
1 

1 
...... 

4 
2 
2 


1 
1 








Male 








Female 








Oregon 


3 
2 

1 

14 

7 
7 


2 
""2 

14 

10 

4 


1 
1 






1 


Male 






I 


FemalA.... 




1 

6 
3 
3 








California 










Male 










Female 





















116 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 4,— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORD- 
ING TO RACE, NATIVITY, AND AGE, BY DIVISIONS: 1910. 







DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECUL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 


1910. 










DIVISION AND CLASS OF 
POPULATION. 


Total. 


Un- 
der 1 
year 
of 
age. 


lto4 

years 

ol 

age. 


5to9 

years 

of 

age. 


10 to 

14 
years 

of 
age. 


15 to 
19 

age. 


20 to 

24 
years 

of 
age. 


25 to 

29 
years 

of 
age. 


30 to 

34 
years 

of 
age. 


35 to 

39 
years 

of 
age. 


40 to 

44 
years 

of 
age. 


45 to 

49 
years 

of 
age. 


SO to 

54 
yeas 

of 
age. 


55 to 

59 
years 

of 
age. 


60 to 

64 
years 

of 
age. 


65 to 

69 
years 

of 
age. 


70 to 

74 
years 

of 
age. 


75 to 

79 
years 

of 
age. 


80 to 

84 
years 

of 
age. 


85 
years 
of age 

or 

over. 


Age 
not 
re- 
port- 
ed. 


UNITED STATES. 
All classes 


19,153 


3 


300 


1,850 


2,569 


2,403 


2,062 


1,706 


1,347 


1,517 


1,344 


1,251 


899 


603 


475 


388 


207 


122 


'48 


32 


27 






White.. ^ 

Native 


18,016 

16,178 

1,838 

1,137 

1,069 

68 

1,187 


3 
3 


290 

286 

4 

10 

8 

2 

18 


1,766 

1,677 

89 

84 

78 

6 

110 


2,388 

2,246 

142 

181 

174 

7 

96 


2,232 

2,083 

149 

171 

166 

5 

100 


1,889 

1,782 

107 

173 

159 

14 

86 


1,596 

1,429 

167 

110 

103 

7 

93 


1,270 

1,103 

167 

77 

69 

8 

68 


1,435 

1,257 

178 

82 
78 
4 

121 


1,277 

1,082 

195 

67 

64 

3 

102 


1,203 

987 

216 

48 

46 

2 

86 


8^5 

733 

112 

54 

52 

2 

77 


583 

498 

85 

20 

18 

2 

71 


459 

380 

79 

16 

13 

3 

53 


375 

302 

73 

13 

11 

2 

48 


195 

162 

33 

12 

11 

1 

23 


115 
95 
20 

7 

7 


45 

33 

12 

3 

3 


29 

20 

9 

3 

3 


21 
20 


Foreign-bom 


1 


Colored 


6 




6 


Otfier colored 




Geogbapbic Divisions, 
ne-w england. 
All classes 


14 


' 1 Z 

12 


6 


3 






White 


1,176 

940 

236 

11 

10 

1 

4,133 




18 
17 

1 


109 

101 

8 

1 
1 


95 

83 

12 

1 

...... 

639 


98 

86 

12 

2 

2 


85 

67 

18 

1 

1 


91 

71 

20 

2 

2 


68 
49 
19 


119 

77 

42 

2 

2 


101 
70 
31 

1 
1 


86 
60 
26 


77 
62 
15 


71 
60 
11 


53 

45 

8 


48 
41 

7 


22 

20 

2 

1 

1 


14 

12 

2 


12 

11 

1 


6 
I 


3 


Native 


3 






Colored 




N^o 
























Other colored 
























middle ATLANTIC. 

All classes 


1 


45 


550 


539 


331 


310 


264 


304 


313 


246 


169 


119 


113 


92 


48 


30 


9 


9 


2 






White 


4,074 

3,422 

65? 

59 

65 

4 

4,329 


1 
1 


45 
44 

1 


538 

478 

60 

12 

10 

2 

288 


627 

520 

107 

12 

12 


530 

432 

98 

9 

9 


321 

285 

36 

10 

9 

1 

403 


307 

250 

57 

3 

3 


262 

201 

61 

2 

2 


302 

256 

46 

2 

2 


311 

264 

47 

2 

2 


245 
196 

1 
1 


167 

149 

18 

2 

2 


118 

104 

14 

1 

1 


111 

87 

24 

2 

1 
1 

124 


92 
71 
21 


48 

42 

6 


30 

27 

3 


9 
6 
3 


8 
7 
1 
1 
1 


2 


Native 


2 


Foreign-bom 




Colored 




















Other colored 
















EAST NORTH CENTRAL. 

All classes 




60 


429 


413 


432 


369 


445 


389 


377 


241 


156 


93 


61 


25 


12 


6 


6 






White 


4,276 

3,755 

521 

53 

47 

6 

2,767 




60 
60 


284 

270 

14 

4 

3 

1 

193 


420 

408 

12 

9 

9 

384 


408 

389 

19 

5 
4 

1 

356 


397 

375 

22 

6 

4 

2 

316 


428 

377 

51 

4 

3 

1 

265 


366 

313 

53 

3 

3 


437 

389 

48 

8 

8 


382 

321 

61 

7 

6 

1 

173 


375 

290 

85 

2 

2 


240 

202 

38 

1 

1 


155 
118 
37 

1 
1 


123 

97 
26 

1 
1 


92 

70 
22 

1 
1 


61 
45 
16 


25 

16 

9 


12 
6 
6 


6 
4 
2 


5 


Native 


5 


Foreign-bom 




Colored 






1 


Negro 














1 


Other colored 
















•WEST NORTH CENTRAL. 

All classes 




36 


203 


231 


222 


135 


85 


59 


53 


25 


17 


4 


5 


s 






White 


2,688 

2,417 

271 

79 

57 

22 

2,326 




34 
34 


192 

188 

4 

1 


379 

377 

2 

5 

4 

1 

328 


341 

325 

16 

15 

14 

1 

338 


303 

288 

15 

13 

9 

4 

300 


258 

235 

23 

7 
6 

1 

218 


196 

175 

21 

7 

4 

3 

132 


225 

199 

26 

6 

3 

3 

124 


171 

133 

38 

2 

....„ 

136 


215 

181 

34 

7 

5 

2 

117 


128 

98 

30 

7 

7 

114 


84 

66 

18 

1 

...... 

68 


67 

42 

15 

2 

2 


53 
39 
14 


22 
18 
4 
3 

2 

1 

15 


17 

13 

4 


4 
2 
2 


5 
...... 


4 


Native 


4 






Colored^ 




2 


1 


N^o 








1 


Other colored 




2 
«9 


1 

265 










SOUTH ATLANTIC. 

All classes 


45 


47 


16 


5 


5 


4 






White 


1,871 

1,848 

23 

455 

453 

2 

1,865 




44 

43 

1 

5 

5 


228 

227 

1 

37 

37 


257 

256 

1 

71 

71 


274 
274 

64 


245 

244 

1 

55 

55 


171 
166 
S 
47 
45 
2 

144 


104 
100 
4 
28 
28 


92 
90 
2 
32 
32 


104 
103 
1 
32 
32 


93 
92 

1 
24 
24 


37 
85 
2 
27 
27 


56 
56 

■■'iz' 

12 


40 

39 

1 

5 

5 


39 

37 

2 

8 

8 


14 

14 

...... 

1 


13 
12 

1 
3 
3 


3 
3 


4 
4 


3 


Native 


3 








2 
2 


1 
1 


1 


N^o 


1 


Other colored 




BAST SOUTH CENTRAL. 

All classes 




43 


196 


318 


330 


243 


120 


96 


92 


74 


72 


48 


34 


24 


16 


9 


3 


1 


2 






White 


1,581 

1,570 

11 

284 

284 




40 
40 


179 
179 


271 
271 


288 
288 


197 

195 

2 

46 

46 


114 
113 
1 
30 
30 


99 
97 
2 
21 
21 


78 
77 
1 
18 
18 


74 

73 

1 

18 
18 


63 
61 
2 
11 
11 


62 
62 


44 
44 


31 
31 


22 
22 


10 
8 
2 
6 

6 


6 
6 


3 
3 






Native 






Foreign-bom 






Colored 




3 
3 


17 
17 


47 
47 


42 
42 


10 
10 


4 
4 


3 
3 


2 
2 


3 
3 




1 

1 


2 
2 




Other colored 



GENERAL TABLES. 



117 



Table 4.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORD- 
ING TO RACE, NATIVITY, AND AGE, BY DIVISIONS: 1910— Continued. 









DEAF AND 


DUMB 


POPULATION FOB 'WHOII 


SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 


DIVISION AND CLASS OF 
POPULATION. 


Total. 


Un- 
derl 
year 
of 
age. 


lto4 

years 

of 

age. 


5to9 

years 

of 

age. 


10 to 

14 
years 

of 
age. 


15 to 
19 

years 

of 

age. 


20 to 
24 

years 

of 

age. 


25 to 

29 
years 

of 
age. 


30 to 

34 
years 

of 
age. 


35 to 

39 
years 

of 
age. 


40 to 
44 

years 

of 

age. 


45 to 

49 
years 

of 
age. 


60 to 

54 
years 

of 
age. 


55 to 

59 
years 

of 
age. 


60 to 

64 
years 

of 
age. 


65 to 

69 
years 

of 
age. 


70 to 

74 
years 

of 
age. 


75 to 

79 
years 

of 
age. 


80 to 

84 
years 

of 
age. 


85 
years 
of age 

or 
over. 


Age 
not 
re- 
port- 
ed. 


•WEST SOUTH CENTRAL. 


1,613 


2 


27 


156 


252 


249 


267 


154 


104 


102 


77 


65 


58 


27 


32 


17 


10 


8 


3 




3 






White 


1,437 

1,403 

34 

176 

158 

18 

352 


2 
2 


27 
27 


144 
144 


221 

220 

1 

31 

29 

2 

54 


218 
218 

"si' 

31 

34 


228 

226 

2 

39 

34 

5 

43 


139 

132 

7 

15 

14 

1 

38 


89 
88 

1 

15 
10 

5 

35 


90 
85 
5 
12 
12 


72 
66 
6 
5 
5 


62 

58 

4 

3 

3 


62 
50 
2 
6 
5 
1 

12 


27 
27 

12 


30 
28 
2 
2 
1 
1 

5 


16 

13 

3 

1 

...... 

4 


9 
9 




2 
2 




2 


Native 


1 


Foreizn-born 


I 


Colored 






12 
10 
2 

31 


1 
1 




1 
1 




1 


N^o 






1 


wer colored 








M0X7NTAIN. 

All classes 




9 


30 


22 


19 


2 


1 






1 










White 


339 

309 

30 

13 

4 

9 

581 




9 
8 
1 


31 

30 

1 


61 
48 
3 
3 
2 
1 

69 


32 

29 

3 

2 


41 

36 

5 

2 


37 

36 

1 

1 


34 

33 

1 

1 

1 

52 


28 
27 
1 
2 
1 
1 

64 


22 

20 

2 


19 
15 

4 


12 

10 

2 


11 
9 
2 
1 


5 
4 
1 


3 

1 
2 

1 


2 

1 
1 


1 

1 






1 


Native 






1 


» Foreign-bom 








Colored 










N«ro 
























Omer colored 








2 

44 


2 

73 


1 
52 








1 
17 


10 


1 
10 












PACIFIC. 




13 


61 


40 


45 


21 


7 


2 






1 










WUte. 


574 

514 

60 

7 

1 
6 




13 
13 


61 

60 

1 


67 

63 

4 

2 


43 
42 

1 
1 


72 

66 

6 

1 

1 


51 

49 

2 

1 


52 

47 
5 


64 

67 

7 


40 

32 

8 


45 
34 
11 


20 
15 
5 

1 


17 

14 

3 


9 
7 
2 

1 


10 
8 
2 


7 
5 
2 


2 

1 
1 






1 


Kative 






1 










Colared 












Kkto 




























Otner colored . . 








2 


1 


1 










i 




1 











































118 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 5 — ^DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, AGE, AND SEX, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



Total... . 

Under 1 year.. 

1 to 4 years 

S to 9 years 

10 to 14 years.. 
IS to 19 years.. 

20 to 24 years.. 
25 to 29 years.. 
30 to 34 years.. 
35 to 39 years.. 
40 to 44 years.. 

45 to 49 years.. 
50 to 54 years.. 
55 to 59 years.. 
60 to 64 years.. 
65 to 69 years.. 



70 to 74 years 

75 to 79 years 

80 to 84 years 

85 years or over . . 
Age not reported. 



Total.... 

Under 1 year.. 

1 to 4 fetas 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years.. 
15 to 19 years.. 

20 to 24 years.. 
25 to 29 years.. 
30 to 34 years.. 
35 to 39 years.. 
40 to 44 years., 

45 to 49 years., 
50 to 54 years., 
55 to 59 years.. 
60 to 64 years., 
65 to 69 years.. 



70 to 74 years 

75 to 79 years 

80 to 84 years 

85 years or over.. 
Age not reported. 



Total.... 

Under 1 year.. 

1 to 4 years 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years.. 
15 to 19 years.. 

20 to 24 years.. 
25 to 29 years.. 
30 to 34 years., 
35 to 39 years., 
40 to 44 years.. 

45 to 49 years.. 
50 to 54 years.. 
55 to 59 years.. 
60 to 64 years.. 
65 to 69 years.. 



70 to 74 years 

76 to 79 years 

80 to 84 years 

85 years or over.. 
Age not reported. 



AGE OKOUF iKD SEX. 



Both Sexes. 



DEAJ AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE BETUBNED: 1910. 



All classes. 



19,153 



3 

300 
1,850 
2,569 
2,403 

2,062 
1,706 
1,347 
1,517 
1,344 

1,251 
899 
603 
475 
388 

207 
122 
48 
32 
27 



10,507 



162 
1,015 
1,403 
1,337 

1,193 
917 



733 

684 
517 
342 
249 
211 

104 



8,646 



1 

138 

835 

1,166 

1,066 



789 
651 
693 
611 

567 
382 
261 
226 
177 

103 
59 
27 
15 
10 



White. 



Total. 



18,016 



3 

290 
1,766 
2,388 
2,232 

1,889 
1,596 
1,270 
1,435 
1,277 

1,203 
845 
583 
459 
375 

195 
115 
45 
29 
21 



9,888 



2 

157 

969 

1,302 

1,246 

1,092 
860 
661 
778 
700 

658 
477 
334 
243 
203 



8,128 



1 
133 

797 



797 
736 
609 
657 
577 

545 
368 
249 
216 

172 

97 
57 
24 
13 



Native. 



16, 178 



3 

286 

1,677 

2,246 

2,083 

1,782 
1,429 
1,103 
1,257 
1,082 

987 
733 
498 
380 
302 

162 
95 
33 
20 
20 



8,855 



2 

153 

914 

1,214 

1,156 

1,034 
769 
574 
675 
607 

540 
406 
281 
205 
161 

80 
47 
14 
11 
12 



7,3 



1 

133 

763 

1,032 

927 

748 
660 
529 
582 
475 

447 
327 
217 
175 
141 



Foreign- 
born. 



1,838 



4 

89 
142 
149 

107 
167 
167 
178 
195 

216 

112 

85 

79 

73 

33 

20 

12 

9 

1 



4 
55 
88 
90 

58 
91 
87 
103 
93 

118 
71 
53 
38 
42 

18 

11 

7 

5 

1 



805 



34 
54 
59 

49 
76 
80 
75 
102 



41 
32 
41 
31 

15 
9 

5 

4 



Colored. 



Total. 



1,137 



10 
84 
181 
171 

173 
110 

77 
82 
67 

48 
54 
20 
16 
13 

12 
7 
3 
3 
6 



619 



5 

46 

101 

91 

101 
57 
35 
46 
33 

26 

40 

8 

6 

8 

6 
5 



518 



5 
38 
80 
80 

72 
53 
42 
36 
34 

22 
14 
12 
10 

5 

6 
2 
3 
2 
2 



Negro. 



1,069 



8 

78 

174 

166 

159 
103 
69 
78 
64 

46 
52 
18 
13 
11 

11 
7 
3 
3 
6 



584 



5 

44 
99 
88 

91 
53 
30 
46 
31 

25 

38 

7 

6 

7 

5 
5 



485 



Other 
colored. 



68 



2 
6 
7 
5 

14 
7 
8 
4 
3 

2 
2 
2 



35 



2 
2 
3 

10 

4 
5 



33 



GENERAL TABLES. 



119 



Table 6.— MALE AND FEMALE DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, 
CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MARITAL CONDITION, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910. 



DIVISION ixm STATE. 



United States. 



Oeoqbaphic divisions: 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central.. 
West North Central . 

South Atlantic 

East South Central . . 
West South Central.. 

Mountain 

Pacific 



New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts.. 

Bhode Island 

Connecticut 



Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Fennsjlvania... 



Bast North Centbal: 
Ohio 

TnHiftTift ,. 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisccmsin 



West Noeth Cbnteal: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

■ Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

TTftTiaftg 



SovTH Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland , 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia , 

West Virginia 

North Carolina , 

South Carolina 

Georgia , 

Florida 



East Sottth Centeal: 
Kentucky , 



Alabama 

Mississippi 



West South Centeal: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 



Mottntain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 



PACinc: 

Washington. 

Oregon 

Calliomia 



DEAT AND DUMB FOPUIATION FOB WHOU SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEBE BETUBNED: 1910. 



Total. 



10,507 



654 

2,331 

2,362 

1,532 

1,257 

1,005 

849 

203 

314 



95 
S3 
40 

306 
58 

102 



1,346 

188 
797 



601 
351 
720 
358 
332 



273 
249 
478 
54 
59 
155 
264 



10 

209 
31 
205 
162 
278 
129 
185 
48 



351 
315 
172 
167 



168 
143 
166 
372 



87 
66 
161 



Maim 



Under 

15 
years 
of age. 



2,582 



127 
709 
435 
343 
353 
277 
213 
54 
71 



492 

46 

171 



90 
45 
167 
63 
70 



66 
31 
103 
25 
8 
44 
66 



15 years of age or over.i 



Total. 



7,925 



527 

1,622 

1,927 

1,189 

904 

728 

636 

149 

243 



81 
47 
32 
253 
34 
80 



854 
142 



511 
306 
553 
295 
262 



207 
218 
375 
29 
51 
111 
198 



10 
129 

27 
157 
121 
195 

96 
140 

29 



260 
225 
132 
111 



126 
101 
125 
284 



21 
20 

3 
50 
24 

8 
20 

3 



65 
53 
125 



Single. 



313 
1,093 
1,231 
819 
675 
562 
438 
105 
152 



49 
28 
23 
144 
21 
48 



592 

95 

406 



329 
171 
368 
187 
176 



164 
145 
255 
20 
40 
78 
117 



9 

94 

14 
120 

96 
151 

74 
101 

16 



192 
181 
99 
90 



200 



Mar- 
ried. 



2,326 



193 
493 
640 
340 
211 
145 
179 
41 
84 



241 

43 

209 



166 
124 
171 
100 
79 



41 

65 

116 

8 

9 

31 

70 



Wid- 
owed. 



162 



Di- 
vorced. 



29 



Marital 
condi- 
tion 
not re- 
ported. 



Female. 



20 



10 



Total. 



8,646 



533 

1,802 

1,967 

1,235 

1,069 

860 

764 

149 

267 



71 
46 
22 
.260 
55 
79 



1,002 
136 
664 



553 
283 
590 
302 
239 



187 
394 
47 
SO 
125 
206 



9 
179 
25 
171 
142 
226 
116 
163 



313 
273 
145 
129 



168 
111 
138 
347 



65 
64 
138 



Under 
15 

years 
of age. 



2,140 



97 
526 
342 
270 
289 
280 
224 
40 
72 



343 
30 
153 



90 
45 
130 
40 
37 



94 

106 

44 

36 



15 years of age or over.' 



Total. 



6,506 



436 
1,276 
1,625 
965 
780 
580 
540 
109 
195 



65 
39 
20 
214 
32 
66 



659 
106 
511 



238 
460 
262 
202 



176 

163 

317 

24 

35 

89 

161 



7 
112 

23 
144 
104 
163 

82 
121 

24 



219 
167 
101 
93 



114 
79 
96 

251 



46 

45 

104 



Single. 



3,806 



180 
706 
873 
563 
569 
420 
356 
61 
78 



378 

58 

270 



255 
115 
252 
135 
116 



120 
82 

192 
17 
23 
52 
77 



5 
71 
12 

113 
78 

127 
58 
90 
15 



146 

129 

77 



66 
61 
54 
175 



Mar- 
ried. 



2,315 
205 



357 
176 
120 
160 
42 
106 



31 
20 
9 
103 
11 
31 



234 
211" 



181 
105 
184 
110 



70 

115 

4 

9 

33 

74 



Wid- 
owed. 



351 



Di- 
vorced 



20 



Marital 
condi- 
ition 
not re- 
ported. 



14 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



120 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 7.— MALE AND FEMALE D.EAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, 
CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, AND MARITAL CONDITION, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A 
WHOLE: 1910. 





DEAP ADD DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE EETUENED: 1910. 




Male. 


Female. 


RACK AOT) NATIVITY. 


Total. 


Under 
IS years 
of age. 


15 years of age or over.i 


Total. 


Under 
15 years 
of age. 


15 years of age or over.i 




Total. 


Single. 


Mar- 
ried. 


Wid- 
owed. 


Di- 
vorced. 


Marital 
condi- 
tion 
not re- 
ported. 


Total. 


Single. 


Mar- 
ried. 


Wid- 
owed. 


Di- 
vorced. 


Marital 
condi- 
tion 
not re- 
ported. 


AU classes.. 


10,507 


2,582 


7,925 


5,388 


2,326 


162 


29 


20 


8,646 


2,140 


6,506 


3,806 


2,315 


351 


20 


14 






White 


9,888 
8,855 
1,033 

619 
584 
35 


2,430 

2,283 

147 

152 

148 

4 


7,458 

6,572 

886 

467 

436 

31 


4,992 

4,445 

547 

396 

369 

27 


2,267 

1,960 

307 

59 

66 

3 


151 
130 
21 

11 
10 

1 


29 

24 

5 


19 

13 

6 

1 

1 


8,128 

7,323 

80S 

518 

485 

33 


2,017 

1,929 

88 

123 

112 

11 


6,111 

5,394 

717 

395 

373 

22 


3,507 

3,136 

371 

299 

286 

13 


2,256 

1,971 

285 

59 

53 

6 


320 

264 

56 

31 

28 

3 


16 
14 
2 

4 
4 


12 


Native 


g 




3 


Colored 


2 


Negro 


2 

















1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 

Table 8.— MALE AND FEMALE DEAF AND DtjMB POPULATION 15 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO AGE AT ENUMERATION AND MARITAL CONDI- 
TION, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



AQE OBOUF. 



15 years or over ' 

15 to 19 years 

20 to 24 years 

25 to 29 years 

30 to 34 years 

35 to 39 years 

40 to 44 years 

45 to 49 years 

50 to 54 years 

55 to 59 years 

60 to 64 years 

65 to 69 years 

70 to 74 years 

75 to 79 years 

80 to 84 years 

86 years or over 

Age not reported 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION IS TEARS OF ASE OR OVEE FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910.' 



Total. 



7,925 



1,337 
1,193 
917 
696 
824 
733 

684 
517 
342 
249 
211 

104 
63 
21 
17 
17 



Male. 



Single. 



5,388 



1,335 
1,135 
731 
423 
425 
314 

294 
238 
173 
110 
94 

54 
31 
12 
10 
9 



Married. 



2,326 



2 
52 
179 
269 
383 
390 

363 
264 
148 
123 



Wid- 
owed. 



Divorced. 



162 



4 

2 

10 

21 

22 
10 
17 
14 
26 

13 

13 

4 

5 

1 



29 



Marital 
condition 

not 
reported. 



20 



Female. 



Total. 



6,506 

1,066 
869 
789 
651 
693 
611 

567 
382 
261 
226 
177 

103 
59 
27 
15 
10 



Single. 



3,806 



1,054 
707 
442 
?86 
269 
256 

216 
170 
116 
108 
74 

61 

29 

14 

9 

5 



Married. 



2,315 



12 
154 
331 
351 
407 
314 

313 

166 

108 

76 

52 

19 
7 
2 



Wid- 
owed. 



351 



Divorced. 



20 



Marital 
condition 

not 
reported. 



14 



' Includes those whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



121 



Tabie q —DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORD- 
ING TO AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910. 











DEAF AND DUMB POPULAHOM FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES -WERE 


returned: 1910. 










Total. 


Number whose deafness was— 




Con- 


Acquired.' 


DIVISION AND STATE. 


Total. 


At less than 5 years of age. 


At 5 to 9 years of age. 


At 10 
years 
of age 

or 
over. 






Total. 


Less 
than 
lyear. 


1 
year. 


2 
years. 


3 

years. 


years. 


In- 
fancy 
(exact 
age 
not 
report- 
ed). 


Total. 


5 
years. 


6 
years. 


7 
years. 


8 
years. 


9 

years. 


At age 
not 

report- 
ed. 


United States 


19,153 


7,533 


11,620 


9,254 


1,628 


2,375 


2,606 


1,572 


959 


114 


1,594 


714 


454 


319 


73 


34 


140 


632 


Oeoorafhic divisions: 
New E^nsland .... 


1,187 
4,133 
4,329 
2,767 
2,326 
1,865 
1,613 
352 
581 


453 

1,465 

1,434 

909 

1,292 

954 

743 

114 

169 


734 

2,668 

2,895 

1,858 

1,034 

911 

870 

238 

412 


593 

2,079 

2,328 

1,513 

773 

697 

717 

209 

345 


94 
302 
385 
267 
167 
166 
165 
46 
66 


142 
521 
562 
411 
214 
192 
190 
50 
93 


173 
626 
673 
442 
188 
171 
1E3 
o4 
96 


117 
375 
411 
230 
133 
101 
112 
34 
59 


65 

238 

245 

149 

64 

72 

64 

24 

38 


2 

17 

52 

14 

17 

5 

3 

1 

3 


87 
403 
396 
228 
158 
137 
111 
23 
61 


63 

177 
194 
93 
63 
59 
42 
9 
24 


16 

128 

101 

72 

43 

42 

31 

5 

16 


12 
77 
81 
48 
33 
22 
27 
9 
10 


3 
17 
14 
12 
12 
8 
6 


3 
4 
6 
3 
7 
6 
5 


5 
25 
30 
22 
27 
16 
11 
1 
4 


49 


Middle Atlantic 

EEist North Central 

West North Central. . . . 
South Atlantic 


161 

141 

95 

76 


East South Central 

West South Central .... 


62 

31 

5 


Pacific 


1 




12 






Nbw England: 

Maine 


166 
99 
62 
666 
113 
181 

2,348 

324 

1,461 

1,164 
634 

1,310 
660 
571 

499 
436 
872 
101 
109 
280 
470 

19 
388 

66 
376 
304 
504 
245 
348 

86 

664 
688 
317 
296 

336 
254 
304 
719 

48 
41 
14 
109 
59 
16 
68 
7 

152 
130 
299 


82 
25 
25 
205 
47 
69 

818 
116 
632 

396 
200 
399 
226 
213 

154 
141 
304 
31 
39 
89 
161 

12 
183 

25 
216 
160 
321 
148 
188 

49 

310 
303 
172 
169 

151 
166 
HI 
315 

13 
11 

5 
27 
31 

6 
19 

3 

38 
33 

98 


84 
74 
37 

361 
66 

112 

1,530 
209 
929 

758 
434 
911 
434 
358 

346 
295 
568 
70 
70 
191 
319 

7 
205 

31 
160 
154 
183 

97 
160 

37 

354 
285 
145 
127 

185 

88 

193 

404 

35 
30 

9 
82 
28 
11 
39 

4 

114 

97 

201 


76 
64 
33 
281 
49 
90 

1,178 
159 
742 

605 
. 355 
743 
336 
289 

287 
233 
448 
54 
58 
167 
266 

7 
146 

22 
113 
116 
140 

76 
127 

27 

267 

225 

113 

92 

152 

70 

161 

334 

32 
26 

8 
71 
23 
10 
35 

4 

93 
81 
171 


7 
7 
6 

66 
7 

11 

166 

17 

119 

101 
68 

114 
58 
44 

61 
37 
73 
10 
10 
27 
49 

2 
15 

2 
24 
25 
35 
22 
26 

6 

51 
51 
30 
24 

35 
16 
33 
81 

8 
7 
3 
8 
8 
2 
9 
1 

14 
16 
26 


21 
15 

9 
66 

8 
23 

294 
37 
190 

144 
90 
164 

87 
77 

83 
52 
129 
18 
18 
46 
65 

1 
36 

5 
21 
41 
45 
15 
40 
10 

73 
71 
29 
19 

37 

16 

37 

101 

4 
6 
1 
19 
7 
5 
9 

26 
21 
46 


23 
20 
U 
75 
16 
28 

354 

62 

220 

171 

108 

214 

88 

94 

71 
84 
127 
11 
12 
47 
90 

■■"48' 
11 
32 
26 
20 
14 
34 
3 

72 
64 
27 
18 

33 
21 
53 
76 

8 
6 
2 

20 
4 
1 

11 
2 

28 
18 
50 


12 
14 
5 
61 
10 
16 

217 
29 
129 

99 
46 
150 
70 
46 

47 
36 
62 
9 
9 
29 
38 

2 
34 

4 
16 
14 
27 
15 
15 

6 

45 
24 
17 
16 

25 
13 
24 
50 

8 
4 
2 
13 
2 
1 
4 

15 
18 
26 


13 
8 
2 

23 
8 

11 

133 
24 
81 

77 
43 
74 
29 
22 

23 
23 
63 
4 
9 
16 
21 

2 
11 


2 

14 
3' 

13 
2 

27 
4 
6 

2 
1 
4 
2 

i' 

3 


5 
8 
3 

48 
6 

17 

227 
41 
135 

106 
66 

113 
70 
51 

38 
40 
80 
13 
10 
16 
31 


3 
6 
2 

24 
4 

14 

108 
16 
53 

68 
26 
61 
29 
31 

18 

15 

29 

6 

6 

7 

12 


1 
2 
1 
9 
1 
2 

69 
12 
47 

20 
16 
29 
20 
16 

11 
11 
27 
4 
2 
2 
16 


1 








3 


New Hampshire 

Vermont- 






1 


1 








1 


MasRachufwtt-s. . 


9 

1 
1 

38 
10 
29 

20 
13 
27 
18 
3 

8 
10 
16 
3 
2 
6 
3 


3 


3 


2 

1 
1 

14 

2 
9 

13 
2 

8 
5 
2 


30 


Rhode Island 


10 








4 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York 


10 
3 
4 

6 

1 
5 
2 

1 
3 
6 


2 
2" 

2 

1 
1 
1 

1 


111 




7 


Pennsylvania 


43 


East Nokth Central: 
Ohio 


34 


TndiftTift, . 


21 


Illinois 


47 


Michigan 


23 




16 


West Noeth Central: 


20 


Iowa 


1 
2 


5 
6 
1 
2 
1 
7 


17 


Mis<«ilri 


34 


North DEikota 


2 










Nebraska 


1 
1 




7 




15 


Sooth Atlantic: 




Maryland 


1 


37 
7 

27 
23 
29 
13 
18 
4 

63 
38 
24 
22 

29 
13 
23 
46 

2 
3 

11 


13 
5 

12 
9 

10 
5 
8 
1 

22 

14 

7 

16 

11 
6 
8 

18 

1 
2 


9 
1 
5 
6 
10 
6 
4 
2 

21 

14 

6 

1 

9 

6 

6 

11 


9 


3 


3 
1 
2 


2 
1 
8 

i 

4 
4 
3 

7 
4 
2 
2 

1 
3 
2 
5 


21 




1 


Virginia 


15 
9 
9 
7 

10 
1 

26 
21 
10 
16 

20 

4 

14 

26 

4 
4 


6 
1 

4 
3 
2 

1 

4' 

i" 

2 

1 


7 
5 
4 
2 
5 
1 

7 
6 
6 
3 

6 

1 

9 

11 

1 
1 

1 
4 

1 
1 


1 
3 

5 


12 


West Virginia 


13 


North Carolina 


11 


South Carolina 


4 


Georgia. ..... . . 




1 


11 


Florida 


3 


East South Central: 
Kentucky 


3" 

3 
2 

2 

1 

3' 


3 

1 
2 

1 

i" 

3 


27 


Tennessee 


18 


Alabama 


6 


Mississippi 


11 


West South Central: 
Arkansas 


3 


Louisiana 


2 


Oklahoma 


7 


Temn?. , , 


19 


Uoumtain: 


1 


Idaho 








1 












Colorado'.' 


11 
2 
1 

1 
1 

10 

7 

21 


i' 


3 
2 


4 

1 










New Mexico 








1 


Arizona. 










Utah 


i 








1 


2 


Nevada 












Pacipic: 


i' 

2 


17 

9 

25 


7 
3 
14 


7 
3 
6 


3 
2 
6 






2 


2 




1 




7 


ciliSomia 




2 


8 











> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



122 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 10.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, AGE AT ENUMERATION, AND AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



BACK, NATrVITT, SEX, AND 
AGE GBOUP. 



All classes: 

Aliases 

Male 

Female... 

Under 5 years 

Male 

Female 

StoOyears 

Male 

Female 

10 to 14 years 

Male 

Female 

15tol9 years 

Male 

Female 

20 to 24 years 

Male 

Female 

25 to 44 years 

Male 

Female 

45 to 64 years 

Male 

Female 

65 years or over 

Male 

Female 

Age not reported. . . 

Male 

Female 

White: 

All ages 

Male 

Female 

Under 5 years 

Male 

Female 

6to9years 

Male 

Female 

10 to 14 years 

Male 

Female 

15 to 19 years 

Male 

Female 

20 to 24 years 

Male 

Female 

25 to 44 years 

Male 

Female 

45 to 64 years 

Male 

Female 

65 years or over 

Male 

Female 

Age not reported. . . 

Male 

Female 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 



Total. 



19,153 

10,507 

8,646 



303 
164 
139 

1,850 

1,015 

835 

2,569 
1,403 
1,166 

2,403 
1,337 
1,066 

2,062 
1,193 



5,914 
3,170 
2,744 

3,228 
1,792 
1,436 

797 
416 
381 

27 
17 
10 



18,016 
9,888 
8,128 



293 
159 
134 

1,766 
969 
797 

2,388 
1,302 
1,086 

2,232 

1,246 

986 

1,889 

1,092 

797 

5,578 
2,999 
2,579 

3,090 
1,712 
1,378 

759 
396 
363 

21 
13 
8 



Number whose deafness was — 



Acquired.! 



Con- 
gen- 
ital. 



7,533 
4,028 
3,505 



187 
97 
90 



466 
414 

1,058 
539 
519 

1,041 
564 
477 

854 
480 
374 

2,000 

1,056 

944 

1,167 
640 
527 

335 
179 
156 

11 
7 

4 



6,902 
3,690 
3,212 



179 
93 



443 
393 

973 
495 
478 

940 
509 
431 

750 
418 
332 



9S9 
850 

1,087 
597 
490 

319 

171 
148 

9 
5 

4 



At less than 5 years of age. 



Total. 



11,620 
6,479 
5,141 



116 
67 
49 

970 
549 
421 

1,511 
864 
647 

1,362 
773 
589 

1,208 
713 
495 

3,914 
2,114 
1,800 

2,061 

1,152 

909 

462 
237 
225 

16 
10 
6 



11,114 
6,198 
4,916 



114 
66 
48 

930 
526 
404 

1,415 
807 
608 

1,292 
737 
555 

1,139 
674 
465 

3,769 
2,040 
1,729 

2,003 
1,115 



440 
225 
215 

12 
8 
4 



Total. 



9,254 
5,160 
4,094 



107 
63 
44 

842 
483 
359 

1,269 
722 
547 

1,115 
634 
481 

1,022 
596 
426 

3,109 
1,693 
1,416 

1,483 
815 
668 

298 
149 
149 

9 
5 

4 



8,947 
4,993 
3,954 



105 
62 
43 

812 
466 
346 

1,190 
676 
514 

1,068 
609 
459 

976 
573 
403 

3,029 
1,650 
1,379 

1,463 
804 
659 

296 
148 
148 

8 
5 
3 



than 
1 

year. 



1,628 
898 
730 



31 
21 
10 

171 
89 
82 

262 
147 
115 



128 
111 

223 
124 
99 

490 
270 
220 

184 

106 

78 

27 
13 
14 



1,585 
876 
709 



31 
21 
10 

167 
86 
81 

253 
141 
112 



123 
106 

218 
122 
96 

477 
266 
211 

182 
104 

78 

27 
13 
14 



lyear. 



2,375 
1,325 
1,050 



49 
29 
20 

256 
156 
100 

385 
226 
159 

335 
182 
153 

279 
163 
116 

722 
392 
330 

294 
149 
145 

53 
27 
26 

2 
1 
1 



2,315 
1,292 
1,023 



48 
28 
20 

246 
150 
96 



215 
153 

327 
180 
147 

270 
157 
113 

711 
385 
326 

291 
149 
142 

52 
27 
25 



2 

years. 



2,606 
1,433 
1,173 



20 
10 
10 

214 

117 

97 

325 
185 
140 

287 
175 
112 

278 
160 
118 

939 
503 
436 

448 
239 
209 

90 
40 
50 

5 
4 
1 



2,530 
1,395 
1,135 



20 
10 
10 

205 
114 
91 

310 

174 
136 

276 
167 
109 

262 
155 
107 

918 
493 
425 

445 
238 
207 

90 
40 
60 

4 
4 



3 
years. 



1,572 
869 
703 



124 
71 
53 

185 
101 

84 

140 
85 
55 

148 
85 
63 

568 
298 
270 



196 
140 

66 
31 
35 

1 
.... 



1,491 
828 
663 



2 
1 

118 
67 
51 

156 

88 
68 

129 
79 
50 

139 
80 
59 

652 
291 
261 

328 
191 
137 

65 
30 
35 



4 

years. 



578 
381 



52 
36 

99 
61 
38 

84 
59 
25 

371 
218 
153 

197 
112 
85 

57 
36 
21 



917 

548 



62 
39 
23 

80 
47 
33 

92 
57 
35 

77 
54 
23 

354 
205 
149 

195 

110 

85 

57 
36 
21 



In- 
fancy 
(exact 
age 
not 
report- 
ed). 



114 
57 

57 



109 
54 
55 



At 5 to 9 years of age. 



Total. 



1,594 
907 
687 



51 
32 
19 

141 
83 

58 

162 
94 
68 

116 
69 
47 

606 
322 
284 

427 
256 
171 

90 
51 
39 



1,479 
840 



47 
29 
18 

132 
78 
54 

147 

88 
59 

101 
59 
42 

564 
301 
263 

404 
238 
166 

84 
47 
37 



714 
391 
323 



17 
12 

66 
40 
26 

81 
46 
35 

59 
36 
23 

279 
134 
145 

169 
100 



675 
370 
305 



266 
129 
137 

164 
97 
67 

29 
17 
12 



' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



years. 



454 
262 
192 



12 
7 
5 

45 
24 
21 

47 
28 
19 

32 
18 
14 

172 
105 
67 

123 
68 
55 

23 
12 
11 



418 
242 
176 



11 
6 
5 

41 
23 
18 

43 
26 
17 

27 
15 
12 

156 
97 
59 

119 

64 
55 

21 
11 
10 



7 
years. 



319 
194 
125 



10 
8 
2 

28 
18 
10 

31 
18 
13 

16 
10 
6 

123 
65 

58 

88 
63 



297 
179 
118 



10 
8 
2 

27 
17 
10 

25 

15 
10 

14 
9 

5 

116 
61 
55 

82 
57 
25 



8 
years. 



9 
years. 



At 10 

years 

of age 

or 

over. 



At age 
not 

report- 
ed. 



140 

84 
56 



108 
63 
45 



li 



632 
328 
304 



9 
4 
5 

77 
34 
43 

100 
58 
42 

79 
41 
38 

66 
45 
21 

160 

78 
82 

90 
43 
47 

46 
20 
26 

5 
5 



580 
302 
278 



9 
4 
5 

71 
31 
40 

92 
52 
40 

72 
37 
35 

59 
40 
19 

148 
76 
72 

85 
42 
43 

41 
17 
24 

3 
3 



GENERAL TABLES. 



123 



Table 10.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, AGE AT ENUMERATION, AND AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 




Total. 


Number whose deafaess was— 




Con- 
gen- 
ital. 


Acquired.! 


RACE, NATTTITT, SEX, AND 
AOE 8B0UP. 


Total. 


At less than 5 years of age. 


At 5 to 9 years of age. 


At 10 
years 
of age 
or 
over. 






Total. 


I^ess 
than 
lyear. 


1 
year. 


2 

years. 


3 
years. 


4 
years. 


In- 
fancy 
(exact 
age 
not 
report- 
ed). 


Total. 


5 

years. 


6 

years. 


7 
years. 


8 
years. 


9 

years. 


Atage 
not 

report- 
ed. 


Native: 


16,178 
8,855 
7,323 


6,315 
3,368 
2,947 


9,863 
5,487 
4,376 


8,030 
4,473 
3,657 


1,490 
813 
677 


2,115 
1,186 
. 929 


2,259 
1,254 
1,005 


1,284 
703 
581 


781 
468 
313 


101 
49 
52 


1,239 
700 
539 


560 
305 
255 


352 
200 
152 


254 

155 

99 


50 
30 
20 


23 
10 
13 


89 
51 
38 




Male 


263 


Female 


242 


Under 5 years 


289 
155 
134 

1,677 
914 
763 

2,246 
1,214 
1,032 

2,083 

1,156 

927 

1,782 
1,034 

748 

4,871 
2,625 
2,246 

2,598 
1,432 
1,166 

612 
313 
299 

20 
12 
8 

1,838 

1,033 

805 


178 
92 
86 

795 
424 
371 

934 
473 
461 

885 
474 
411 

715 
401 
314 

1,621 

864 
757 

924 
502 
422 

255 
134 
121 

8 

4 
4 

587 
322 
265 


111 
63 

48 

882 
490 
392 

1,312 
741 
571 

1,198 
682 
516 

1,067 
633 
434 

3,250 
1,761 
1,489 

1,674 
930 

744 

357 
179 
178 

12 

8 
4 

1,251 
711 
540 


102 
59 
43 

769 
433 
336 

1,116 
627 
489 

999 
574 
425 

918 
539 
379 

2,641 
1,436 
1,205 

1,232 
680 
552 

245 
120 
125 

8 
5 
3 

917 
520 
397 


30 
20 
10 

160 
79 
81 

244 
134 
110 

221 
120 
101 

212 
117 
95 

432 
237 
195 

168 
96 
72 

22 
10 
12 

1 

i 

95 
63 
32 


46 
26 
20 

241 
146 
95 

343 
200 
143 

308 
171 
137 

254 
149 
105 

630 
347 
283 

248 

• 125 

123 

43 
21 
22 

2 

1 
1 

200 
106 
94 


20 
10 
10 

192 

105 

87 

291 
163 
128 

257 
156 
101 

239 
144 
95 

808 
434 
374 

369 
203 
166 

79 
35 
44 

4 

4 

271 
141 
130 


3 
2 
1 

107 
60 
47 

147 
80 
67 

116 
71 
45 

131 

74 
57 

459 
242 
217 

265 
150 
115 

55 
24 
31 

1 


55 
33 
22 

69 
40 
29 

83 
53 
30 

72 
50 
22 

299 
169 
130 

162 
95 
67 

41 
28 
13 


3 
1 
2 

14 
10 
4 

22 
10 
12 

14 
3 
11 

10 
5 
5 

13 
7 
6 

20 

11 

9 

5 
2 
3 
















9 


Male 
















4 


Female 
















5 


5to97ears 


45 
28 
17 

111 

67 
44 

127 

72 
55 

90 
53 
37 

459 
250 
209 

339 
195 
144 

68 
35 
33 


24 
14 
10 

51 
32 
19 

63 
34 
29 

46 
26 
20 

208 
100 
108 

143 
85 
58 

25 
14 
11 


11 
6 
5 

35 
20 
15 

38 
23 
15 

25 
IS 
10 

132 
83 
49 

95 
45 
50 

16 
8 

8 


10 
8 
2 

23 
14 
9 

23 
13 
10 

11 
7 
4 

99 
56 
43 

70 
49 
21 

18 
8 
10 








68 


Male 









29 


Female 








39 


10 to 14 years 

Male 


2 

1 
1 

3 
2 
I 

5 
4 
1 

13 

8 
5 

21 

12 

9 

6 
3 
3 




1 
1 


84 
46 
38 


Female 


15 to 19 years 

Male 




\ 
2 

7 
3 
4 

10 
4 
6 

3 
2 

1 


4 
2 
2 

3 
2 

1 

25 
11 

14 

39 
25 
14 

16 

10 

6 

1 


68 
34 
34 

56 
39 
17 

126 
64 
61 

64 
30 
34 

28 
14 
14 

3 


Female 


20 to 24 years 

Male 


Female.. 


25 to 44 years 

Male 


Female 


45 to 64 years 

Male 


Female 

65 years or over 

Male 


Female 

Age not reported... 


Male.:. 


















3 


Female 


1 

207 
125 

82 


















1 

19 

12 

7 




Forelgn-bom: 


136 
80 
56 


8 
5 
3 


240 
140 
100 


115 

65 
50 


66 
42 
24 


43 
24 
19 


14 

7 
7 


2 
2 


75 
39 
36 


Male 


Female 


Under 5 years 


4 
4 


1 

1 


3 
3 


3 
3 


1 
1 


2 
2 


























Male 


























Female 


























5 to 9years 


89 
55 
34 

142 

88 
54 

149 
90 
59 

107 
58 
49 

707 
374 
333 

492 
280 
212 

147 
83 
64 

1 

1 


41 
19 
22 

39 
22 
17 

55 
35 
20 

35 

17 
18 

188 
95 
93 

163 
95 
68 

64 
37 
27 

1 
1 


48 
36 
12 

103 
66 
37 

94 
55 
39 

72 
41 
31 

519 
279 
240 

329 
185 
144 

83 
46 
37 


43 
33 
10 

74 
49 
25 

69 
35 
34 

58 
34 
24 

388 
214 
174 

231 
124 
107 

51 
28 
23 


7 
7 

9 
7 
2 

8 
3 
5 

6 
S 
1 

45 
29 
16 

14 
8 
6 

5 
3 
2 


5 
4 
1 

25 
15 
10 

19 
9 
10 

16 

8 
8 

81 
38 
43 

43 
24 
19 

9 
6 
3 


13 
9 

4 

19 
U 
8 

19 
11 
8 

23 
11 
12 

110 
59 
51 

76 
35 

41 

11 
5 
6 


11 

7 
4 

9 
8 

1 

13 
8 
5 

8 
6 
2 

93 
49 
44 

63 
41 
22 

10 
6 

4 


7 
6 
1 

11 

7 
4 

9 
4 
5 

5 
4 

1 

55 
36 
19 

33 
16 

18 

16 
8 
8 


1 

1 

1 

i' 

4 
3 

1 

2 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 

21 
11 
10 

20 
16 
4 

11 
6 
5 

105 
51 
54 

65 
43 
22 

16 
12 
4 


2 
1 

1 

11 
5 
6 

13 
11 
2 

6 
4 
2 

58 
29 
29 

21 
12 
9 

4 
3 

1 












3 


Male 












2 


Female 












1 


10 to 14 years 


6 
3 
3 

5 
3 
2 

2 

2' 

24 
14 
10 

24 
19 
5 

5 
3 
2 


4 
3 

1 

2 
2 








8 


Male 








6 


Female 








2 


IS to 19 years 






1 

1 


4 


Male 






3 


Female 






1 


20 to 24 years 


3 
2 

1 

17 

5 

12 

12 
8 
4 

5 
4 

1 








3 


Male 









1 


Female 








2 


25 to 44 years 

Male 


5 
2 
3 

7 
3 
4 

2 
2 


1 

1 

1 
1 


3 
2 
1 

12 
6 
6 

3 
3 


23 
12 
11 

21 

12 

9 

13 

3 

10 


Female 

45 to 64 years 

Male 


Female 


65 years or over 

Male 


Female 


Aee not reported . . . 










^ Male... 



































Female 



































> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



124 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 10.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, AGE AT ENUMERATION, AND AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 











DEAV AND DUMB 


POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 


RETtTRNED: 1910. 










Total. 


Number whose deafness was — 




Con- 
gen- 
ital. 


Acquired.! 


KACE, NAinriTY, SEX, AND 
AGE GROUP. 


Total. 




At 


less than 5 years ol age. 


At 6 to 9 yeai-s of age. 


At 10 
years 
of age 
or 
over. 






Total. 


Less 
than 
lyear. 


1 
year. 


2 

years. 


3 
years. 


4 
years. 


In- 
fancy 
(exact 
age 
not 
report- 
ed). 


Total. 


5 
years. 


6 

years. 


7 
years. 


8 
years. 


9 

years. 


At 
age 
not 
report- 
ed. 


Colored: 

All Rges 


1,137 
619 

518 


631 
338 
293 


506 
281 
225 


307 
167 
140 


43 
22 
21 


60 
33 
27 


76 
38 
38 


81 
41 
40 


42 

30 

. 12 


5 
3 
2 


116 
67 
48 


39 
21 
18 


36 
20 
16 


22 
16 

7 


9 

t 


9 
7 
2 


32 
21 
11 


52 


Male... 


26 


■PeiTn^ifl 


26 






Under 8 years 


10 
5 
5 

84 
46 
38 

181 
101 
80 

171 
91 
80 

173 
101 
72 

336 
171 
165 

138 
80 
58 

38 
20 

18 

6 
4 
2 

1,069 

584 
485 


8 
4 
4 

44 
23 
21 

85 
44 
41 

101 
55 
46 

104 
62 
42 

191 
97 
94 

80 
43 
37 

16 

8 
8 

2 
2 

595 
320 
275 


2 
1 

1 

40 
23 
17 

96 
57 
39 

70 
36 
34 

69 
39 
30 

145 
74 
71 

58 
37 
21 

22 
12 
10 

4 
2 
2 

474 
264 
210 


2 

1 
1 

30 
17 
13 

79 
46 
33 

47 
26 
22 

46 
23 
23 

80 
43 
37 

20 
11 
9 

2 

1 
1 

1 




1 
1 




1 






















Male, . 






















Ti'eTnftip 




1 

6 
4 
2 

29 
13 
16 

11 
6 

5 

9 
5 
4 

16 
7 
9 

8 
6 
3 

1 
1 






















6 to 9 years 


4 
3 
1 

9 
6 
3 

10 

5 
5 

6 
2 

3 

13 
4 
9 

2 
2 


10 
6 

4 

17 
11 
6 

8 
2 
6 

9 
6 
3 

11 

7 

4 

3 
3' 

1 


9 
3 
6 

15 
11 

4 

11 

8 
3 

16 
5 
11 

21 
10 
11 

3 

1 
2 


1 

1 




4 
3 

1 

9 
6 

4 

16 
6 
9 

16 
10 
5 

42 
21 
21 

23 
18 

5 

6 

4 
2 

1 


3 
2 
1 

4 
3 

1 

5 

1 
4 

7 
6 

1 

13 

5 
8 

6 
3 

2 

2 

1 
1 


1 
1 










e 


Main 










3 


Female 










3 


10 to 14 years 


8 
5 
3 

7 
4 
3 

7 
5 
2 

17 
13 

4 

2 
• 2 


1 

i' 

2 
2 

2 
1 

1 


4 
1 
3 

4 
2 
2 

5 
3 
2 

16 
8 
8 

4 
4 


1 
1 








8 


Male . . 








6 


li'Atlnii.lK 








2 


IS to 19 years 


6 
3 
3 

2 

1 
1 

7 
4 
3 

6 
6 






1 

1 


7 


Male 






4 


Female 






3 


20 to ^ years 


1 




1 

1 


7 
5 


Male 


ITpm^lo 


1 

4 
2 
2 

2 
1 
1 

1 
1 




2 


25 to 44 years 


2 
2 

6 
4 
2 

1 
1 


U 
8 
3 

10 
7 
3 

9 

4 
5 


13 
2 

10 

5 

1 
4 


Male 


Female 


4Sto64 years 


Mall... 


Female 


66 years or over 


2 

1 
1 




5 


Male 






3 


Female 




1 








2 


Age not reported 


1 










1 




2 


Male..„ 






















2 


Female 


1 

287 
158 
129 






1 

68 
35 
33 








1 

110 
64 
46 








1 

8 
3 
6 








Negro: 

All ages 


42 
22 
20 


67 
32 
25 


74 
37 
37 


41 
29 
12 


5 
3 
2 


37 
20 
17 


36 
20 
16 


20 
14 
6 


9 
7 
2 


27 
16 
11 


50 
26 
24 


Male... 


Female 


Under 5 years 


8 
5 
3 

78 
44 
34 

174 
99 
75 

166 
88 
78 

159 
91 
68 

314 
160 
154 

129 
75 
54 

35 
18 
17 

6 

4 
2 


7 
4 
3 

43 
22 
21 

79 
42 
37 

97 
53 
44 

96 

67 
39 

180 
91 
89 

76 
41 
35 

15 
8 
7 

2 
2 


1 
1 


1 
1 




1 
1 


























Male 


























Female 


























6to9years 


35 
22 
13 

95 
57 
38 

69 
35 
34 

63 
34 
29 

134 
69 
65 

63 
34 
19 

20 

10 
10 

4 
2 
2 


26 
16 
10 

78 
46 
32 

47 
25 
22 

42 
20 
22 

73 
40 
33 

18 
10 

8 

1 


4 
3 

1 

9 

6 

, 3 

10 
5 

5 

5 
2 
3 

12 

4 

8 

2 
2 


8 
5 
3 

17- 

11 

6 

8 
2 
6 

9 
6 
3 

11 

7 
4 

2 

2' 

1 


8 
3 
5 

\l 
4 

'I 
3 

14 
4 
10 

16 
8 
8 

3 

1 
2 


5 

4 
1 

28 
13 
16 

11 

6 
5 

7 
3 

4 

16 
7 
9 

7 
4 
3 


1 
1 




4 
3 

1 

9 
5 
4 

16 
6 
9 

14 
9 
5 

40 
20 
20 

21 
17 
4 

6 

4 
2 

1 


3 
2 
1 

4 
3 
1 

5 
1 
4 

6 
5 
1 

13 
5 
8 

4 
3 
1 

2 

1 
1 


1 

1 










5 
3 


Male 










Female 










2 
8 


10 to 14 years 


8 
5 
3 

7 
4 
3 

7 
5 
2 

16 
12 

4 

2 

a 


1 

i' 

2 
2 

2 

1 
1 


4 
1 
3 

4 
2 
2 

5 

• 3 

2 

16 
8 
8 

4 

4 


1 
1 








Male 








6 
2 

7 


Female. . . . 








IS to 19 years 


6 
3 
3 

2 

1 
1 

5 
3 
2 

6 
6 








Male 








4 
3 

7 


Female 








20 to 24 years 


1 






Male 






5 
2 

11 
2 
9 

5 

1 
4 

5 
3 
2 

2 
2 


Female 


1 

4 
2 
2 

1 

i' 

1 
1 






2S to 44 years 

Male... 


2 
2 

6 
4 
2 

1 
1 


10 
7 
3 

9 
6 
3 

8 
3 
5 


Female 


4Sto64 years 

Main , 


Female 


65 years or over 


2 

1 
1 




Male 












1 
1 




1 










Age not reported... 


1 










1 




Male 






















Female 


i 






i 








i' 








i" 







Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



125 



Table 10— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, AGE AT ENUMERATION, AND AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAF AND DT7MB POPULATION FOB 'WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDtTLES WERE KET0KNED: 1910. 




Total. 


Number whose deafness was— 




Con- 
gen- 
ital. 


Acquired.! 


BACE, NATIVITT, SEX, AND 
AGE OBOUP. 


Total. 


At less than 5 years of age. 


At 5 to 9 years of age. 


At 10 
years 
of age 
or 
over. 






Total. 


Less 
than 
1 year. 


1 
year. 


2 

years. 


3 

years. 


4 
yeaia. 


In- 
fancy 
(exact 
age 
not 
report- 
ed). 


Total. 


5 
years. 


6 
years. 


7 
years. 


8 
years. 


9 
years. 


At 
age 
not 
report- 
ed. 


Other colored: 


68 
35 
33 


36 
18 
18 


32 
17 
15 


20 
9 
U 


1 
i' 


3 
1 
2 


8 
3 
5 


7 
4 
3 


1 
1 




5 
3 
2 


2 

I 
1 




2 

1 
1 


1 
1 




5 
5 


2 


Male 




Female 


2 
















TTnder5years 

Male 


2 


1 


1 


1 








1 


















































2 

6 
2 
4 

7 
2 
5 

5 
3 
2 

14 

10 

4 

22 
11 
11 

9 

S 
4 

3 
2 

1 


1 

1 
1 

6 
2 

4 

4 
2 
2 

8 
5 
3 

11 
6 
5 

4 
2 
2 

1 

i' 


1 

5 
1 
4 

1 


1 

4 

1 
3 

1 








1 

1 






















5 to 9 vears . 




2 
1 
1 


t 




















1 


\rale 






















Female 


1 


1 

1 




















1 


10 to 14 years 

Male 


















































1 

1 

1 


1 








1 






















15 tol9 years 

Male . 
























1 
1 






























































20 to 24 years 


6 
5 
1 

11 
S 
6 

5 
3 
2 

2 
2 


4 
3 
1 

7 
3 

4 

2 
1 
1 

1 
1 






2 
1 

1 

5 
2 
3 


2 
2 






1 

1 


1 
1 










1 
1 










































25 to 44 years 

Male 


1 






1 
1 




2 

1 
1 

2 

1 
1 






2 
1 

1 






1 
1 


1 














1 


1 










1 


45 to 64 years 


1 

1 






1 




1 
1 




1 
1 


















1 








1 








65 years or over 

Male 




1 
1 














1 

1 




























Female 


























Aee not recorted. . 


































^Male 




















































































































> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



126 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 11.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO BROAD AGE GROUPS AND AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, BY DIVISIONS: 1910. 



DIVISION AND AGE OBOtTP. 



United States. 



All ages «. 

Under 20 years . . 
20to 64 years... 
65 years or over. 



NE-W ENOIAND. 



Allages>.. 

Under 20 years.. 

20 to 64 years 

65 years or over. 



MIDDLE ATLANTIC. 



All ages'. 

Under 20 years.. 
20 to 64 years... 
65 years or over. 



EAST NOETH CENTRAL. 



All ages 2. 

Under 20 years.. 

20 to 64 years 

65 years or over.. 



WEST NOETH CENTRAL. 



All ages ' 

Under 20 years . , 
20to 64 years... 
65 years or over. 



SOUTH ATLANTIC. 



All ages >. 

Under 20 years.. 

20 to 64 years 

65 years or over. 



EAST SOUTH CENTRAL. 



All ages 2. 

Under 20 years.. 
20 to 64 years... 
65 years or over. 



WEST SOUTH CBNTEAt. 



All ages 2.. 

Under 20 years., 

20 to 64 years 

65 years or over. 



All ages 2. 

Under 20 years. . 

20 to 64 years 

65 years or over. 



All ages!.. 

Under 20 years., 
20to 64 years... 
65 years or over. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 



Total. 



19,153 



7,125 

11,204 

797 



1,187 



324 
757 
103 



4,133 



1,774 

2,169 

183 



4,329 



1,190 

2,936 

197 



2,767 



969 

,689 

104 



2,326 



1,254 



1,865 



887 

923 

53 



1,613 



38 



352 



128 

216 

7 



581 



187 

374 

19 



Number whose deafness was— 



Congenital. 



3,166 

4,021 

335 



453 



122 

283 

48 



1,465 



674 
709 
81 



1,434 



507 

855 

70 



909 



390 

481 

36 



1,292 



538 

698 

53 



954 



480 

452 

21 



743 



339 

387 

16 



114 



169 



Acquired.' 



Total. 



11,620 



3,959 

7,183 

462 



734 



202 

474 

55 



2,668 



1,100 

1,460 

107 



2,895 



2,081 
127 



1,858 



579 

1,208 

68 



1,034 



442 

556 

35 



911 



407 

471 

32 



870 



347 

499 

22 



238 



84 

149 

4 



412 



115 

285 
12 



At less than 5 years of age. 



Total. 



9,254 



3,333 

5,614 

298 



593 



166 

379 

46 



2,079 



883 

1,116 

79 



2,328 



592 

1,654 

79 



1,513 



501 

968 
44 



773 



363 

395 

15 



697 



341 

341 

14 



717 



309 

394 

13 



209 



78 

128 

2 



345 



100 

239 

6 



Less than 
2 years. 



4,003 



1,728 

2,192 

80 



236 



137 
13 



823 



412 

383 

27 



947 



296 

632 

18 



678 



265 

406 

7 



371 



202 

163 

6 



348 



193 
151 

4 



355 



ISO 

170 

4 



149 



2to4 
years. 



5,137 



1,1)49 

3,369 

213 



355 



80 

241 

32 



1,239 



462 
726 
51 



272 

997 

58 



821 



230 

554 

37 



385 



150 

226 

9 



344 



148 

185 

10 



359 



126 

224 

9 



112 



193 



47 

140 

6 



Infancy 
(exact age 

not 
reported) 



114 



17 



52 



14 



17 



At 5 to 9 
years 
of age. 



1,594 



354 

1,149 

90 



87 



403 



137 

246 

20 



396 



51 

320 

25 



228 



43 

172 

13 



158 



38 

110 

10 



137 



111 



23 



61 



At 10 

years 

of age 

or over. 



140 



7 
104 
28 



25 



30 



22 



27 



15 



11 



At age 

not 

reported. 



> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



2 Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. 



632 



265 
316 
46 



49 



22 
22 

i 



161 



78 

76 

7 



141 



39 
87 
14 



95 



35 

52 

6 



76 



39 

30 

6 



62 



30 

28 

4 



31 



17 
12 
2 



12 



GENERAL TABLES. 



127 



Table 12.— MALE AND FEMALE DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 
RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST AND MARITAL CONDITION, FOR 
THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECUlL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 




Total. 


Number whose deafness was— 


AOE OROUP AND MARITAL CONDITION. 


Congenital. 


Acquired.' 


Total. 


At less than 5 years of age. 


At 5 to 9 
years 
of age. 


At 10 

years 

of age 

or over. 






Total. 


Less than 
2 years. 


2to4 
years. 


Infancy 
(exact age 

not 
reported). 


reported. 




MALE. 


Total 


10,507 


4,028 


6,479 


5,160 


2,223 


2,880 


67 


907 


84 


328 








2,582 

7,925 

5,388 

2,326 

162 

29 

20 


1,102 

2,926 

2,203 

652 

66 

8 

7 


1,480 

4,999 

3,185 

1,674 

106 

21 

13 


1,268 

3,892 

2,512 

1,270 

80 

20 

10 


668 

1,555 

1,089 

423 

27 

12 

4 


578 

2,302 

1,397 

841 

50 

8 

6 


22 

35 

26 

6 

3 


115 

792 

434 

338 

17 

1 

2 


1 
83 
58 
21 

4 


96 


15 years of age or over * 


232 


Single 


181 


Married 


45 


Widowed 


5 


Divorced 




Marital condition not reDorted 






1 










FEMALE. 


Total 


8,646 


3,505 


5,141 


4,094 


1,780 


2,257 


57 


687 


56 


304 






Under 15 years of age, 


2,140 

6,506 

3,806 

2,315 

351 

20 

14 


1,023 

2,482 

1,691 

662 

119 

5 

5 


1,117 

4,024 

2,115 

1,653 

232 

15 

9 


950 

3,144 

1,652 

1,317 

164 

9 

2 


486 

1,294 

778 

450 

61 

4 

1 


445 

1,812 

845 

860 

101 

5 

1 


19 

38 

29 

7 

2 


77 

610 

291 

270 

45 

3 

1 




90 




56 
31 
12 
10 
3 


214 


Single 


141 


Married 


54 


Widowed 


13 










6 











1 Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



* Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. 



128 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Table 13.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, 





EEPOETED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 


DEAF AND DtTMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEBE BETUENED: 1810. 




United 
States. 


Geographic divisions. 




New- 
England. 


Middle 
Atlantic. 


East 

North 

Central. 


West 

North 

Central. 


South 
Atlantic. 


East 

South 

Central. 


West 

South 

Central. 


Moun- 
tain. 


Pacific. 


1 




19,153 


1,187 


4,133 


4,329 


2,767 


2,326 


1,865 


1,613 


352 


581 




Causes aSecting the external ear 


f. 


64 


7 


7 


17 


14 


8 


2 


6 


1 


2 






3 


16 

8 

17 

17 

6 

4.507 


2 

1 
2 


1 


2 

1 
8 
6 


5 

4 


2 




2 




2 


4 


Foreign bodies in the ear 


2 




fi 




1 
4 
1 

1,030 


4 
2 


2 
2 






6 


Eczema 


2 
3 

691 




1 




7 




2 
327 






S 


Causes affecting the middle ear 


1,084 


444 


364 


316 


95 


156 




Causes producing suppurative condition 





3,708 

2,005 

525 

166 

87 

102 

23 

22 

349 

237 

12 

17 

50 

34 

79 

789 
301 
186 
156 
69 
31 
46 

10 

3,666 


288 

201 

29 

7 

2 

8 

3 

5 

9 

10 

1 


908 
579 
123 

43 
6 

25 
2 
6 

25 

48 
2 
4 

16 
3 

26 

120 
48 
30 
25 
6 
1 
10 

2 

869 


896 

509 

149 

50 

17 

21 

6 

4 

59 

34 

2 

3 

14 

11 

17 

186 
75 
44 
38 
12 
5 
12 

2 

1,053 


546 

276 

85 

18 

24 

19 

2 

4 

44 

41 

4 

4 

3 

9 

13 

142 

64 
23 
27 
14 
7 
7 

3 

621 


351 

142 

52 

17 

8 

9 

2 

2 

70 

34 

2 

4 

4 

1 

4 

91 
28 
26 
18 
8 
5 
6 

2 

229 


276 

101 

32 

13 

11 

5 

1 


243 

71 

33 

7 

15 

6 

6 


79 
43 
8 
9 
1 
3 
1 


121 

83 

14 

2 

3 

6 


10 


Scarlet fever 


11 




^?, 


Diphtheria 


13 


Influenza (grippe) 


14 




IS 


Erysipelas 


1R 


Smallpox 


1 
4 
3 


17 


Abscess in the head 


76 
28 


57 
36 

1 
1 
6 
3 

1 

73 
24 
33 

8 
4 
4 


5 
3 


18 


Disease of the ear 


Ifl 


Bronchitis. . . 


ai 


Tonsillitis 




1 
1 
1 
3 

16 
4 
2 
3 
2 
3 
2 




HI 


TBBtMTlB 


3 
2 

8 

39 
13 

1 
12 

9 


2 
2 
5 

88 
30 
20 
15 
14 
6 
3 


1 
2 
2 

34 
15 

7 
10 


22 
23 


All othCT causes producing suppurative condition. . . 


■?A 


Causes not producing suppurative condition 


ZA 


Whoopmg cough 


Hfi 


Catarm 


i!7 


Colds 


28 


Scrofula 


29 


Disease of the throat 




30 


AU other causes not producing suppurative condi- 
tion. 

All other causes affecting the middle ear 


4 


2 

1 
152 


31 




32 


Causes affecting the internal ear 


171 


233 


249 


89 




Causes affecting the labyrinth 


33 


226 

128 

85 

12 

1 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

. 384 

31 

4 

35 

174 

7 

11 

14 

21 

19 

2 

20 

55 

9,869 


4 
1 
2 

1 


21 
6 

13 
2 


49 
28 
18 
3 


26 

12 

12 

2 


30 

18 

10 

1 

1 

194 
118 
32 
32 
3 


34 

23 

8 

3 


54 
36 
18 


3 

1 
2 


5 
3 
2 


34 


Malarial fever and quinine 


3,') 


Mumps '. 


36 


Noise and concussion .■ 


37 


AU other causes affecting the labyrinth 








38 


Causes affecting the auditory nerve 


162 
83 

45 

21 

2 

1 
3 
7 


835 

454 

229 

68 

6 

1 

8 

67 


994 

458 

336 

120 

11 

2 

4 

51 

2 

6 

4 

5 
5 


590 

335 

161 

63 


199 
113 

48 

26 

1 


194 
115 
32 
32 

7 


86 

49 

14 

9 

1 


145 
87 
80 
13 


39 


MftTiinpitis ^ 


40 


Brain fever 


41 


Typhoid fever 


42 


Congestion of the brain 


43 


Disease of the nervous system 






44 


Paralysis 


9 
16 
2 
2 
2 

1 


2 
6 


1 
9 


1 
5 
2 


4 
4 

1 


3 
9 


4n 


Convulsions 


4« 


Sunstroke 


47 


AU other causes affecting the auditory nerve 

Combination of di.sease.s 




1 
1 

9 
9 






2 
1 

1 
1 


48 




1 

3 
2 
1 

2 

3 

1,516 


1 




4 


49 


Brain center for hearing affected 


2 
2 




iM) 


Hydrocephalus 








SI 


Epilepsy 


1 
4 
12 

1,298 








S2 


AU other causes affecting the internal ear . '. 


3 
2 

595 


4 
21 

1,949 


5 
9 

1,963 




1 

4 

978 




1 
2 

245 


S3 


Combination of different classes of causes 


2 

1,167 




■)4 


TTnclassiflable causfl!5 ■ 


158 




Congenital 


55 


7,533 

60 

587 

609 

383 

4 

57 

36 

31 

35 

12 

522 

992 


453 

5 

49 

30 

22 


1,465 

209 
104 
34 


1,434 

16 

118 

170 

68 

3 

15 

7 

11 

9 

5 

117 

203 


909 
15 
72 

131 
43 


1,292 
2 

46- 
62 
60 


954 

5 

32 

32 

74 


743 
7 

28 
46 
79 
1 
5 
2 
2 
4 


114 


160 

3 

23 

17 

5 


SA 


Earache 


57 


Falls and blo^s . 


10 

17 

8 


58 




59 


Fever 


fiO 


Hereditary causes 


fil 


Accident ^ 


3 


18 
3 
9 
6 
4 

90 

257 


7 
7 
2 
9 


3 

7 


5 
8 
2 
2 




1 
2 


«? 


Medicine 




H3 


Fright, shock, excitement 


6 
2 




04 


Diarrhea and cholera infantum 


2 




1 

2 

23 

24 


AS 


Operation 


1 
8 

9 


m 




26 
85 


103 
131 


42 
126 


53 
97 


61 
60 


67 


Cause unlrTIOWn or T»ot reported 







GENERAL TABLES. 

CIASSIFIED ACCORDING TO REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910. 



129 











DEAP 


AND DUMB POPUIAHON FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE 


eetuhned: 1910— continued. 












New England division. 


Middle Atlantic 
division. 


East North Central division. 


West North Central division. 




Maine. 


New 
Eamp- 
.shire. 


Ver- 
mont. 


Massa- 
chu- 
setts. 


Rhode 
Isl£id. 


Con- 
necti- 
cut. 


New 
York. 


New 
Jersey. 


Penn- 
syl- 
vania. 


Ohio. 


Indi- 
ana. 


Illinois. 


Michi- 
gan. 


Wis- 
consin. 


Minne- 
sota. 


Iowa. 


Mis- 
souri. 


North 
Da- 
kota. 


South 
Da- 
kota. 


Ne- 
braska. 


Kansas. 




166 


99 


62 


566 


113 


181 


2,348 


324 


1,461 


1,154 


634 


1,310 


660 


571 


499 


436 


872 


101 


109 


280 


470 


1 


1 


1 




4 


1 




3 




4 


5 


3 


6 


2 


1 


3 


2 


5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 






X 






1 










1 


1 




2 
1 


i" 


3 










T 
















1 
2' 




1 


1 




4 








1 




1 
1 






2 
3 


4 

1 


1 


1 






•y 










3 
1 

420 






1 

1 

186 








1 


6 


46 


1 
36 


23 


146 












1 

119 


1 

24 






7 


20 


56 


508 


102 


327 


136 


313 


164 


144 


125 


34 


77 


126 


8 


39 

; 27 

3 


32 

25 

3 


21 

18 

1 
1 


128 
85 
14 
5 
1 
4 
2 
2 
4 
5 


17 
11 
3 

i 


51 

35 

5 

1 

1 
1 


463 

277 

67 

25 

4 

19 

2 

4 

11 

29 

2 

1 

7 

1 

14 

43 
20 
6 
10 
2 
1 
4 

2 

553 


88 

58 

9 

3 

1 
1 


357 

244 

47 

15 

1 
5 


275 

156 

47 

17 

5 

3 

2 

2 

17 

11 


104 

51 

19 

9 

1 
2 

...... 

4 


261 
137 

50 

11 
6 

10 
2 
1 

21 
8 
2 


134 

78 

24 

7 

3 

4 

6' 

7 


122 
87 
9 
6 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
4 


97 
59 
15 
4 
3 
5 


101 

64 
12 

1 
1 
2 


144 

52 

24 

4 

11 

6 

1 

2 

20 

15 

3 

1 

1 

1 

3 

42 
13 
8 
8 
7 
5 
1 


17 

10 

3 


25 
14 
6 


67 

30 

16 

3 

3 

1 


95 
47 
9 
6 
6 
3 
1 
1 
7 
6 
1 
1 
1 
2 
4 

28 
11 

3 
10 

2 


9 
10 
11 
12 










I'J 




2 


i' 


1 


1 


14 
15 


1 
4 
3 




2' 


2 
1 


3' 

1 


2 
11 
18 










1 

4. 
4 


16 






2 
5 


9 
9 




2 
2 


17 






18 


1 




14 










3' 

1 

8 

14 
5 
4 

1 
1 


3 
6 
1 

4 

63 
23 
20 
14 
3 


1 
3 
4 
7 

52 
20 

9 
15 

5 


1 
2 
1 

1 

31 

10 

15 

2 

3 

1 

1 

208 




1 
2 

1 
3 

22 

12 

4 

2 






1 




1 


20 








1 




2 
2 
1 

5 
4 
1 


4 
4 
5 

51 

18 

12 

9 

4 

1 
7 

1 

343 


3 

1 
1 

30 
15 
4 
10 


1 
2 
1 

28 

17 
4 
4 

1 
1 
1 


2" 

1 

18 
12 
2 
2 
2 


?I 








2 






22 


1 

7 


1 

4 
2 


2 


5 

18 
6 


3 

1 




4 

10 
5 
2 
2 


7T 


7 
2 

4 

i 


9 
4 

i' 

2 


24 
25 
26 


1 
4 


1 

1 


2 


7 

* 


1 


27 
28 






1 


2 
2 


79 


2 






I 


1 




3 


3 


3 


2 


1 


2 

3 

103 


30 






31 


12 


18 


4 


92 


15 


30, 


60 


256 


260 


149 


93 


105 


96 


217 


19 


12 


69 


32 




1 




2 




1 
1 


13 
5 
6 
2 


1 

i' 


7 
1 
6 


15 
8 
5 
2 


11 
6 
5 


14 
8 
S 

1 


6 
S 

1 


3 

1 
2 


3 

1 
1 
1 


5 
2 
3 


9 

4 

\ 






' 4 
2 
2 


5 
3 
2 


33 






34 








2 








35 




1 












36 


























37 

38 
39 
40 
41 


12 
5 
3 
3 


17 
10 

6 


4 
2 
1 


86 
45 
20 

'I 

1 
1 
4 


15 
8 
3 
3 


28 

13 

12 

2 


530 

290 

146 

34 

1 


58 
32 
17 
4 
1 
1 
2 
1 


247 
123 
66 
30 

4 


244 

97 

98 

28 

2 


194 

94 

79 

10 

5 

1 


328 

174 

89 

40 

2 

1 

3 

16 

1 

2 

1 

1 


138 
59 
43 
22 
1 


90 

•34 

27 

20 

1 


99 
35 
39 
18 


90 

59 

21 

5 


208 

145 

36 

19 


19 
9 
8 
2 


12 
5 
2 
3 


64 
32 
18 
10 


98 

50 

37 

6 






42 


























43 






1 


1 


i' 


4 

44 


2 
22 




1 

10 

i" 

1 

2 

2 


4' 

1 
2 

1 


1 
4 
1 

1 

1 


2 
2 


3 
4 






1 
2 


2 
2 

1 


44 


1 


1 


17 


4 




2 


45 
46 














1 
1 

7 
7 






1 
1 

1 
1 


i' 

1 
1 










1 


47 


















1 


1 






48 








2 
2 






1 
1 


1 
1 










49 
























50 














1 
2 

1 

236 














51 








2 
2 

273 




1 


3 
9 

1,110 


1 
149 


1 
11 

690 


2 

509 


2 

264 


2 

679 


3 
3 

309 


2 
302 


1 
1 

202 








1 
1 

120 


2 
209 


Vt 








5 
417 


1 
56 


1 
58 


53 
54 


103 


40 


33 


64 


82 


82 

5' 

4 
1 


25 
2 
2 
3 
2 


25 
3' 


205 

1 

28 

17 

10 


47 
2 
4 
4 
5 


69 

7' 

1 
1 


818 
2 

147 
47 
18 


115 

■■"ie 

10 


S32 

5 

46 

47 

16 


396 

7 

37 

27 

12 

1 

4 

2 

2 

4 

1 

16 

51 


200 

3 

8 

14 

18 

2 

1 

2' 

" "w 

23 


399 

1 

30 

77 

16 

2 

5 

3 

4 

1 

3 

38 

67 


226 

1 

22 

21 

8 


213 

4 

21 

31 

4 


154 

6 

12 

33 

6 


141 
2 
18 
IS 
3 


304 


31 


39 


89 
2 
7 
7 
3 


151 

5 

12 

17 

8 


55 


16 
39 
22 


4 
'I 


3 
7 


57 
58 
59 
60 








2 




1 


12 
1 
6 
2 
3 

54 

165 


1 

3' 

4 

12 


6 
2 

4' 

1 

32 

80 


2 

2 

2 

1 
24 

33 


2 

1 
3 


2 

1 
2 
2 


3 
2 


2 
2 










61 











1 


1 




62 


2 
1 






2 


i 




63 








2 


1 




2 


2 


64 










65 


8 
4 


6 

4 


1 
2 


7 
49 


1 

13 


3 
13 


23 
29 


IS 
29 


18 
16 


30 
42 


6 


8 
3 


9 
12 


14 
29 


66 
67 



50171"— 18 9 



130 DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Table 13.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSI 





EEFOBTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 


DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE EETUENED 


1910. 




South Atlantic division. 




Dela- 
ware. 


^^ 


District 
of Co- 
lumbia. 


Virrinia. 


West 
Virginia. 


North 
Carolina. 


South 
Carolina. 


Oeorgla. 


Florida. 


1 




19 


388 


56 


376 


304 


504 


245 


348 


86 






? 




2 




1 




2 


1 


2 
















^ 








1 








1 




4 


















«i 






2 








1 
1 


1 






fi 












1 




7 


















8 


Causes afFectin&r the middle ear 


3 


81 


11 


67 


80 


82 


37 


65 


18 




Gftiises nroducins suDDurative condition 


9 


3 
2 
1 


70 

42 

6 

5 


10 
7 
2 


52 

22 

10 

2 


62 

34 

10 

2 


63 

18 

8 

2 

2 


31 

4 
5 
3 


45 
10 
7 
2 
5 
2 


15 
3 
3 

1 
1 


in 




11 


Measles - 


1? 


Dinhtheria 


13 








14 






2 


1 


3 


1 




in 


Ervsiuelas 






2 

1 
11 
3 

1 




in 






1 
4 
8 














17 








6 
3 


10 
3 


21 
10 

1 


13 
5 


5 
2 


18 


Disease of the ear - 






1<) 


Bronchitis 






?n 


Tonsillitis 




1 




2 
3 


1 






?i 


Teethine 








1 






?? 


All other causes nroduciner sunnurative condition 










1 






?3 






1 

10 
2 

1 
1 




1 

15 
9 

1 
3 

1 
1 


1 

18 
8 
3 
3 
4 




1 

20 
3 

8 
6 

1 




?4 






1 

1 


18 

4 
8 
4 

1 


6 

1 
3 
1 

1 


3 


Vl 


Whooninc coueir. . .*.*t 




?fi 






2 


?7 


Colds 






?8 


Scrofula 








W 






3 
3 

1 

38 




1 


30 










1 

1 

v 34 




2 


31 


aW other causes affecfdne the middle ear 














3? 


Cfliituvt affectin? the internal ear 


3 


10 


37 


28 


29 


43 


7 






33 




1 


1 


6 
2 
4 


3 
2 

1 


6 
4 
2 


8 
6 


4 
3 
1 


1 

1 


34 






31 


IbfiiTTi'ns 




1 


1 


36 






1 
1 

21 
15 
3 

1 




37 


All other causes aSectine the labyrinth 


















38 




3 


35 

20 

5 

7 

1 


8 
2 
2 
3 

1 


30 

16 

6 

7 


25 
14 

7 
2 

1 


27 

18 

2 

6 


39 

29 

4 

5 


6 
4 

1 
1 


30 


Meningitis 


40 


Brain feTsr 


2 


41 




4' 


Goneestion of the hrain 




43 


Disease of the nervous system 














44 


Paralvsis - 


1 


1 
1 
















4'i 






1 


1 


1 


2 






4R 


Sunstroke 










47 






















48 


Combination of diseases 
















1 




44 






1 
1 


1 


1 

1 










50 


Hydrocephalus - 














f)1 


EnllensT.... 




1 












■i? 


All other causes affecting the internal ear 




1 







1 
1 

361 








M 


Combination of different classes of causes 




1 
33 


1 
245 










S4 




13 


235 


185 


168 


221 


55 






55 


12 


183 


25 


216 

1 
5 
11 
8 


150 


321 

1 

5 

10 

14 


148 


188 


49 


fifi 


Earache 


67 


^alLs and blows - 


1 


17 
16 
S 


4 

1 


4 

6 

12 


3 
8 
7 


5 
9 
12 


2 
1 
2 


58 




59 






fin 


Hereditary causes 






61 






1 

1 


1 








1 






fi? 


Medicine 








3 


2 


1 


63 


Fright, shock, excitement 












fi4 


Diarrhea and cholera Infantum 










1 


1 








65 


Operation 
















66 


All nthfu* nnc]Assifia1>Ie causee? 




12 
32 


2 
1 


4 
25 


12 
11 


6 
24 


1 
10 


5 
17 




67 


Cause unknown or not renorted--. 




6 









GENERAL TABLES. 131 

FIED ACCORDING TO REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910— Continued. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPm.ATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE EETUBNED; 1910— Continued. 




East South Central division. 


West South Central division. 


Mountain division. 


Pacific division. 




Ken- 
tucky. 


Tennes- 
see. 


Ala- 
bama. 


Missis- 
sippi. 


Arkan- 
sas. 


Louisi- 
ana. 


Okla- 
homa. 


Texas. 


Mon- 
tana. 


Idaho. 


Wyo- 
ming. 


Colo- 
rado. 


New 
Mexi- 
co. 


Ari- 
zona. 


Utah. 


Neva- 
da. 


Wash- 
ington. 


Ore- 
gon. 


Cali- 
fornia. 




664 


588 


317 


296 


336 


254 


304 


719 


48 


41 


14 


109 


59 


16 


58 


7 


152 


130 


299 


1 


1 






1 


3 


1 




2 


1 




















2 


? 


































2 




























2 


3 


1 






1 




























4 








1 




1 
1 
























5 










1 


1 






















6 


































7 


137 


117 


64 


46 


45 


27 


76 


168 


15 


9 


2 


35 


10 


6 


17 


1 


38 


42 


76 


8 


104 
45 
13 
7 
2 
4 
1 


89 

34 

11 

3 

4 


50 

12 

7 

3 

2 


33 
10 

1 


33 

10 

4 


24 
7 
5 


59 

25 

10 

4 

4 


127 
29 
14 
3 
7 
6 
6 


12 
7 
2 


7 
4 

1 


2 

i' 


30 
19 
3 
3 

1 
1 


10 
3 
1 
1 


4 
4 


14 
6 

1 
4 




31 
16 

7 

1 


28 

17 

4 

3" 

2 


62 

50 

3 

1 

3" 


9 
10 
11 
1? 


3 

1 


3 


1 






13 




1 








1 




1 


14 












1 




15 




























1 
2 

1 






1A 


20 
9 


26 
8 


15 
9 


15 
2 


10 

,6 


4 
5 


? 


36 
19 
1 
1 
3 
2 


1 


1 


1 


1 
2 


1 
1 








i' 


2 

1 


17 








IS 














19 

























1 














20 




1 


1 






1 


2 












1 








1 

i" 

13 
6 
2 

5 


71 


1 
2 

33 
12 
S 
8 
S 
1 
2 


1 


1 










1 






1 
1 

7 
5 
1 

1 


1 

14 
4 
4 

4 


?? 


2 

28 
10 
7 
2 
5 
3 
1 


1 

14 
2 
4 
4 
2 
2 


1 

3 
3 




2 

3 

1 










1 

3 
1 


1 
i' 


23 


13 
6 
4 

1 
2 


12 
6 

S 

1 


17 
7 
7 
2 


41 
8 

21 
5 
4 
3 


2 
1 




6 




2 

1 


24 




1 

1 
2 

1 




Tfi 


1 










1 


27 










?8 






1 


1 










1 










29 








1 






1 






2 


1 
71 


30 




























V 


105 


64 


29 


35 


69 


27 


72 


81 


10 


12 


5 


33 


9 


3 


16 


1 


47 


34 


32 


8 
6 

1 

1 


12 
6 
5 
1 


8 
6 
2 


6 
5 


20 
13 

7 


4 
3 

1 


10 
7 
3 


20 
13 

7 




1 






1 
1 




1 






1 

1 


4 
2 
2 


3fl 










34 




1 








1 






35 


1 
















36 


































37 


97 
44 
30 
17 

1 


52 
38 
12 

1 


21 
13 

1 
5 


29 

18 

5 

3 


49 

31 

6 

6 

3 


23 

12 

3 

8 


61 

42 

10 

7 

1 


61 
30 
13 
11 
3 


10 
7 
2 


11 
6 
2 
2 


5 
3 

1 


33 
21 

4 
3 


8 
2 

3' 


3 
2 

1 


15 
8 
4 


1 
i" 


47 

31 

9 

5 


33 

20 

7 

1 


65 

36 

14 

7 


38 
39 
40 
41 




1 


42 




























43 








1 

2 






1 




1 








2 
1 




1 




1 


5' 


2 

4 


44 


5 


1 


1 


I 




3 

1 




1 


1 


45 








1 






46 


























1 




1 
1 

1 
1 


47 






1 


















4 










48 


































49 






































50 






































61 
52 
53 














1 
2 

146 
























1 

1 

139 




2 
367 










2 

435 


















1 
60 


46 


393 


208 


199 


204 


193 


20 


17 


7 


41 


37 


7 


24 


5 


54 


310 

2 

7 

12 

31 


303 


172 

1 

9 

1 

16 


169 

2 

4 

10 

1 


151 


166 


111 

2 

6 

7 

11 


315 

5 

12 

22 

45 


13 


U 


5 


27 


31 


5 


19 


3 


38 
3 
6 
6 
1 


33 


98 


55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 


12 

9 

26 


4 
10 
16 

1 
3 

1 


6 

7 
7 


5 


1 

3 


i' 


4 
4 
3 


2 
4' 


i' 

1 


1 
3 


2 


4 

1 
1 


is 

10 
3 












1 


2 
2 


1 
2 


1 
4 

1 


1 




1 
1 
1 
4 






















1 

1 


61 


















1 




62 
63 
64 
65 
66 

67 


1 
1 




1 


















1 




























1 

1 

11 

10 
















1 














1 
6 

8 


28 

28 


12 
38 


6 
16 


7 
15 


18 
15 


6 
6 


8 
8 


29 
31 


2 
2 


2 
3 


3 






1 
1 




5 

6 


3 









132 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 14.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 

WHOLE: 



54 

S5 
56 
57 
68 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 



87 



BEPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



All causes 

Causes afFectiag the external ear. 



Impacted cenimen 

Foreign bodies in the ear 

Bums and scalds 

Eczema 

All other causes affecting the external ear. 



Causes affecting the middle ear . 



Causes producing suppurative condition 

Scarlet fever 

Measles 

Diphtheria 

Influenza (grippe) 

Pneumonia 

Erysipelas 

Smallpox 

Abscess in the head 

Disease of the ear 

Bronchitis 

Tonsillitis ^ 

Teething 

All other causes producing suppurative condition. 
Combination of diseases 



Causes not producing suppurative condition . 



Whooping cough. 
rrh 



Catarrh 

Colds 

Scrofula 

Diseass of the throat , 

All other causes not producing suppurative condition. . 



All other causes affecting the ndddle ear . 



Causes affecting the internal ear . 



Causes affecting the labyrinth 

Ualarial fever and quinine 

Mumps 

Noise and concussion 

All other causes affecting the labyrinth 

Causes affecting the auditory nerve 

Meningitis 

Brain fever , 

Typhoid fever 

Congestion of the brain 

Disease of the nervous system 

FE^ysis 

Convulsions 

Sunstroke 

All other causes affecting the auditory nerve. 
Combination of diseases 



Brain center for hearing affected. 

Hydrocephalus 

E pilepsy 



All other causes affecting the internal e 
Combination of different classes of causes . . 



Unclassifiable causes. . 



Congenital 

Earache 

Falls and blows 

Sickness 

Fever 

Hereditary causes 

Accident 

Medicine 

Fright, shock, excitement 

Diarrhea and cholera infantum . 

Operation 

All other unclassifiable causes . . 



deaf and dumb population for whom special schedules were 
betubned: 1910. 



All classes. 



Both sexes. 



19,153 



64 



4,5.07 



3,708 

2,005 

525 

166 

87 

102 

23 

22 

349 

237 

12 

17 

50 

34 

79 



301 
186 
156 
69 
31 
46 



10 



3,666 



226 

128 

85 

12 

1 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

384 

31 

4 

35 

174 

7 

H 

14 

21 
19 
2 

20 

55 



9,8 



Cause unknown or not reported . 



7,533 

60 

687 



992 



Male. 



2,331 



1,925 

1,057 

262 

82 

44 

62 

11 

11 

183 

119 

7 

6 

25 

15 

41 

398 
144 
95 
82 
33 
17 
27 



2,217 



143 

84 

62 

6 

1 

2,048 

1,070 

584 

224 

18 

2 

19 

109 

6 

7 

9 

16 

15 

1 

10 

27 

5,351 



4,028 

36 

326 

352 

223 

a 

38 
22 
13 
14 
6 
291 



642 



Female. 



2,176 



1,783 

948 

263 

84 

43 

40 

12 

11 

166 

118 

5 

11 

25 

19 

38 

391 
157 
91 
74 
36 
14 
19 



1,449 



1,361 

742 

343 

160 

13 

2 

16 

65 

1 

4 

6 

5 
4 
1 

10 

28 

4,518 



3,505 

24 

261 

257 

160 

2 

19 

14 

18 

21 

6 

231 



450 



White. 



Total. 



Both sexes. Male. Female. 



4,375 



3,613 

1,971 

508 

164 

83 

96 

22 

19 

332 

230 

11 

17 

48 

34 

78 

752 
290 
179 
149 
59 
31 
44 

10 



3,526 



200 

109 

82 

8 

1 

3,286 

1,731 

916 

367 

30 

4 

34 

173 

7 

11 

13 

20 

19 

1 

20 

53 



9,085 



6,901 

60 

558 

559 

343 

4 

54 

29 

29 

35 

12 

501 



919 



9,888 



36 



2,262 



1,874 

1,039 

252 

80 

43 

59 

10 

9 

174 

115 

6 

6 

25 

15 

41 



140 
91 
77 
29 
17 



2,132 



126 

70 

51 

4 

1 

1,980 

1,022 

577 

214 

17 

2 

18 

109 

6 

7 

8 

16 

IS 

1 

10 

25 



4,935 



3,689 

36 

914 

327 

201 

2 

36 

17 

13 

14 

6 

280 



498 



8,128 



22 



2,113 



1,739 

932 

256 

84 

40 

37 

12 

10 

158 

115 

6 

11 

23 

19 

37 

372 
150 
88 
72 
30 
14 
18 



1,394 



74 



709 

339 

153 

13 

2 

16 

64 

1 

4 

5 

4 

4 



10 

28 

4,150 



3,212 

24 

244 

232 

142 

2 

18 

12 

16 

21 

6 

221 



421 



GENERAL TABLES. 



133 



ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, AND REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A 
1910. 



DEA.P AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910— Continued. 




Whito— Continued . 


Colored. 




Native. 


Foreign-bom. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Other colored. 




Both 

sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Hale. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 

sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 




16,178 


8,855 


7,323 


1,838 


1,033 


805 


1,137 


619 


518 


1,069 


584 


485 


68 


35 


33 


1 


49 


30 


19 


9 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


5 


3 


2 


1 




1 


f, 






10 
6 
11 
16 
6 

3,967 


6 
4 
9 
9 
2 

2,044 


4 
2 
2 

7 
4 

1,923 


3 

1 


2 

1 
3 


1 


3 
1 
2 


3 




3 


3 










3 


1 
2 




1 




1 


4 


1 
1 




2 




2 




A 












6 






















7 


408 


218 


190 


132 


69 


63 


122 


65 


57 


10 


4 


6 


8 


3,238 

1.692 

462 

148 

82 

95 

22 

12 

330 

221 

11 

17 

44 

32 

70 

720 

276 

177 

137 

68 

30 

42 

9 
3,188 


1,673 

894 

227 

69 

42 

58 

10 

4 

173 

110 

6 

6 

23 

14 

37 

364 
135 
91 
69 
28 
16 
25 

7 
1,921 


1,565 

798 

235 

79 

40 

37 

12 

8 

157 

111 

6 

11 

21 

18 

33 

356 
141 
86 
68 
30 
14 
17 

2 

1,267 


375 

279 

46 

16 

1 
1 


201 

145 

25 

11 

1 
1 


174 

134 

21 

5 


95 
34 
17 
2 
4 
6 
1 
3 

17> 
7 
1 


51 
18 
10 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
9 
4 
1 


44 

16 

7 


88 

31 

16 

2 

4 

6 

1 

3 

17 

6 

1 


49 
17 
9 
2 
1 
3 
1 
2 
9 
4 
1 


39 
14 
6 


7 
3 
2 


2 
1 
1 


6 
2 
1 


9 
10 
11 

n 


3 
3 


3 

2 








13 




1 




1 


14 






15 


7 
2 
9 


5 
1 
5 


2 
1 
4 


1 
8 
3 


1 
8 
2 








16 








17 


1 




1 


18 




19 


















20 


4 
2 
8 

32 
14 
2 
12 
1 
1 
2 

1 
338 


2 

1 
4 

16 
5 


2 

1 
4 

16 
9 
2 

4 


2 




2 


2 




2 








?1 












22 


1 

37 

11 

7 

7 

10 




1 

19 
7 
3 
2 
6 


1 

34 

10 

7 

7 

8 




1 

18 
6 
3 
2 
6 








?3 


J 

5 
4 


16 
4 
4 
5 
2 


3 
1 


2 


1 

1 


24 




26 


8 
1 

1 
1 

1 
211 








'HI 


2 


2 




?8 






79 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 








30 








11 


127 


140 


85 


55 


135 


82 


53 


5 


3 


2 


32 


187 

105 

73 

8 

1 

2,966 

1,659 

783 

278 

30 

2 

27 

160 

6 

10 

11 

17 
16 

1 

18 
49 

8,123 


118 

67 

46 

4 

1 

1,781 

980 

489 

160 

17 

1 

15 

102 

6 

6 

6 

13 

12 

1 

9 

22 

4,406 


69 
38 
27 

4 


13 
4 
9 


8 
3 
6 


5 

1 
4 


26 

19 

3 

4 


17 
14 

1 
2 


9 
5 
2 
2 


26 

19 

3 

4 


17 

14 

1 

2 


9 
5 
2 
2 








I'? 








14 








35 








3ft 














17 


1,185 

679 

294 

118 

13 

1 

12 

58 

1 

4 

6 

4 

4 


320 
72 

133 
89 


199 
42 
88 
54 


121 
30 
45 
35 


113 
81 
11 
17 

1 


68 
48 

7 
10 

1 


45 

33 

4 

7 


108 

81 

8 

15 

1 


65 

48 

5 

9 

1 


43 

33 

3 

6 


5 


3 


2 


38 
19 


3 

2 


2 

1 


1 
1 


40 
41 

47 


2 
7 
13 
1 
1 
2 

3 
3 


1 
3 
7 

1 
1 
2 

3 
3 


1 
4 
6 












41 


1 

1 


1 




1 

1 


1 










44 


1 


1 








45 












4ft 






















47 




1 
1 


1 




1 

1 


1 










48 




1 


1 








49 














no 




1 




1 


1 




1 








51 


9 
27 

3,717 


2 
4 

962 


1 
3 

529 


1 
1 

433 












57 


2 

784 


2 

416 




2 
736 


2 
390 










53 

54 


368 


346 


48 


26 


22 


6,314 

S5 

439 

431 

310 

4 

46 

27 

14 

34 

10 

439 

802 


3,367 

33 

251 

254 

186 

2 

31 

15 

7 

13 

4 

243 

432 


2,947 

22 

188 

177 

124 

2 

IS 

12 

7 

21 

6 

196 

370 


687 

6 

119 

128 

33 


322 

3 

63 

73 

15 


265 

2 

56 

65 

18 


632 


339 


293 


596 


321 


275 


36 


18 


18 


5S 

5fi 


29 
50 
40 


12 
25 
22 

• 


17 
25 
18 


28 
44 
38 


12 
21 
21 


16 
23 
17 


1 
6 
2 




1 
2 

1 


17 


4 

1 


68 
59 
60 


8 
2 

16 
1 
2 

62 

117 


6 
2 
6 
1 
2 
37 

66 


3 


3 
7 
2 


2 

6 


1 
2 
2 


3 
7 
2 


2 
5 


1 
2 
2 








61 








ft' 


9 








A3 












64 






















65 


25 

61 


21 

73 


11 
44 


10 
29 


18 
69 


8 
42 


10 

27 


3 

4 


3 
3 




6ft 


2 


67 



134 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 15.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST AND REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AS A WHOLE: 1910. 





DEAF AND 


DUMB POPnLATIOK POB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED 


: 1910. 








Total. 












Number whose deafness was 


- 












BEPOKTED CATTSi: OT DBAFTffGflfl 


Con- 
geni- 
tal. 


Acquired.! 




Total. 


At less than 5 years of age. 


At 5 to 9 years of age. 


At 10 
years 

of 
age 

or 
over. 


At 

not re- 
ported.' 




Total. 


Less 
than 

1 
year. 


1 
year. 


2 

years. 


3 

years. 


4 

years. 


In- 
fancy.' 


Total. 


6 
years. 


6 
years. 


7 
years. 


8 
years. 


9 

years. 


All causes 


19,153 


7,533 


11,620 


9,254 


1,628 


2,375 


2,606 


1,572 


959 


114 


1,594 


714 


454 


319 


73 


34 


140 


632 








61 




64 


54 


12 


14 


13 


8 


4 


3 


9 


5 


2 


2 






1 












Impacted cerumeii , . 


16 
8 
17 
17 

6 

4,507 




16 
8 
17 
17 

6 

4,507 


12 
6 
14 
17 

5 
3,773 


1 
1 

1 
9 

667 


4 
1 
2 
5 

2 

982 


5 
2 
3 
2 

1 
1,089 


...... 

5 


2 

1 
1 


2 

1 


3 
2 
3 


2 


...... 

1 


1 






1 
























Eczema 












All other causes affecting the external 


2 

618 




1 
600 






1 
120 










Causes affecting the middle ear 


369 


48 


274 


160 


31 


15 


35 


99 






Causes producing suppurative con- 
dition 


3,708 

2,005 

525 

166 

87 

102 

23 

22 

349 

237 

12 

17 

50 

34 
79 

789 
301 
186 
156 
69 
31 

46 

10 

3,666 




...... 


3,708 

2,005 

525 

166 

87 

102 

23 

22 

349 

237 

12 

17 

50 

34 
79 

789 
301 
186 
156 
69 
31 

46 

10 

3,666 


3,069 

1,558 

454 

142 

75 

98 

18 

17 

323 

215 

12 

14 

48 

31 
64 

696 
277 
158 
140 
56 
28 

37 

8 

2,955 


519 
158 
81 
19 
23 
30 
10 

'"ioe" 

67 
2 
2 
6 

8 
7 

145 
76 
22 
28 
14 
3 

2 
3 

488 


766 

298 

136 

43 

26 

22 

4 

5 

102 

67 

5 

8 

26 

14 
10 

215 
81 
58 
34 
13 
13 

16 

1 
681 


879 

492 

132 

37 

13 

26 

1 

6 

70 

51 

4 

3 

13 

6 
25 

208 
79 
44 
44 
20 
9 

12 
2 

818 


540 

359 

69 

24 

7 

11 

1 

3 

32 

16 

1 

1 

2 

2 
12 

77 
26 
24 
15 
5 
1 

6 
1 

558 


329 

235 

32 

19 

5 

6 

2 

3 

8 

8 


36 
16 
4 

i" 

3 

5 

6 


545 

395 

59 

20 

9 

3 

5 

4 

18 

13 


253 
175 
30 
11 
5 
2 
2 
2 
9 
9 


142 
102 
12 
5 
3 
1 
3 
1 
5 
3 


109 

87 
11 
3 

1 


28 

20 

4 

1 


13 
11 
2 


28 

21 

3 

1 

1 


66 


Scarlet fever 


31 


Measles 


9 


Diphtheria. 


3 


TnflueTiTa fpriPTwl 


2 


"Pn^^umoiiift . . . 






1 
















1 
2 

1 






1 




Atecess in the head 


2 




8 


Disease of the ear 




1 


8 










Tonsillitis 






2 




1 


1 








1 


Teething ... 


1 

10 

39 
11 
7 
14 
4 
2 

1 

1 

391 


1 

12 

4 
3 
5 








2 


All other causes producing sup- 


3 

14 

53 
15 
12 
9 
8 


2 
6 

21 
6 
4 
3 
2 


1 
5 

17 
8 
4 
2 
2 














2 

10 
1 
2 
2 
3 


1 
3 






1 


Causes^ not producing suppurative 


2 


7 
1 
3 
1 
2 


33 




8 


cataw™:.::!?. ::::::::::::;:::: 


1 


1 
...... 


13 


Colds 


6 




3 


Disease of the throat 


3 


All other causes not producing 


19 


9 
2 

639 


6 

283 


1 

1 
187 


2 

1 
143 










All other causes aSecting the middle 












18 


8 


34 


38 






Causes affecting the labyrinth 

Malarial fever and quinine 

MuniT*s - 


226 

128 

85 

12 

1 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

384 

31 

4 

35 

174 

7 

11 
14 

21 
19 
2 

20 
55 

9,869 


7,533 


226 

128 

85 

12 

1 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

384 

31 

4 

35 

174 

7 

11 
14 

21 
19 
2 

20 
55 

2,336 


173 

107 

57 

8 

1 

2,746 

1,454 

784 

273 

26 

2 

25 

161 

3 

11 

7 

20 

19 

1 

16 
45 

1,938 


31 

17 

10 

4 


43 

31 

11 

1 


46 

32 

11 

2 

1 

768 

411 

221 

79 

4 

1 

9 

39 

2 
2 

3 
3 


33 
19 
14 


19 
8 
11 


1 

i' 


40 

14 

25 

1 


19 

7 

12 


• 7 
2 
5 


10 
4 
5 

1 


2 

1 
1 


2 
....„ 


6 

4 

...... 


7 
3 
3 




1 


All other causes affecting the laby- 
rinth 
















Causes affecting the auditory nerve . . 
Ueningitis 


445 

223 

141 

18 

9 

1 

5 

44 

3 
1 

8 
7 
1 

4 
5 

369 


629 

301 

182 

69 

8 

6' 

66 
2 

2 
3 

3 
3 


517 

282 

143 

69 

3 


369 

229 

94 

36 

1 


18 
8 
3 
2 
1 


596 

339 

130 

97 

5 

2 

7 

5 

4 


264 

153 

52 

41 
3 

1 
6 
4 

1 


179 
108 
40 
23 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 


131 
67 
33 

27 

1 


16 
7 
4 
5 


6 
4 

i 


27 
5 
7 
9 


30 
14 


Brain lever. 


6 


TvDhoid fever. 


5 
















Paralysis - 


4 
11 

1 

4 

4 
4 


1 
7 


4' 








3 
3 




Ccmvulsions 








5 




1 








All other causes affecting the au- 
ditory nerve 














Combination of dis^ises 


1 

2 
2 




7 


3 


2 


2 










Brain center for hearing affected 








1 






















Enilensv" 


















1 


All other causes affecting the internal 


6 
14 

571 


1 
13 

518 


4 
9 

310 


1 
3 

150 


1 
20 


3 
9 

270 


4 
115 


1 
3 

85 


2 
2 

41 






1 
1 

49 


Combination of different classes of causes. 










18 


11 


79 






7,533 

60 

587 

609 

383 

4 

57 

36 

31 

35 

12 

522 

992 


7,533 




































60 

587 

609 

383 

4 

57 

36 

31 

35 

12 

522 

992 


62 

506 

495 

296 

4 

45 

31 

25 

34 

7 

443 

489 


10 

88 

89 

50 

2 

8 

6 

4 

11 

2 

99 

87 


14 
160 
146 

76 
...... 

10 

6 

15 

2 

140 

U3 


18 

148 

124 

81 

2 

13 

8 

9 

6 

"'iie' 

155 


8 
86 
81 
55 


1 
28 
48 
32 


1 
6 
7 
2 


3 

60 
65 
67 


2 
28 
22 
22 


.1 
18 
23 
22 








1 

7 

15 

12 




Falls and blows 


11 
9 
14 


2 

7 
5 


1 
4 
4 


14 

34 

8 




Fever 


Hereditary causes 




7 
4 
4 

1 

2 

62 

69 


5 

3 

2 

...... 

30 

42 


i' 

3' 

23 


7 
3 
4 


4 
2 
4 


1 


1 


1 


...... 


3 

1 
2 


2 

1^ 


Medicine 


Fright, shock, excitement 










Diarrhea and cholera infantum. 










1 


Operation 


5 
56 

67 


1 
30 

33 


1 
19 

17 


2 

4 

11 


1 
2 

6 








All other unclassiSabie causes 


1 


8 

20 


15 
416 





> Includes those for whom the age when bearing was lost was not reported. 



' Exact age not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



135 



Table 16 DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 

ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND 
CHILDREN AND STATUS OF PARENTS, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND CHILDREN AS TO HEARING, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



AOE GEOUP, UARITAL CONDITION, AND STATUS AS TO BROTHERS AND 
SISTERS AND CHILDREN. 



Total. 



Reporting children 

Seporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children , 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 

Not reportmg children 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to hearing of brothers oi* sisters . 

Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters 



Under 15 years of age. 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 

Reporting no brothers or sisters. 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters 



IS years of age or over i . 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting (duldren 



Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting diildren 



Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 
Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . . 
Not reporting children 



Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters.. 
Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Single. 



Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting children 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 



Aggregate. 



Total. 



19,153 



4,397 

296 

4,043 

58 

14,756 

17,852 
4,347 

13,393 
112 
853 
448 



4,722 



4,310 

1,069 

3,215 

26 

251 

161 



14,431 

13,542 

3,278 

1,152 

148 

981 

23 

2,126 

10,178 

3,026 

135 

2,864 

27 

7,152 



185 

10 

172 

3 

417 

287 
17 
2 
13 
2 
270 



9,194 



Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 



284 
19 

254 

11 

8,910 

8,686 

1,935 

65 

10 

51 

4 

1,870 

6,579 

195 

7 

182 

6 

6,384 

72 
7 
7 

65 



82 

17 

62 

3 

207 

263 

200 

58 

5 

23 

3 



97 



192 

176 
133 
60 
13 
46 
1 
73 

40 
15 

2 
12 

1 
25 

3 
2 
1 



One parent only reported as deaf. 



Total. 



93 



92 



19 



131 



40 
11 
28 
1 
91 

118 
70 
48 



37 



Father 

only 

reported 

as deaf. 



71 



22 



17 



Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 



60 



47 



17 



25 



13 



42 

51 
28 
23 



15 



12 



Neither 

parent 

reported 

as deaf. 



22 



18,413 



4,245 

265 

3,933 

47 

14,168 

17,370 

4,056 

13,239 

75 

801 

242 



4,543 



4,181 
982 

3,176 

23 

234 

128 



13,870 

13,189 

3,074 

1,061 

124 

918 

19 

2,013 

10,063 

2,993 

132 

2,836 

25 

7,070 

52 
10 



10 



42 

567 
174 

8 
163 

3 
393 

114 
7 
1 
6 



107 



8,821 



Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of parents. 



269 

15 

245 

9 

8,552 

8,387 

1,836 

59 

7 

49 

3 

1,777 

6,507 

192 

7 

179 

6 

6,315 

44 
6 
6 

38 



320 



30 
3 

20 

7 

290 

101 
21 
48 
32 
17 

202 



45 



9 
2 
6 
1 
3 
33 



275 



19 
7 
2 
2 
3 

12 

42 
6 



6 
'36 



31 

5 



14 
3 



11 

169 
9 
1 
6 
2 

160 



233 



10 

1 

7 

2 

223 

74 

11 

1 



1 
10 



36 
3 



27 
1 
1 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



136 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 16.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND 
CHILDREN, AND STATUS OF PARENTS, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND CHILDREN AS TO HEARING, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 



AOE GROUP, MARITAL CONDITION, AND STATUS AS TO BROTHERS AND 
SISTERS AND CHILDREN. 



15 years of age or over ' — Continued. 
Single— Continued. 

Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf diildren 

Not reporting children 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters... 
Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . 
Not reporting children 

Married , widowed, or divorced 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . 
Not reporting children 

Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no° deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . 
Not reporting children 

Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting rto deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . 
Not reporting children 

Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

R«)arting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . 
Not reporting children 

Bepoiting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . 
Not reporting children 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters . . 
Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . 
Not reporting children 

Uarltal condition not reported 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting children 

Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Not reporting children 

Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting children 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters. . . 
Not reporting children 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 



Aggregate. 



Total. 



354 
11 
11 

343 

254 
6 
2 
3 
1 

248 

5,203 



4,111 

277 

3,787 

47 

1,092 

4,932 

1,339 

1,087 

138 

930 

19 

252 

3,579 
2,829 

128 

2,680 

21 

750 

14 
10 
1 
6 
3 
4 

248 
174 

10 

161 

3 

74 

23 
11 

10 

1 

12 



34 



Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 



99 



81 
16 
62 
3 
18 

93 
70 
59 
12 
46 
1 
11 

21 

15 

2 

12 

1 

6 

2 
2 
1 



One parent only reported as deaf. 



Total. 



36 
9 

26 
1 

11 

43 
27 
20 
7 
13 



Father 

only 

reported 

as deaf. 



24 



Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 



Neither 

parent 

reported 

as deaf. 



330 
10 
10 

320 

104 
2 
1 
1 



102 
5,025 



3,974 

250 

3,686 

38 

1,051 

4,778 

1,234 

1,002 

117 

869 

16 

232 

3,536 
2,799 

125 

2,655 

19 

737 

8 
4 



237 

164 

8 

153 

3 

73 

10 
5 
5 



Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of parents. 



12 
1 
1 

U 

147 
4 
1 
2 
1 

143 

32 



20 
2 

13 
5 

12 

U 
8 
6 
2 
2 
2 
2 

6 
3 



12 
5 

4 
1 
7 



24 


10 


2 




2 




22 
24 


10 


4 




' 4 




20 




2 




2 




18 





10 
10 



» Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



137 



Table 16.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND 
CHILDREN, AND STATUS OF PARENTS, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND CHILDREN AS TO HEARING, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE WHOM SPEOUL SCHEDULES -WERE RETURNED: 1910. 




Parents first cousins. 


AGE GBOUP, MARITAL CONDITION, AND STATUS A3 TO BROTHERS AND 
SISTERS AND CHILDREN. 


Total. 


Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 


One parent only reported as deaf. 


Neither 

parent 

reported 

as deaf. 


Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of parents. 




Total. 


Father 

only 

reported 

as deaf. 


Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 


Total 


883 


2 


9 


6 


3 


865 


7 






Renortin? children 


195 

13 

175 

7 

688 

845 

468 

370 

7 

28 

10 


1 
1 


3 


2 


1 


188 

12 

170 

6 

677 

827 

454 

367 

6 

28 

10 


3 


Re Dortinsf deaf children . . 




Reporting do deaf children 


3 


2 


1 


2 


Not reporting as to hearing of children 




1 


Not reporting cbildFen 


1 

2 
1 


6 

9 
7 
2 


4 

6 
5 

1 


2 

3 
2 
1 


4 




7 


Reporting deaf brothers or sisters -. 


6 




1 




1 




Reporting no brothers or sisters - 










ISat reuor^ine as to existence of brothers or sisters 


























188 










187 


1 














RenortinfiT brothers or sisters 


180 

91 

89 

3 

5 

695 










179 

90 

89 

3 

5 

678 


1 













1 


Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 












Reiiortiiifir no^brothers or sisters .. 
























IS vears of aee or over i 


2 


9 


6 


3 


6 






Repenting brothers or sisters 


665 
377 
110 

9l 

6 

267 

281 

72 

4 

68 

209 

7 
2 

\ 
5 

25 
11 
10 
1 
14 

5 
5 

465 


2 

1 


9 
7 
1 


6 
5 

1 


3 
2 


648 
364 
107 

8 
94 

5 
257 

278 

69 

4 

65 

209 

6 

1 


6 




5 


Renortin? children 


2 














1 


1 




1 








1 




1 


6 

2 
2 


• 4 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 


3 




1 


RfiDortins children . 




1 












2 


1 


1 


1 


Not renortin? children 








1 
1 
1 










RenortinfiT children . 










Renortinff deaf children . 


















1 
5 

25 
11 
10 

1 
14 

5 
5 

456 




Not reTiortinsr children . 












TtATMirtlTiP no brothers or sisters 












Renortin? children 








































































Single 


1 


5 


3 


2 


3 










21 

1 

19 

1 

444 

446 

247 

11 

1 

9 

1 

236 

194 
8 
8 

186 

5 
5 










20 

1 
19 


1 














RenortinfiT no deaf children 












Not renortin? as to hearinsr of children 










1 




1 

1 

1 


5 

5 

5 


3 

3 
3 


2 

2 
2 


436 

437 
238 

in 

1 
9 


2 




3 




3 




1 




































1 


Not rflnort.ing children 


1 


5 


3 


2 


228 

194 
8 
8 

186 

5 
S 


2 






















































Not renortinz children 

























1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



138 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 16.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND 
CHILDREN, AND STATUS OF PARENTS, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND CHILDREN AS TO HEARING, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 



AGE GROUP, MABITAL CONDITION, AND STATUS AS TO BROTHERS AND 
SISTERS AND CHILDREN. 



15 years of age or over ' — Continued. 
Single— Continued. 

Reporting no brotlifirs or sisters 

Importing children 

Beporting no deat children . 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters.. 
Not reporting children 



Married, widowed, or divorced.. 



Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting brothers or sisters , 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting no deat brothers or sisters. 
Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children . . . 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 

Reporting children ? 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 



Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

'Sm reporting; as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children , 



Marital condition not reported 

Not reporting children.. 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters. 
Not reporting children.. .' 



DEAF AND DUMB POPCLATIOK FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES 'WERB RETURNED: 1910. 



Parents first cousins. 



Total. 



14 
2 
2 

12 

5 
5 

228 



174 

12 

156 

6 

54 

217 

128 

99 

7 

87 

5 

29 

87 

64 

4 

60 
23 

2 
2 
1 
1 

11 
9 
8 
1 
2 



Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 



One parent only reported as deaf. 



Total. 



Father 

only 

reported 

as deaf. 



Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 



Neither 

parent 

reported 

as deaf. 



14 
2 
2 

12 

5 
5 

220 



168 
11 

151 

6 

52 

209 

124 

97 

7 

85 

5 

27 

84 
61 
4 
57 
23 

1 
1 



Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of parents. 



' Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



139 



Table 16.— DEAP AND DTJMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND 
CHILDREN, AND STATUS OF PARENTS, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND CHILDREN AS TO HEARING, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 



AGE GB0T7P, MARITAL CONDITION, AND STATUS AS TO BROTHERS AND 
SISTERS AND CHILDREN. 



Total. 



Reporting children 

Beporting deaf children 

Seporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 

Reporting no brothers or slstera 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters 



Under 15 years of age. 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 

Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters 



15 years of age or over • . 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters. 
Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . . 
Not reporting children 



Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters. . 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting children 



Single. 



Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting chudren 



Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters. 

Reporting children 

Beporting no deaf children 

Not reporting children 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 



Parents not first cousins. 



Total. 



17,418 



4,060 

271 

3,745 

44 

13,358 

16,441 

3,727 

12,656 

58 

775 

202 



4,341 



3,992 
947 

3,025 

20 

236 

113 



13,077 



12,449 

2,780 

994 

133 

847 

14 

1,786 

9,631 
2,884 
128 
2,729 
27 
6,747 



539 
167 
10 
155 
2 
372 

89 
6 



8,234 



Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 



237 

14 

215 

8 

7,997 

7,842 

1,616 

47 

7 

38 

2 

1,569 

6,196 

177 

7 

164 

6 

6,019 

30 
4 
4 

26 



281 



78 

16 

60 

2 

203 

256 

197 

56 

3 

23 

2 



97 



184 



130 
59 
13 
45 
1 
71 

38 
14 

2 
11 

1 
24 



One parent only reported as deaf. 



Total. 



18 



113 



36 

10 

25 

1 

77 

102 
60 
42 



11 



37 



76 



Father 

only 

reported 

as deaf. 



62 



22 



35 



14 



40 



12 



Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 



21 



10 



51 



15 



36 



Neither 
parent 
reported 
as deaf. 



14 



16,994 



3,940 

244 

3,656 

40 

13,054 

16,063 

3,467 

12,546 

50 

738 

193 



4,202 



3,870 
862 

2,990 

18 

222 

110 



12,792 



12,193 

2,605 

911 

111 

787 

13 

1,694 

9,556 
2,859 
125 
2,709 
25 
6,697 

32 

7 
7 



25 

516 
158 

8 
148 

2 
358 

83 

5 
5 
78 



8,090 



Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of parents. 



231 

12 

211 

8 

7,869 

7,717 

1,536 

43 

5 

36 

2 

1,493 

6,156 

176 

7 

•163 

6 

5,979 

26 
4 
4 

22 



30 



6 
1 
4 
1 
24 

20 
3 

12 
5 
3 
7 



25 



18 
3 
2 
1 
1 



10 
1 



20 
2 

"i 

18 

13 
1 



I Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



140 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 16.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND 
CHILDREN, AND STATUS OF PARENTS, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND CHILDREN AS TO HEARING, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 



AGE GROUP, MARITAL CONDITION, AND STATUS A3 TO BROTHERS AND 
SISTERS AND CHILDREN. 



15 years of age or over i-7Contmued. 
Single— Continued. 

Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children . 
Not reporting children. 



Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters. . 
Not reporting children 



Married, widowed, or divorced., 



Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters. 
Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . . 
Not reporting cmidren 



Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters. 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting children 



Marital condition not reported. 



Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children . 
Not reporting children 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting deaf brothers or sisters. 
Not reporting children 



Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters. 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children . . 
Not reporting children 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 



Parents not first cousins. 



Total. 



313 
9 
9 

304 

79 
79 



4,821 



3,821 

257 

3,523 

36 

1,000 

4,585 
1,162 
947 
126 
809 
12 
215 

3,415 
2,705 

121 

2,563 

21 

710 

8 
5 
4 
1 
3 

226 
158 

10 

146 

2 

68 

10 
6 
6 
4 



22 



Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 



2 

2 

20 

22 
2 
2 

20 
2 
2 

18 



One parent only reported as deaf. 



Total. 



95 



41 



Father 
only- 
reported 
as deaf. 



Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 



19 



22 



Neither 

parent 

reported 

as deaf. 



Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of parents. 



299 
8 
8 

291 

74 
74 



4,680 



3,707 
232 

3,443 

32 

973 

4,454 
1,067 
868 
106 
761 
11 
199 

3,381 
2,681 

118 

2,544 

19 

700 

6 



217 
150 

8 
140 

2 
67 

9 
5 
5 
4 



22 



2 

2 

20 

22 
2 
2 

20 
2 
2 

18 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



141 



Table 16 — DEAF AND DUMB POPUTATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND 
CHILDREN, AND STATUS OF PARENTS, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND CHILDREN AS TO HEARING, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 



AGE GBOtTP, MARITAL CONDITION, AND STATUS A3 TO BE0THER3 AND 
SISTEB3 AND CHILDEEN. 



Total. 



Reporting children 

Beporting deaf children 

Beporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Beporting brothers or sisters 

Beporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Beporting no deaf brothers or sisters. .'. 

Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 

Beporting no brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters 



Under 15 years of age . 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Beporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Beporting no deaf brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 

BepOTting no brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters 



15 years of age or over > . 



Reporting brothers or sisters 

Beporting deaf brothers or sisters 

Beporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Beporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting chudren 



Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters. 
Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children . . 
Not repmting children 



Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 
B«parting children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. . . 
Not reporting children 



Beporting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting no deaf children. . 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters. . 
Reporting children 

RepOTting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not repOTting children 



Single. 



Reporting children 

Beporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting chlldien 



Beporting brothers or sisters 

RepOTting deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting children 

Reporting deaf children 

Reporting no deaf children 

Not reporting as to hearing of children. 
Not reporting children 



Beporting no deaf brothers or sisters. 

RepOTting children 

Reporting no deaf children . . . 
Not reporting children 



Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters . 

Beporting children 

BepOTting no deaf children 

Not reporting children 




DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOK WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE RETUENED: 1910. 



Not reporting as to relationship of parents. 



Total. 



852 



659 



428 

121 

48 

7 

38 

3 

73 

266 

70 

3 

67 

196 

41 
6 
4 
2 

35 

38 
7 
7 

31 

193 

11 

2 

7 

2 

182 



495 



72 
7 
2 
4 
1 

65 

189 
10 
10 

179 

37 
3 
3 

34 



Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 



One parent only reported as deaf. 



Total. 



Father 

only 

reported 

as deaf. 



Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 



Neither 

parent 

reported 

as deaf. 



554 



400 



348 

105 

43 

5 

37 

1 



229 

65 

3 

62 

164 

14 
2 
2 



12 



24 



275 



18 
2 

15 

1 

257 



6 
1 

4 

1 

56 

158 
8 
8 

150 

13 
2 
2 

11 



Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of parents. 



283 



244 



68 

11 

3 

1 



31 
4 



4 
27 

26 
3 
2 
1 

23 

U 
2 
2 
9 

165 
9 
1 
6 
2 

156 



210 



7 
1 
5 
1 
203 

58 
7 



27 
2 
2 

25 

24 
1 
1 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



142 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 16.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND 
CHILDREN, AND STATUS OF PARENTS, BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND CHILDREN AS TO HEARING, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 




Not reporting as to relationship of parents. 


AGE GROUP, MARITAL CONDITION, AND STATUS AS TO BROTHERS AND 
SISTERS AND CHILDREN. 


Total. 


Both 
parents 
reported 
as deaf. 


One parent only reported as deaf. 


Neither 

parent 

reported 

as deaf. 


Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of parents. 




Total. 


Father 

only 

reported 

as deaf. 


Mother 

only 
reported 
as deaf. 


15 years of age or over i— Continued. 
Single— Continued. 


27 
27 

170 
6 
2 
3 
1 

164 

154 




1 

1 

1 




1 

1 

1 


17 
17 

25 
2 
1 
1 


9 








9 


Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters . . 


1 




143 






4 


Reporting deaf children 










1 


Reporting no deaf children 










2 












1 




1 
3 


1 
2 




1 


23 
125 


139 


Married, widowed, or divorced.*— 


2 


24 








Reporting children 


116 
8 

103 

5 

38 

130 

49 

41 

5 

34 

2 

8 

77 
60 
3 
57 
17 

4 
3 
1 
2 
1 

11 

7 

7 

4 

13 
5 

4 
1 
8 

10 


3 








99 

7 

92 


14 


HfiJW'+ing >i^f nhildrnn 









1 


■Rapnrt.ing nn rtnaf (■hildren 


2 
1 








9 


Not reporting as to hearing of children 








4 


Not reporting children 


2 

2 
1 


2 

2 
1 




26 

115 
43 
37 
4 
33 


10 


Reporting brothers or sisters. 


3 
1 

1 




10 


Reportingdeaf brothers or sisters 




4 


■RApO'tinE <^liiMrBn . 




3 


Reporting deaf children 


1 








Reporting no deaf children 


1 


1 








Not reporting as to hearing of children 


1 






2 


Not rf>pOrt|nB nhiMrnn . 




1 
1 


I 

1 




6 

71 
57 
3 
54 
14 

1 




Reporting no deaf brothers or sisters 


1 

1 




4 


* Reporting rihilflren , . , . , 




2 


* Reporting deaf children 










Reporting no deaf children 


1 


1 






2 


Not rpport'ie nhildi'f" 


i 


1 






Not reporting as to hearing of brothers or sisters 


1 

1 






Reporting children -. 










Reporting no deaf children 










1 


Not reporting as to hearing of children 


1 












Not reportiiiB chiM'^" ... 








1 

9 
5 
5 
4 

1 




Reporting no brothers or sisters 










2 


ff.|>porting phiMmn 










2 


' Reporting no deaf children 












Mnt reporting nhiMrml 












Not reporting as to exist^ce of brothers or sisters 










12 
5 
4 


Reporting children 










Rwortiig "" (loaf (ihiMrBTl 












Not reportin| as to hearing of children 












1 

7 
10 












1 


Marital condition not reported 










Not reporting children 


10 

10 
10 












10 

10 
10 


Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters 












Not reporting children 

















1 i 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



143 



Table 17— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, AND STATUS OF PARENTS AS TO HEAR- 
ING FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



STATUS AS TO HEARING AND EBLATIONSHIP OF PARENTS. 



DBAP AND DUMB POPULATION POR 'WHOM SPECUL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 



All classes. 



White. 



Total. 



Native. 



Foreign- 
born. 



Colored. 



Total. 



Negro.' 



Other 
colored. 



Total 

Both parents reported as deaf. 

Oneparent only reported as deaf 

Father onlyreported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Notreporting as to hearing of parents. . 

Parents first cousins 

Both parents reported as deaf 

Oneparent onlyreported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Notreporting as to hearing of parents. . 

Parents not first ooTisins 

Both parents reported as deaf 

Oneparent only reported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Not reporting as to hearing of parents . . 

Not reporting as to relationship of parents 

Bom parents reported as deaf 

Oneparent only reported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother onfy reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Notreporting as to hearing of parents. . 



19,153 



131 

71 

60 

18,413 

320 



883 
2 
9 
6 
3 

865 
7 

17,418 
281 
113 
62 
51 
16,994 
30 

852 
6 
9 
3 
6 
554 
283 



Total 

Both parents reported as deaf 

One parent only reported as deaf 

Father onlyreported as deaf 

MoUier onlyreported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Not reporting as to hearing of parents . 

Parents first cousins 

Both parents reported as deaf 

Oneparent onlyreported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Not reporting as to hearing of parents . 

Parents not first coosliis 

Both parents reported as deaf 

One parent only reported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Not reporting as to hearing of parents . 

Not reporting as to relationship of parents 

Both parents reported as deaf. 

One parent only reported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Not reporting as to hearing of parents . 



10,507 



162 

71 

33 

38 

10,085 



454 
2 
5 
3 
2 

443 
4 

9,520 

154 

58 

27 

31 

9,291 
17 

533 
6 
8 
3 
5 
351 
168 



18,016 



284 

122 

69 

53 

17,339 

271 



851 
1 



2 
835 

7 

16,417 

278 

106 

61 

45 

16,006 

27 

748 
5 
8 
2 
6 
498 
237 



159 
68 
32 
36 
9,504 
157 



434 
1 
4 
3 

1 

425 

4 

8,989 

153 

57 

27 

30 

8,763 
16 

465 
5 
7 
2 
5 
316 
137 



Both Sexes. 



16,178 



280 

112 

63 

49 

15,571 

215 



776 
1 
7 
6 
1 

762 
6 

14,787 

274 

99 

56 

43 

14,390 
24 

615 
5 
6 
1 
5 
419 
185 



1,838 



4 

10 

6 

4 

1,768 

56 



75 



1 

73 

1 

1,630 

7 
5 
2 
1,616 
3 

133 



1,137 



2 

7 

1,074 

49 



1,001 
3 
7 
1 
6 



104 
1 
1 
1 



8,855 



156 
63 
30 
33 
8,513 
123 



401 
1 
3 
3 



393 
4 

8,082 
150 
55 
26 
29 

7,863 
14 

372 

5 
5 
1 
4 
257 
105 



1,033 



3 
5 

2 

3 

991 

34 



907 
3 
2 
1 
1 

900 
2 



619 



3 
3 
1 
2 
581 
32 



531 
1 
1 



1 

528 
1 



2 

7 

1,011 

45 



942 
3 
7 
1 
6 

929 
3 

97 



584 



1 

2 

548 

31 



500 
1 
1 



1 

497 
1 

65 



68 
1 



63 
4 



2 

59 



35 
1 



33 
1 



1 
31 



31 



144 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 17 — DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, AND STATUS OF PARENTS AS TO HEAR- 
ING, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910-Oontinued. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOE ■WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE KETUENED: 


1910. 


STATUS AS TO HEAEING AND EELATIONSmP OF PABENTS. 


All Classes. 


White. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Native. 


Foreign- 
horn. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Other 
colored. 










FEMALE. 








Total 


8,646 


8,128 


7,323 


805 


518 


485 


33 






Both parents reported as deaf 


127 

60 

38 

22 

8,328 

131 


125 

54 

37 

17 

7,835 

114 


124 
49 
33 
16 
7,058 
92 


1 
5 
4 
1 
777 
22 


2 
6 
1 
5 
493 
17 


2 
6 
1 
5 
463 
14 




One parent only reported as deaf . . 




Father only reported as deaf 




Mother only reported as deaf 




Neither parent reported as deaf 


30 


Not reporting as to hearing of paront^T. . . 


3 






Parentis first coiisi"s 


429 


417 


375 


42 


12 


11 


1 


Both parents reported as deaf 




Oneparent only reported as deaf 


4 
3 
1 
422 
3 

7,898 

127 

55 

35 

20 

7,703 
13 

319 


4 
3 
1 
410 
3 

7,428 
125 
49 
34 
15 

7,243 
11 

283 


4 
3 
1 
369 
2 

6,705 

124 

44 

30 

14 

6,527 
10 

243 










Father only reported as deaf 










Mother only reported as deaf 










Neither parent reported as deaf 

Not. r<>porting <\f to fiearine of parents 


41 
1 

723 

1 
5 
4 

1 
716 

1 

40 


12 


11 


1 


Parents not £U^t cousins . ... 


470 
2 
6 
1 
5 

460 
2 

36 


442 
2 
6 
1 
5 

432 
2 

32 


28 


Both parents reported as deaf 




One parent only reported as deaf 




Father only rej>orted as deaf 




Mother only reported as deaf 






28 


Notreportingas to hearing of parents 




Not reporting as to relationship of parehts 


4 


Both parents reported as <foaf 




One parent only rejwrted as deaf 


1 


1 


1 




















Mother only reported as deaf 


1 
203 
115 


1 
182 
100 


1 

162 

80 










Neither parent reported as deaf 


20 

20 


21 
15 


20 
12 


1 




3 







GENERAL TABLES. 



145 



Table 18— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, AND STATUS OF PARENTS AS 
TO HEARING, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. 




Total. 


Number whose deafness was— 


STATUS AS TO HEAKINO AND RELATIONSHIP 
OF PARENTS. 


Congenital. 


Acquired.! 




Total. 


At less 

than 1 year 

of age. 


At 1 year 
of age. 


At2to4 
years of age. 


At 5 to 9 
years of age. 


AtlOyears 

of age or 

over. 


In infancy 
(exact age 
not re- 
ported). 


At age not 
reported. 


Total 


19,153 


7,533 


11,620 


1,628 


2,375 


5,137 


1,594 


140 


114 


632 








289 

131 

71 

60 

18,413 

320 


207 

80 

44 

36 

7,120 

126 


82 
51 
27 
24 
11,293 
194 


18 

11 

7 

4 

1,594 

5 


10 
9 

4 

5 

2,CS1 

5 


37 
18 
8 
10 
5,058 
24 


5 

10 

6 

4 

1,567 

12 


1 
1 
1 


1 


10 


One parent only reported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Not reporting as to hearing of parents. . 


2 




1 




1 


132 
6 


112 

1 


479 
141 




883 
2 
9 
6 
3 

865 
7 

17,418 
281 
113 
62 
51 
16,994 
30 

852 
6 
9 
3 
6 
534 
283 


553 
2 
6 
4 
2 

539 
6 

6,595 

200 

68 

37 

31 

6,318 

9 

385 
5 
6 
3 
3 
263 
111 


330 


56 


82 


133 


31 


2 


3 


23 






One parent only reported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf ...;.. . 


3 
2 

1 
326 

1 

10,823 
81 
46 
25 
20 

10,676 
21 

467 

1 
3 




1 


1 

1 








1 










1 




1 
81 










55 
1 

1,549 

18 

10 

7 

3 

1,518 

3 

23 


132 


31 


2 


3 


22 


Not reporting as to hearing of parents. . 
Patents not first cousins 




2,248 

10 

8 

4 

4 

2,227 
3 

45 


4,882 

37 

16 

7 

9 

4,823 

6 

122 


1,503 
5 
9 
6 
3 

1,489 


113 


106 
1 


422 




10 


One parent only reported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as deaf 

Not reporting as to hearing of parents .-. 

Not reporting as to relationship of parents.. 


1 

1 


1 








1 


110 
2 

25 

1 


105 


404 

7 


60 


5 


187 


One parent only reported as deaf 

Father only reported as deaf 

Mother only reported as deaf 

Neither parent reported as. deaf 

Not reporting as to hearing of parents . . 


1 




1 


1 














3 
291 
172 


1 
21 

1 




1 

103 

18 


1 
47 
12 








43 
2 


20 

4 


4 

1 


S3 
134 



50171°— 18- 



-10 



1 Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



146 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 19,.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES "WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, AND STATUS OF PARENTS AS 
TO HEARING. FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 





DEAP AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPEaAL 


SCHEDULES 


WERE returned; 1910. 




Aggregate. 


EEPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 


Total. 


Both par- 
ents re- 
ported as 
deal. 


One parent only reported as deaf. 


Neither par- 
ent reported 
as deaf. 


Not report- 




Total. 


Father only 

reported as 

deaf. 


Mother only 

reported as 

deaf. 


ing as to 

hearing of 

parents. 




19,153 


289 


131 


71 


60 


18,413 


320 






f^aiises afFectific the ext<*mai ear 


64 










64 


















16 
8 
17 
17 
6 

4,507 










16 
8 
17 
17 
6 

4,424 
















Bnms and scalds . ...... 












"P.p.T.^Tna 












All other causes affecting tfhecTrtomal ear , .. . . 














34 


20 


11 


9 


29 






Causes produdag suppurative conditioii 


3,708 

2,005 

525 

166 

87 

102 

23 

22 

349 

237 

12 

17 

50 

34 

79 

789 

301 

186 

156 

69 

31 

46 

10 

3,666 


21 
10 
3 
3 


11 

4 

1 


6 
3 


5 
1 
1 


3,649 

1,975 

519 

162 

86 

101 

23 

21 

342 

230 

12 

17 

49 

33 

79 

766 
293 
179 
153 
66 
30 
45 

9 

3,630 


27 


Scarlet fever 


16 


Measles 


2 


Diphtheria 




1 


TtlflUePm fBTJPT>fl!> 








1 


Pneumonia , , , 


1 










Erysipelas 










Bmallpox 




'i' 

3 
1 




1 
1 

1 




Abscess in the head 


2 

1 


2 


2 


Disease of the ear 


g 


Bronchitis 






Tonsillitis .. . 












Teething 


1 










All other causes producing suppurative condition 


1 


1 






Oomhination of niseases . 








Causes not producing suppurative condition 


12 
5 
5 

1 
1 


9 
3 
2 
2 
1 


5- 
2» 
1 
1 

1 


4 
1 
1 
1 


2 


Whoopmg cough 




Catarrh 




Colds 




Scrofula 


I 


Disease of the throat 




1 


All other causes not producing suppurative condition 




1 




1 




All other causes aflfecting the middle ear 


1 
12 






Causes affecting the intflmal ear 


12 


9 


3 


12 






Causes affecting the la-hyriTith 


226 

128 

85 

12 

1 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

384 

31 

4 

35 

174 

7 

11 

14 

21 
19 
2 

20 

55 

9,869 


4 
1 
2 

1 








220 

127 

83 

9 

1 

3,370 

1,801 

921 

381 

31 

4 

33 

168 

7 

10 

14 

20 

19 

1 

20 

55 

9,408 


2 












Mumps 










y^nifstCxnti mnpsquRitm 




















Causes affecting the auditory nerve 


8 

1 
2 
2 


12 

4 
2 
1 


9 
3 
2 


3 

1 


9 
5 


Meningitis 


Brain fever , . 


2 


Typhoid fever 


1 




Congestion of the brain 






Disuse of the nervous system 












Paralysis 


1 
2 








1 


Convulsions 


4 


3 


i' 


Sunstroke p 




All other causes affecting the auditory nerve 




1 


1 






Combination of diseasfts 








Brain mntAr fnr TieftHng ftffftr»+Ar| 










I 


Hydrocephalus ~ , 






















1 












Combination of diff«™Tit filftsww nf ^ansfts 














228 


95 


SO 


45 


138 






7,533 

60 

687 

609 

383 

4 

67 

36 

31 

35 

12 

622 

992 


207 

1 
10 

1 


80 


44 


36 


7,120 

59 

572 

600 

379 

2 

51 

36 

31 

34 

12 

512 

832 


126 






5 
3 
2 
1 


1 

1 


4 
2 

2 






5 
2 


Fever - * 


Hereditary causes 


1 
5 


1 


Accident 




1 


Medicine 








Fright, shock, excitement 














1 










Operation 












2 
15 


4 

4 


3 

1 


1 
3 


4 
141 







GENERAL TABLES. 



147 



Table 19.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE ^^ETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, AND STATUS OF PARENTS AS 
TO HEARING, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOB VHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE EETUENED: 1910. 




Parents first cousins. 


EEPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS 


Total. 


Both par- 
ents re- 
ported as 
deaf. 


One parent only reported as deaf. 


Neither par- 
ent reported 
as deaf. 


Not report- 




Total. 


Father only 

reported as 

deaf. 


Mother only 

reported as 

deaf. 


ing as to 

hearing of 

parents. 




883 


2 


9 


6 


3 


865 


7 






Cftn<je<i affectiner the external ear . 


2 










2 
















Tmnacted cenimen . . 


















1 

1 










1 
1 
















"Eczema 












All other causes afEectinc the external ear 


















146 




2 


1 


1 


143 


1 








Causes Droducinc suDDurative condition 


117 

60 

18 

S 

1 
1 




2 


1 


1 


114 

59 

18 

5 

1 

1 


1 






1 


Ueasles . 












DiDhtheria. 
























PnAninopia 










* 


Srvsinelas .. . 














2 

22 

6 




1 
1 




1 


I 

21 

6 








1 




Disease of the ear 




















Tonsilhtis * 
















Teethinz 
















All other causes nroducins sunnurative condition. . . . . . 


1 
1 

29 
13 
8 
4 
2 
2 










1 
1 

29 
13 
8 
4 
2 
2 
















Causes not nroducins sunnurative condition 




































Colds 




































All other causes not nroducinf! sunnurative condition 












All other canses aflectins the middle ear 
















Causes affectinfir the internal ear 


53 




1 


1 




52 














7 
S 
2 










7 
5 
2 


























































46 

21 

12 

7 

2 




1 


1 




45 

21 

12 

7 

2 














































































4 




1 


1 




3 














































































































2 

641 










2 
627 




Unclas^ifiable causes 


2 


6 


4 


2 


6 








553 

1 

23 

26 

21 


2 


6 


4 


2 


539 

1 

23 

26 

21 


6 
























































2 
2 










2 
2 






























1 

1 

11 

39 










1 

1 

11 

39 





















































148 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 19— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO REPORTED CAUSE OP DEAFNESS, RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, AND STATUS OF PARENTS 
AS TO HEARING, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE EETURNED: 1910. 








Parents not first cousins. 






EEPORTED CAUSE OP DEAFNEaS. 


Total. 


Both par- 
ents re- 
ported as 
deaf. 


One parent only reported as deaf. 


Neither par- 
ent reported 
as deaf. 


Not report- 




Total. 


Father only 

reported as 

deaf. 


Mother only 

reported as 

deaf. 


ing as to 

hearing of 

parents. 


All causes 


17,418 


281 


113 


62 


51 


16,994 


30 








60 










60 
















Impacted cerumen. .... 


1 
15 
17 
5 

4,2SS 










16 
7 
15 
17 
5 

4,199 
















Burns and scalds 












F/CZ/CTPfl- 
























O^T^^e-s afTeoting the TPi'i'^ie ear .... 


34 


18 


10 


8 


7 






Causes producing suppurative condition 


3,502 

1,893 

492 

157 

85 

99 

23 

17 

324 

224 

12 

16 

60 

33 

77 

746 

285 

175 

148 

65 

27 

46 

10 
3,527 


21 
10 
3 
3 


9 

4 
1 


5 
3 


4 
1 

1 


3,465 

1,876 

487 

154 

84 

98 

23 

17 

319 

221 

12 

16 

49 

32 

77 

725 

277 

168 

145 

63 

27 

45 

9 
3,503 


7 


Scarlet fever 


3 


Measles 


1 


Diphtheria 






Influenza fpripne) 








1 


PneiimoTii^ 


1 




















Smallpox 














2 

1 


2 
1 


1 


1 
1 


1 


Disease of the ear 


1 


Bronchitis . ... 






Tonsillitis 












Teething 


1 










All other causes producing suppurative condition. 


1 


1 
















12 
5 
5 

1 
1 


9 
3 
2 
2 
1 


5 
2 
1 
1 
1 


4 

1 
1 

1 




Whoonmc couch .... 




Catarrn 




Colds 




Scrofula ... 














1 




• 1 




All other causes afiecting the middle ear 


1 

12 






Cftusfw affecting the interriHi ^^r , , . . , . , 


10 


8 


2 


2 








209 

118 

80 

10 

1 

3,279 

1,745 

900 

369 

29 

4 

34 

166 

7 

11 

14 

19 
18 

1 

20 
52 

8,768 


4 
1 
2 
1 








204 

117 

78 

8 

1 

3,260 

1,740 

896 

367 

29 

4 

32 

161 

7 

10 

14 

19 
18 

1 

20 
52 

8,454 


1 












MnTTjps. .,.,.., 










Noiso and concussion ,. . 








1 






. 






Causes affectum the auditory nerve 


8 
1 
2 
2 


10 

4 
2 


8 
3 
2 


2 

1 


1 


Meningitis 








Typhoid fever 






Congestion of the brain 










Disease of the nervous system 












Paralysis . . 


1 
2 








1 


Convulsions 


3 


2 


1 








All other causes affecting the auditory nerve 




1 


1 






Combination of diseases 








Brain center for hearing affected 












Hydrocephalus 












Epilepsy 
























Combination of different classes of causes 












TTnHfutftiflnblfr causes. ..... . ■■ - 


220 


82 


43 


39 


12 








6,595 

58 

547 

557 

352 

4 

52 

34 

30 

33 

U 

495 

753 


200 

1 

10 


68 


37 


31 


6,318 

57 

532 

653 

350 

2 

47 

34 

30 

32 

11 

488 

726 


9 


Earache 


Falls and blows 


5 
3 
2 

1 


1 

1 


4 
2 
2 




Sickness . 


1 


Fever 






Heredltarv causes 


1 
5 


1 




Accident 






Medicine 






















Diarrhea and cholera Infantum 


1 




















All other unclassiffable causes 


2 
15 


3 
3 


3 

1 




2 
9 




2 





GENERAL TABLES. 



149 



Table 19.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS, AND STATUS OF PARENTS 
AS TO HEARING, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEKE RETURNED: 1910. 




Not reporting as to relationship of parents. 


REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, 


Total. 


Both par- 
ents re- 
ported as 
deaf. 


One parent only reported as deaf. 


Neither par- 
ent reported 
as deaf. 


Not report- 




Total. 


Father only 

reported as 

deal. 


Mother only 

reported as 

deaf. 


ing as to 

hearing of 

parents. 




852 


6 


9 


3 


6 


S.M 


283 






CftTiKfls affftctiTiP' t^f^ ftxt-pmftl ^^^ 


2 










2 
















Impacted cerumen 


































1 










1 




Eczema .-... 












All otfhwr f^nso.saffftctfinp' the e's't-flrriHi ftfT , „ . . 


i 
103 










1 
82 




C&usBS affectin'' the middle ear 










21 














Causes producing suppurative condition 


89 

52 

15 

4 

1 

2 










70 

40 

14 

3 

1 

2 


19 


Scarlet fever 










12 












1 


Diphtheria 










1 


Innuenza (etrippe) 
























'pTypippl''-*! . ■ , . 












Smallpox 


3 
3 

7 










3 
2 
3 














1 












4 














Tonsillitis 


1 










1 




Teething ... 






























1 

14 
3 
3 
4 
2 
2 










1 

12 
3 
3 
4 
1 
1 




Causes not producing suppurative condition 










2 


Whoonms couslT. . '^ T . . . 
























Colds 






















1 


Disease of the throat 










1 


All other causes not producing suppurative condition 






























86 




1 




1 


75 


10 










•^ftURfts affectinj' the l*i-l>vTinth . 


10 
5 
3 
2 










9 
5 
3 

1 


1 


























Noise and concussion 










1 


All other causes affecting the labyrinth 












Causes affecting the auditory nerve .... . . 


74 

46 

15 

8 




1 




1 


65 

40 

13 

7 


8 








6 












2 


Tvnhoid fever 




1 




1 




























Paralysis 


1 
4 










1 

4 




Convulsions 












flnTip^-T'ol*''*- ... 












All other causes affecting the auditory nerve 


































2 
1 
1 










1 

1 


1 


H vdroceohalus 






















1 


















1 
460 










1 

327 






6 


7 


3 


4 


120 








385 
1 

17 
26 
10 


5 


6 


3 


3 


263 

1 

17 

21 

8 


111 


Earache 
















Sickness 


1 








4 










2 


TTArAditarv /«a.iisna 












Accident 


3 










2 


1 


Medicine 














1 
1 










1 
1 






























16 
200 




1 

1 




1 
1 


13 
67 


3 






1 


132 











150 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 20.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED 
ACCORDING TO REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS, STATUS AS TO EXISTENCE OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS, AND 
STATUS OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS AS TO HEARING, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 





DEAP AND 


DUMB POPULATION FOE -WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDtlLKS WEKE BETUENED: 1910. 




Total. 


Keporting brothers or sisters. 


Beporting 
no brothers 
or sisters. 


Not re- 
porting as 
to existence 
of brothers 
or sisters. 


REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 


Total. 


Reporting 

deafbrothers 

or sisters. 


Keporting 
no deaf 

brothers or 
sisters. 


Not re- 
porting as 
to hearing 
of brothers 
or sisters. 


All causes 


19,153 


17,852 


4,347 


13,393 


112 


853 


448 




64 


62 


12 


50 




2 












16 
8 
17 
17 
6 

4,507 


15 

8 

16 

17 

6 

4,25]- 


3 
1 
2 
4 
2 

628 


12 

7 

14 

13 

4 

3,608 




1 














1 




GczemA 
















15 


206 


50 






Causes producing suppurative condition 


3,708 

2,005 

525 

166 

87 

102 

23 

22 

349 

237 

12 

17 

50 

34 

79 

789 
301 
186 
156 
69 
31 
46 

10 
3,666 


3,497 

1,896 

491 

147 

82 

95 

19 

21 

342 

222 

11 

15 

47 

34 

75 

744 

234 

178 

144 

67 

28 

43 

10 
3,462 


463 
222 

72 

18 
9 

14 
3 
2 

50 

38 
2 
4 

14 
S 

10 

163 
63 
41 
33 
12 
7 
7 

2 
208 


3,022 

1,667 

417 

127 

73 

81 

16 

19 

292 

183 

9 

11 

33 

29 

65 

578 
220 
136 
lU 
55 
20 
36 

8 
3,249 


12 
7 
2 
2 


165 
88 
23 
15 

4 
5 

4 

1 

6 

11 


46 


Scarlet fever 


21 


Measles 


11 


Diphtheria * 


4 


Tnnuenzft ("criDDPr) . . 


1 






2 


Erysipelas 






RTT^^ftllpoir , , , , 










1 


Disease of the ear 


1 


4 


Bronchitis 


1 


Tonsillitis 




2 
2 




T^^^^thiTig , , . . 




I 








Oombination of diseases 




4 

41 
15 
8 
10 
2 
3 
3 






3 

1 
1 


4 


WhooDine cou£h 


2 


c&tB^Tix^!^:: :\ :v: :v : vv : ./: ; : 






2 


Scrofula 






Disease of the throat.. ... 


1 




All other causes not producing suppurative condition 




f^W other cj*iisas a^ecting the T'li'lfllp' par , 








5 


145 


59 






Causes affecting the labyrinth 


226 

128 

85 

12 

1 

3,399 

1,812 

927 

384 

31 

4 

35 

174 

7 

11 

14 

21 

19 

2 

20 

55 

9,869 


217 

123 

83 

10 

1 

3,205 

1,696 

876 

370 

31 

4 

32 

167 

7 

9 

13 

20 

19 

1 

20 

51 

9,238 


18 
6 
11 

1 


198 

117 

72 

8 

1 

3,013 

1,629 

813 

339 

30 

4 

31 

140 

6 

8 

13 

19 

18 

1 

19 

49 

5,862 


1 


9 
5 
2 
2 




Malarial fever and quinine 










Noise and concussion 


1 










188 
65 
62 
31 

1 


4 
2 
1 


136 
76 
41 
10 


58 


Meningitis „ , , . , 


40 


Brain fever 


10 


Typhoid fever 




Congestion of the brain 






Disease of the nervous system 








Paralysis 




1 


3 

3 




Convulsions 


27 
1 

1 


4 


Sunstroke 






All other causes affecting the auditory nerve 




2 

1 




Combination of diseases 








1 
1 




I 


Hydrocephalus ,...". 














\ 


All other causes affecting the internal ear 


1 
2 

3,313 








Combination of different classes of causes 




4 
440 




Undassifiable causes 


63 


191 






7,533 

60 

587 

609 

383 

4 

57 
36 
31 
35 
12 
522 

992 


7,047 

57 

545 

580 

363 

4 

45 
35 
28 
34 
10 
490 

788 


3,042 

18 

92 

61 

33 

3 

9 

2 

1 

6 

1 

45 

184 


3,955 

39 

451 

613 

328 

1 

36 

33 

27 

28 

9 

442 

575 


50 


337 

3 

23 

22 

16 


149 






2 
6 
2 


19 
7 
5 


Siclmess * 




Hereditary causes 


Accident 




7 
1 
1 
1 
2 
23 

56 


S 






Fright, shock, excitement 




2 






Operation 








3 
29 


4 

148 


Gause unknown or not reoorted 





GENERAL TABLES. 



151 



Table 21— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED REPORTING 
CHILDREN, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO REPORTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS AND STATUS OF CHILDREN AS TO 
HEARING, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



REPOBTED CAUSE OF DEAFNESS. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION FOB WHOM 
SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE EETUENED 
BEFOBTING CHILDBEN: 1910. 



Total. 



Report- 
ing deaf 
children. 



Beporting 
no deaf 
children. 



Not re- 
porting 

as to 
hearing 
of chil- 
dren. 



All causes 

Causes affecting the external ear. 



Impacted cerumen 

Foreign bodies in the ear 

Boms and scalds 

All other causes affecting the external ear. 



Causes affecting the middle ear. 



Causes producing suppurative condition. 
Scarlet fever 



Diphtheria 

Influenza ( grippe) 

Pneumonia 

Erysipelas 

Smallpox 

Abscess in the head 

Disease of the ear 

Bronchitis 

Tonsillitis 

Teething 

All other causes producing suppurative condition. 
Combination of diseases 



Causes not producing suppurative condition ., 

Whooping cough 

Catarrn 

Colds 

Scrofula 

Disease of the throat 

All other causes not producing suppurative condition. 

All other causes affecting the middle ear 



Causes affecting the internal ear. 



Causffi affecting the labyrinth 

Malarial fever and quinine 

Mumps ■- 

Noise and concussion 

All other causes affecting the labyrinth 

Causes affecting the auditory nerve '. 

Meningitis 

Brain fever 

Typhoid fever 

Congestion of the brain 

Disease of the nervous system 

Paralysis 

Convulsions 

Sunstroke 

All other causes affecting the auditory nerve . 
Combination of diseases 



Brain center for hearing affected. 
Hydrocephalus 



All other causes affecting the internal ear . 



Combination of different classes of causes . 



Unclassifiable causes. . 



Congenital 

Earache 

Falls and blows 

Sickness 

Fever 

Hereditary causes 

Accident 

Medicine 

Fright, shock, excitement 

Diarrhea and cholera infantum . 

Operation 

All other unclassi&able causes . . 



Cause unknown or not reported.. 



4,397 



19 



1,305 



1,139 
776 
118 

36 
7 

15 
4 
7 

60 

58 
1 
6 

20 
9 

22 

164 
61 
25 
47 
17 
7 
7 



1,048 



73 

34 

36 

2 

1 

965 
464 
329 
113 
7 
1 

13 
26 
4 
3 
S 

5 
6 



14 



1,849 



,340 

13 

160 

103 

79 

2 

8 

10 

11 

6 

4 

113 



163 



296 



70 



57 

32 

7 

3 



28 



183 



159 
1 
6 
5 
2 



13 



4,043 



19 



1,227 



1,076 
739 
111 

33 
7 

IS 
4 
7 

64 

52 
1 
5 

18 
9 

21 

140 
56 
21 
43 
16 
7 
6 



1,010 



72 



451 

315 

107 

7 

1 

12 

23 

4 

3 

5 



13 



1,630 



1,149 

12 

154 

97 

75 

3 

6 

10 

10 

6 

4 

105 



146 



58 



10 



10 

4 
1 
3 



36 
32 



152 DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Table 22 ,— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 5 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES 





DIVISION AND STATE. 


deaf and dumb population 5 TEARS OP AGE 


OB OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910.1 




Aggr^ate. 


Having attended school. 




Total. 


Having attended special school for the deaf. 




Having attended other schools also. 




Total. 


Common 
school only. 


High school 
or academy. 


University 
or college. 


Schools of 
miscella- 
neous 
character. 


Schools of 

character 

not reported. 


1 


United States 


18,850 


15,736 


601 


430 


72 


34 


44 


21 




Geographic divisions: 

New England 


7 


1,169 
4,087 
4,269 
2,731 
2,277 
1,822 
1,584 
343 
568 


994 
3,614 
3,705 
2,350 
1,660 
1,379 
1,240 
286 
608 


66 

127 

166 

102 

61 

23 

23 

15 

18 


37 
100 
121 
71 
43 
14 
19 
11 
14 


6 
17 
17 
12 
10 
5 
1 
2 
2 


4 
2 
9 
8 
3 
2 
3 
1 
2 


9 
7 
15 
10 
1 
1 


10 
1 

4 
1 
4 

1 


3 


MiddleAtlantic 


It 


East North Central 


5 


West North Central 


a 


South Atlantic 


7 


East South Central 


K 


West South Central 


fl 




1 




10 


Pacific 






New England: 

Maine 






11 


161 
97 
62 
559 
110 
180 

2,325 

320 

1,442 

1,132 
626 

1,299 
652 
560 

489 
431 
866 
96 
105 
277 
467 

19 
383 

56 
367 
298 
492 
239 
340 

83 

655 
572 
304 
291 

330 
249 
300 
705 

47 
40 
12 
108 
59 
15 
55 
7 

14S 
129 
293 


128 
80 
44 

480 
98 

164 

2,135 

272 

1,207 

967 
644 
1,164 
557 
473 

439 
371 
712 
79 
82 
259 
408 

14 
334 

48 
217 
233 
368 
164 
225 

57 

529 
434 
206 
210 

270 
167 
256 
547 

42 
38 
10 
98 
31 
11 
49 
7 

127 
113 
268 


11 
6 
2 

41 


6 

5 

2 

20 


1 




2 

1 


2 


1? 


New Hampshire 




n 


Vermont 








14 


Massachusetts 


4 


4 


5 


8 


IS 


Rhode Island 


in 


Connecticut 


6 

69 
16 
42 

47 
32 
35 
28 
24 

22 

17 

12 

7 

1 

19 
24 

2 
15 
5 
7 
14 
2 
5 
9 
2 

11 
3 
5 
4 

6 

1 

6 

10 

2 
4 


4 

55 
12 
33 

36 
23 

25 
17 
20 

13 

10 

10 

6 


1 

8 
4 
5 

7 
3 
5 
2 




1 
5 




17 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York 


1 




18 


New Jersey 




in 




1 

3 
3 

1 


2 

1 
1 
3 
8 
2 

4 
5 


1 


?n 


Bast North Centeal: 

Ohio 


71 


Tndiftna 


2 

1 
1 


?? 


Tllinnis 


iw 


Michigan 


74 


Wiscobsin 


2 

4 


715 


West Noeth Central: 

Minnesota 


1 
2 
1 

1 




?R 


Iowa 




?7 


Missouri 


1 




9W 


North Dakota 






?« 


South Dakota 


1 
2 






V) 


Nebraska 


13 
19 

2 
13 
2 
4 
11 
2 
1 
7 
1 

8 
2 
1 
3 

4 
1 
5 
9 

1 
4 


4 
3 






31 


Kansas 


1 


1 


32 


SoTTTB Atlantic: 

Delaware 




RR 


Maryland 


1 
2 
1 
2 






1 


34 


District of Columbia 


1 




3li 


Virginia 


1 


1 
1 


3R 


West Virginia 




37 


North Carolina 






38 


South Carolina 


3 
1 






1 


3fl 


Georgia 


1 
1 

1 




40 


Florida 






41 


East South Central: 

Kentucky 


1 
1 
2 

1 

1 


1 




4?, 


T«nnw»«n 




43 


Alabama 


1 




1 


44 


Mississippi 




4fi 


West South Central: 

Arkansas 


1 






4A 


Louisiana 






47 


Oklahoma 




1 
1 






48 


Texas 








40 


Mountain: 

Montana 




1 




50 


Idaho 








51 


"Wyoming 










52 


Colorado 


6 


4 


""2 








53 


New Mexico 








54 


Arizona 




1 








55 


Utah 


2 
1 

6 
5 

7 


1 
1 




1 






5fi 


Nevada 








57 


PACinc: 

Washington 


4 
5 
5 


2 








58 


Oregon 








59 


Calflomia 




2 














J 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 

WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO EDUCATION, BY DIVISIONS AND STATES: 1910. 



153 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 5 YEARS OF AGE OB OVEB FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE BETUBNED: 1910 "—Continued. 




Having attended school— Continued. 


Not having attended school. 


Not report- 
ing as to 
education. 




Having attended special school for the 
deaf— Continued. 


Not having attended special school for the deaf. 


Total. 


Reporting 
private 

instruction 
at home. 


Reporting 

no 
instruction. 




Having attended no other school. 


Total. 


Having attended- 




Total. 


Reporting no 

other 
instraction. 


Reporting 
private in- 
struction at 
home. 


Common 
school 
only. 


High 
schooler 
academy. 


Schools of 
miscella.- 

neous 
character. 


Schools of 
character 

not 
reported. 




14,787 


14,667 


120 


348 


237 


24 


70 


17 


2,862 


112 


2,750 


252 


1 


903 
3,426 
3,439 
2,179 
1,562 
1,338 
1,201 
267 
472 


894 
3,400 
3,409 
2,154 
1,557 
1,332 
1,191 
264 
466 


9 

26 

30 

25 

5 

6 

10 

3 

6 


25 
61 
100 
69 
37 
18 
16 
4 
18 


14 

46 
68 
38 
30 
14 
13 
4 
10 




11 

7 
23 
22 




149 
398 
499 
355 
596 
421 
332 
55 
57 


7 
20 
20 
20 
17 
10 
17 


142 
378 
479 
335 
579 
411 
315 
55 
56 


26 
75 
65 
26 
21 
22 
12 
2 
3 


2 


3 
5 

4 
4 
2 
2 


5 
4 
5 
3 


3 

4 
5 
6 


2 
1 


7 




8 




9 


4 


4 




1 


10 






112 
73 
40 

425 
98 

155 

2,045 

245 

1,136 

904 
493 
1,099 
504 
439 

399 
341 
686 
70 
78 
234 
371 

12 
316 

42 
200 
215 
361 
156 
209 

51 

511 
429 
196 
202 

263 
166 
243 
529 

39 
34 
10 
91 
29 
11 
47 
6 

117 
102 
253 


111 
72 
39 

419 
98 

155 

2,029 

244 

1,127 

897 
484 
1,089 
501 
438 

394 
336 
677 
69 
78 
231 
369 

12 
316 

42 
200 
215 
360 
156 
205 

51 

507 
428 
195 
202 

261 
166 
241 
523 

39 
34 
10 
89 
29 
11 
46 
6 

115 
100 
251 


1 
1 

1 
6 


5 

1 

2 

14 


5 
1 
2 
4 








30 
17 
14 
66 
8 
14 

156 

41 

201 

144 
76 

114 
82 
83 

45 
57 
148 
17 
21 
15 
52 

5 

44 

8 

145 

61 

121 

75 

112 

25 

113 

133 

95 

80 

60 
80 
42 
150 

5 
2 
2 
10 
27 
3 
6 


1 
2 
1 
2 


29 
15 
13 
64 
8 
13 

145 
40 
193 

140 
71 

107 
81 
80 

42 
54 
138 
17 
20 
14 
50 

5 

44 

8 

139 

59 

121 

75 

105 

23 

110 

129 

93 

79 

59 
71 
42 
143 

5 
2 
2 
10 
27 
3 
6 


3 


11 








12 








4 
13 

4 
2 

34 

7 

34 

21 

6 

21 

13 

4 

5 
3 
6 


13 




10 




14 






15 




3 

21 
11 
29 

16 
19 
30 
25 
10 

18 
13 
14 
2 
3 
6 
13 


2 

17 
9 
20 

11 
12 

24 
12 
9 

4 
9 
11 
1 
2 
3 
S 




1 




1 

U 
1 

8 

4 
5 

7 
1 
3 

3 

3 

10 


16 


16 

1 
9 

7 
9 
10 
3 
1 

5 
5 
9 
1 


3 


1 
2 
2 


17 




18 




7 

2 
6 
5 
9 
1 

12 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 


19 


3 


20 


1 
1 

2 


21 




22 


2 


23 
24 


2 




25 




2S 


1 


1 


27 
28 






1 
1 
2 


2 
3 

7 


29 


3 

2 


1 


1 
3 


30 
31 




32 




3 

1 

10 
4 
5 
3 
7 
4 

7 
2 
5 
4 

1 


3 










5 


33 












34 




6 
4 
4 
1 
7 
4 

5 
2 

4 
,3 

1 


4 






6 
2 


5 
4 
3 


35 








36 


1 






1 
2 


37 








38 


4 






7 
2 

3 
4 
2 
1 

1 
9 


3 
1 

13 
5 
3 
1 


,S9 








40 


4 
1 

1 


1 


1 




41 




42 




1 




43 


1 




44 


2 






45 








2 
2 
S 


46 


2 
6 


7 
8 

1 


6 
6 

1 


1 

1 






47 


1 




7 


48 




49 














50 


















.■il 


2 


1 
2 


1 
2 












52 










1 
1 


S3 












54 


1 














55 
















56 


2 
2 
2 


i 

G 
8 


3 
3 

4 




1 
3 




18 

15 
24 


1 


17 
15 
24 


1 
1 
1 


57 






58 


4 




.) 


.W 











154 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 23— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 5 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 



3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 

13 

14 
15 
16 
17 

18 

19 
20 

21 

22 

23 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 

34 

35 
36 
37 
38 

39 

40 
41 

42 

43 

44 

45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 

55 

56 
57 
68 
59 

60 

61 



65 



EACE, NATTVITT, AND EDUCATION. 



All classes. 



Having attended school . 



Haying attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

Hi^h school or academy 

University or college 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Having attended no other school 

Eeporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home. . 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 
Having attended — 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 



Not having attended school., 



Beportiag private instruction at home. 
Reporting no instruction 



Not reporting as to education. 



White 

Having attended school. 



Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

University or college 

Schools of miscellaneous character ...... 

Schools of character not reported 

Having attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home. . 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 
Having attended — 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 



Not having attended school., 



Reporting private instruction at home. 
Reporting no instruction 



Not reporting as to education. . 



Native 

Having attended school . 



Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

University or college 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Having attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home. . 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 
Having attended- 
Common school only 

High school or academy 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 



Not having attended school.. 



Reporting private instruction at home. 
Reporting no instruction 



Not reporting as to education. 
Foreign-bom 



Having attended school. 



Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

Umversity or college 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Haying attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home. 



deaf and dumb population 6 tears op age or ovee for whom special schedules 'weee 

ketubned: 1910.1 



Total. 



Both sexes. 



18,850 



15,736 



15,388 

601 

430 

72 

34 

44 

21 

14,787 

14,667 

120 

348 

237 
24 
70 
17 

2,862 



112 
2,750 

252 

17,723 



15,164 



14,839 

583 

420 

68 

32 

43 

20 

14,256 

14,139 

117 

325 

220 
23 
68 
14 

2,324 



103 
2,221 

235 

15,889 



13,743 



13,459 

619 

374 

59 

30 

38 

18 

12,940 

12,833 

107 

284 

195 
21 
58 
10 

1,960 



1,874 

186 

1,834 



1,421 



1,380 

64 

46 

9 

2 

5 

2 

1,316 

1,306 

10 



Male. 



10,343 
8,709 



8,522 

329 

233 

41 

23 

23 

9 

8,193 

8,125 

68 

187 

124 
13 
43 

7 

1,491 



54 
1,437 

143 

9,729 



8,394 



8,223 

318 

226 

40 

21 

23 

8 

7,905 

7,839 

66 

171 

113 

12 

41 

5 

1,205 



51 
1,154 

130 

8,700 



7,587 



7,441 

291 

206 

36 

21 

21 

7 

7,150 

7,090 



146 

100 

11 

33 

2 

1,013 



40 
973 

100 

1,029 



807 



782 

27 

20 

4 



2 

1 

755 

749 

6 



Female. 



6,866 

272 

197 

31 

11 

21 

12 

6,594 

6,542 

52 

161 

113 
11 
27 
10 

1,371 



58 
1,313 



6,770 



6,616 

265 

194 

28 

11 

20 

12 

6,351 

6,300 

51 

154 

107 

11 

27 

9 

1,119 



52 
1,067 

105 

7,189 



6,156 



6,018 

228 

168 

23 

9 

17 

11 

5,790 

5,743 

47 

138 

95 

10 

25 

8 

947 



46 
901 



86 
805 



614 



37 

26 

5 

2 

3 

1 

661 

657 

4 



5 to 9 years of age. 



Both 
sexes. 



1,227 

29 

23 

2 



1 
1,198 
1,195 



568 



14 
554 



1,221 



1,184 

29 

23 

2 



3 

1 

1,155 

1,153 

2 

37 

29 



530 



13 
517 

15 

1,677 



1,144 



1,109 

28 

23 

1 



3 

1 

1,081 

1,079 

2 

35 

28 



519 



12 

507 



14 



77 



Male. 



1,015 



675 

16 

13 

1 



2 

"659 



5 
314 



4 
310 



670 



654 

16 

13 

1 



638 



291 



4 
287 



8 
914 



623 



284 



4 
280 



47 



45 



Female. 



552 

13 

10 

1 



1 

1 

639 

536 

3 

22 

18 



254 



10 
244 



551 



530 

13 

10 

1 



1 

1 

517 

515 

2 

21 

18 

■3 



239 



9 
230 



7 
763 



521 



500 
12 
10 



1 

1 

488 

486 

2 

21 

18 



235 



8 
227 



30 



29 



10 to 14 years of age. 



Both 
sexes. 



2,569 
2,321 



2,280 

82 

70 

3 



7 

2 

2,198 

2,184 

14 

41 

25 



15 
1 

235 




2,199 



2,162 
81 



7 

2 

2,081 

2,067 

14 



176 



5 
171 

13 

2,246 



2,063 



2,028 
75 
63 



7 

2 

1,953 

1,940 

13 



171 



5 
166 



12 
142 



136 



134 
6 
6 



128 

127 

1 



Male. 



1,241 

52 

47 

2 



8 



1,189 

1,182 

7 

26 

16 



129 



3 

126 



1,195 



1,172 

51 

46 

2 



1,121 
1,114 

7 



100 



98 

7 

1,214 



1,112 



1,090 

48 

43 

2 



1,042 

1,036 

6 



95 



83 



Female. 



1,039 
30 



4 

2 

1,009 

1,002 

7 

15 



106 




1,004 



990 
30 



4 
2 

960 
953 

7 

14 

8 

"6 



76 



1,032 



951 



4 

2 

911 

904 

7 

13 



76 



53 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



155 



RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, AGE AT ENUMERATION, AND EDUCATION, 
AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 6 YEAES OF AGE OB OVEE FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEEE KETUENED: 1910 1— Continued. 




15 to 19 years of age. 


20 to 24 years of age. 


25 to 44 years of age. 


45 to 64 years of age. 


65 years of age or over. 




Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 




2,403 


1,337 


1,066 


2,062 

1 


1,193 


869 


5,914 


3,170 


2,744 


3,228 


1,792 


1,436 


797 


416 


381 


1 


2,222 


1,235 


987 


1,831 


1,066 


765 


5,040 


2,735 


2,305 


2,522 


1,431 


1,091 


519 


275 


244 


2 


2,194 

85 

60 

9 

2 

9 

5 

2,109 

2,097 

12 

28 

16 
4 
8 


1,219 

SO 

34 

5 

1 

6 

4 

1,169 

1,160 

9 

16 

9 
3 

4 


975 

35 

26 

4 

1 

3 

1 

940 

937 

3 

12 

7 
1 
4 


1,796 

67 

44 

8 

8 

4 

3 

1,729 

1715 

14 

35 

20 

1 
14 


1,042 

35 

23 

5 

5 

1 

1 

1,007 

994 

13 

24 

12 

1 
11 


754 

32 

21 

3 

3 

3 

2 

722 

721 

11 

8 


4,929 

228 

158 

34 

15 

17 

4 

4,701 

4,658 

43 

111 

81 
8 

17 
5 

771 


2,684 

112 

74 

17 

11 

9 

1 

2,572 

2,547 

25 

61 

37 
2 

11 
1 

379 


2,245 

116 

84 

17 

4 

8 

3 

2,129 

2,111 

18 

60 

44 
6 
6 
4 

392 


2,447 

96 

66 

15 

6 

4 

5 

2,351 

2,324 

27 

75 

60 

11 

6 

8 

640 


1,388 

57 

38 

11 

4 

2 

2 

1,331 

1,319 

12 

43 

30 
7 
2 
4 

318 


1,059 

39 

28 

4 

2 

2 

3 

1,020 

1,005 

15 

32 

20 
4 
4 
4 

322 


501 
13 

8 

1 
3 


266 

7 
4 


235 
6 

4 
1 

1 


3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 
15 
16 


2 


1 
488 
481 

7 

18 
15 


1 
259 
257 

2 

9 
8 


229' 

224 
5 

9 

7 


3 


1 
2 

248 




1 

1 

119 


1 

129 


17 


177 


100 


77 


216 


118 


98 


18 


10 
167 

4 


6 

94 

2 


4 
73 

2 


14 
202 

15 


6 
112 

9 


8 
90 

6 


33 

738 

103 


17 
362 

56 


16 
376 

47 


26 
614 

66 


15 
303 

43 


11 
311 

23 


6 
242 

30 


3 
126 

12 


3 

116 

18 


19 
20 

21 


2,232 


1,246 


986 


1,889 


1,092 


797 


5,578 


2,999 


2,579 


3,090 


1,712 


1,378 


759 


396 


363 


22 


2,101 


1,172 


929 


1,727 


1,006 


721 


4,893 


2,659 


2,234 


2,491 


1,409 


1,082 


517 


275 


242 


23 


2,077 

80 

58 

7 

2 

9 

4 

1,997 

1,986 

12 

24 

14 
3 

7 


1,159 

47 

32 

5 

1 

6 

3 

1,112 

1,103 

9 

13 

8 
2 
3 


918 

33 

26 

2 

1 

3 

1 

885 

882 

3 

11 

6 
1 
4 


1,697 

60 

40 

7 

7 

3 

3 

1,637 

1,624 

13 

30 

16 

1 

13 


986 

30 

20 

4 

4 

1 

1 

956 

944 

12 

20 

9 

1 

10 


711 
30 

.20 
3 
3 
2 
2 

681 

680 
1 

10 

7 


4,785 

224 

156 

33 

14 

17 

4 

4,561 

4,519 

42 

108 

78 
8 

17 
5 

591 


2,609 

111 

74 

17 

10 

9 

1 

2,498 

2,474 

24 

60 

36 

2 

11 

1 

291 


2,176 

113 

82 

16 

4 

8 

3 

2,063 

2,045 

18 

68 

42 
6 
6 
4 

300 


2,420 

95 

65 

15 

6 

4 

5 

2,325 

2,298 

27 

71 

47 
11 

6 

7 

535 


1,370 

66 

37 

11 

4 

2 

2 

1,314 

1,302 

12 

39 

27 
7 
2 
3 

262 


1,050 

39 

28 

4 

2 

2 

3 

1,011 

996 

15 

32 

20 

4 
4 

4 

273 


500 

13 

8 

1 

3 


266 
7 
4 


234 
6 
4 
1 

1 


24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 


2 


1 
487 
480 

7 

17 
14 


1 
259 
257 

2 

9 
8 




30 


228 

223 

5 

8 

6 


31 
32 
33 

34 

35 

36 


3 


1 
2 

215 




1 

1 

105 


37 


1 
110 


18 


127 


72 


55 


147 


77 


70 


39 


10 
117 

4 

2,083 


6 
66 

2 

1,156 


4 
61 

2 

927 


11 

136 

15 
1,782 


4 
73 

9 

1,034 


7 
63 

6 

748 


32 

559 

94 
4,871 


17 

274 

49 
2,625 


15 
285 

45 

2,246 


26 

509 

64 
2,598 


15 
247 

41 

1,432 


11 

262 

23 
1,166 


6 
209 

27 

612 


3 
107 

11 

313 


3 
102 

16 

299 


40 
41 

42 

43 


1,960 


1,088 


872 


1,637 


958 


679 


4,353 


2,369 


1,984 


2,133 


1,198 


935 


438 


231 


207 


44 


1,939 

72 

52 

6 

1 

9 

4 

1,867 

1,857 

10 

21 

14 
2 
6 


1,078 

43 

28 

5 

1 

6 

3 

1,035 

1,027 

8 

10 

8 
1 

1 


861 

29 

24 

1 


1,609 

53 

35 

7 

7 

1 

3 

1,556 

1,544 

12 

28 

15 

1 

12 


939 

28 

18 

4 

4 

1 

1 

911 

900 

11 

19 

9 
1 
9 


670 

25 

17 

3 

3 


4,256 

198 

139 

28 

14 

15 

2 

4,058 

4,017 

41 

97 

70 
7 

15 
5 

444 


2,324 

102 

69 

15 

10 

8 


1,932 

96 

70 

13 

4 

7 

2 

1,836 

1,818 

18 

53 

37 
6 
6 
4 

223 


2,078 

82 

56 

13 

6 

3 

6 

1,996 

1,973 

23 

55 

36 

11 

4 

4 

417 


1,169 

48 

32 

9 

4 

1 

2 

1,121 

1,111 

10 

29 

20 

7 

1 
1 

204 


909 

34 

23 

4 

2 

2 

3 

875 

862 

13 

26 

16 
4 
3 
3 

213 


426 

10 

6 

1 
2 


225 
6 
3 


201 

4 
3 
1 


45 
46 
47 
48 


2 


49 


3 
1 

832 

830 

2 

11 

6 

1 
4 




Vt 


2 
645 
644 

1 

9 
6 


1 
416 
410 

6 

12 
10 


1 
219 
217 

2 

6 
« 




51 


2,222 

2,199 

23 

45 

33 
2 
9 

1 

221 


197 
193 

4 

6 
4 


52 
53 
54 

55 

56 


3 


1 

1 

155 




1 
1 

82 


SH 




W 


119 


66 


63 


132 


68 


64 


73 


60 


8 
111 

4 

149 


4 
62 

2 

90 


4 
49 

2 

59 


10 
122 

13 

107 


4 
64 

8 

58 


6 

58 

5 

49 


26 
418 

74 

707 


13 
208 

35 

374 


13 
210 

39 

333 


20 
397 

48 

492 


11 
193 

30 

280 


9 
204 

18 

212 


5 
150 

19 

147 


2 

71 

9 

83 


3 
79 

10 

64 


61 
62 

63 

64 


141 


84 


57 


90 


48 


42 


640 


290 


250 


358 


211 


147 


79 


44 


36 


65 


138 
8 
6 
1 
1 


SI 
4 
4 


67 
4 

2 

1 
1 


88 
7 
5 


47 
2 
3 


41 
6 
3 


629 
26 

17 
6 


285 
9 
6 
2 


244 

17 

12 

3 


342 

13 

10 

2 


201 
8 
5 
2 


141 
5 
6 


74 
3 
2 


41 

1 
1 


S3 
3 
1 


66 
67 
68 
69 












1 




1 


70 




2 




2 


2 

2 

603 

602 

1 


1 

1 

276 

376 

1 


1 

1 

227 

227 


1 


1 






71 
72 
73 
74 
7» 


m 

128 

a 


77' 


63' 

63 

1 


si' 

SO 

1 


46' 

44 
1 


36' 

36 


329 

325 

4 


193 
191 

a 


136 
134 

a 


71 


40 
40 


31 

30 

1 















156 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 23— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 5 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 





RACE, NATIVITY, AND EDUCATION. 


deaf and duub popttlation 5 tears op age oe over for 'whom special scheduues verb 

returned: 1910.1 




Total. 


5 to 9 years of age. 


10 to 14 years of age. 




Both sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


1 


White— Continued. 
Foreign-born— Continued. 
Having attended school— Continued. 

Not having attended special school for the deat 

Having attended- 
Common school onlv . . 


41 

25 
2 

10 
4 

364 


25 

13 

1 

8 

3 

192 


16 

12 

1 
2 

1 

172 


2 

1 


2 

1 




2 


1 


1 


t. 




» 


High school or a<}ademy 










4 


Schools of miscellaneous character ......... 


1 


1 




2 


1 


1 


S 






A 


Not having attended school 


11 


7 


4 


5 


5 










7 


17 
347 

49 

1,127 


11 

181 

30 
614 


6 
166 

19 

513 


1 
10 

1 

84 




1 
3 








8 


Reporting no instruction 


7 

1 

46 


5 

1 

, 181 


5 




q 




1 
80 


in 


Colored 


38 


101 




Having attended school... 


11 


572 


315 


257 


45 


22 


23 


122 


72 


50 






1? 


549 

18 

10 

4 

2 

1 

1 

531 

S28 

3 

23 

17 

1 
2 
3 

538 


299 

11 

7 

1 

2 


250 
7 
3 
3 


43 


21 


22 


118 

1 
1 


69 

1 
1 


49 


13 


Having attended other schools also 


14 


Common school only 










15 


High school or academy 










in 


University or college . ." 














17 


Schools of miscellaneous character 


1 














18 


Schools of character not reported 


1 

288 

286 

2 

16 

11 
1 
2 
2 

286 














in 


Having attended no other school 


243 

242 

1 

7 

6 


43 

42 

1 

2 

1 


21 
21 


22 
21 

1 

1 


117 
117 


68 
68 


49 
49 


?o 




?i 


Reporting private instruction at home 

Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended- 
Common school only 


22 


1 
1 


4 

3 


3 
2 


1 
1 


?4 


High school or academy 




?■! 


8c£loo1s of mlscellaneouis character 
















76 


Schools of character not reported 


1 

252 


1 

38 




1 

15 


1 
59 


1 
29 




?7 




23 


30 




Reporting private instruction at home 


?8 


9 
529 

17 
1,061 


3 
283 

13 
579 


6 
246 

4 
482 


1 
37 

1 

78 




1 
14 


4 

65 


1 
28 


3 
27 


7<) 




23 
1 

44 


in 


Not reporting as to education 


'll 




34 


174 


99 


76 




Having attended school 


17 


548 


303 


245 


41 


21 


20 


116 


70 


46 




Having attended special school for the deaf 


11 


528 

18 

10 

4 

2 

1 

3 

20 

15 
1 

1 
3 

497 


289 

11 

7 

1 

2 


239 
7 
3 
3 


39 


20 


19 


112 
1 
1 


67 

1 
1 


46 


14 


Having attended other schools also 


1'i 


Common school only 










Ifi 


High school or academy 










17 


Umversity or college 














18 


Schools of miscellaneous character 


1 














1Q 


Schools of character n ot reported 


1 
278 
276 

2 

14 

10 

1 
1 
2 

263 














'in 


Having attended no other school 


232 
231 

1 

6 
5 


39 

38 

1 

2 

1 


20 
20 


19 
18 

1 

1 


111 
HI 


66 
66 


45 
46 


•11 


Reporting no other instruction 


4? 


Reporting private instruction at home 

Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended — 

Common school only 


43 

44 


1 

1 


4 
3 


3 
2 


1 
1 


^'^ 


High school or academy 




4A 


Schools of miscellaneous character 
















47 


Schools of character not reported 


1 
234 


1 
36 




1 
14 


1 

68 


1 
29 




'18 




22 


29 




Repotting private instruction at home 


49 


9 

488 

16 
66 


3 
260 

13 
35 


6 
228 

3 
31 


1 

35 

1 
6 




1 
13 


4 

64 


1 
28 


3 
26 


V\ 




22 

1 

2 


ni 


Not rejjorting as to education 


s** 


Other colored ,. 


4 


7 


2 


6 






51 


24 


12 


12 


4 


1 


3 


6 


2 


4 




Having attended special school for the deaf 


■il 


21 


10 


11 


4 


1 


3 


6 


2 


4 


'i'i 


Having attended other schools also 


ftfi 


Common school only 




















57 


High school or academy 




















58 


University or college 




















54 


Schools of miscellaneous character 


















*"*"*" *• 


fin 


Schools of character not reported 




















fil 




21 
21 


10 
10 


11 
11 


4 
4 


I 
1 


3 
3 


6 
6 


2 
2 


4 
4 


fi7 


Reporting no other instruction 


63 


Reporting private instruction at home 


64 


Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended- 
Common school only 


3 
2 


2 

1 


1 
1 














fi,5 














fi« 


High school or academy 














fi7 


Schools of miscellaneous character 


1 


1 
















fiS 


Schools of character not reported 
















S9 


Not having attended school 


41 


23 


18 


2 


1 


1 


1 




1 


70 


Reporting private instruction at home 




















71 


Reporting no instruction 


41 

1 


23 


18 

1 


2 


1 


I 


i' 




1 


72 


Not reporting as to education 


















1 



I Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



157 



RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, AGE AT ENUMERATION, AND EDUCATION 
AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPtTLATION S YEABS OF AGK OB OVER FOR WHOM SPECXAL SCHEDULES WETLE RETITRNED: 19101 — continued. 




15 to 19 years of age. 


20 to 24 years of age. 


25 to 44 years ot age. 


45 to 64 years of age. 


65 yeare of age or over. 




Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 




3 


3 




2 

1 


1 


1 
1 


11 

8 
1 
2 


5 
3 


6 

5 

1 


16 
11 


10 

7 


6 

4 


5 

4 


3 
2 


2 
2 






1 


1 
2 


1 
2 






2 
3 
4 
5 

6 




1 


1 




2 


2 
3 

118 


1 
2 

58 


1 

1 

60 














1 
60 


1 
37 




8 


6 


2 


15 


9 


6 


147 


70 


77 


23 


2 

6 


2 
4 




1 

14 

2 

173 




1 
6 

1 

72 


6 
141 

20 

336 


4 
66 

14 

171 


2 
75 

6 

165 


6 
112 

16 

138 


4 
54 

11 

80 


2 

58 

5 
58 


1 
59 

8 

38 


1 
36 

2 

20 




7 
8 


2 


9 

1 

101 


23 

6 

18 


171 


91 


SO 


10 


121 


63 


68 


104 


60 


44 


147 


76 


71 


31 


22 


9 


2 




2 


U 




117 
6 
2 
2 


60 
3 

2 


57 

2 


. 99 

7 
4 
1 
1 

1 


56 
5 
3 
1 
1 


43 
2 

1 


144 
4 
2 

1 
1 


75 

1 


69 
3 
2 
1 


27 
1 
1 


18 

1 
1 


9 


1 




1 


12 

13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

22 

23 

24 
25 
26 

27 












2 
















1 




















1 
















1 
112 
112 


1 

57 
57 
























55 
55 


92 

91 

1 

5 
4 


51 
50 

1 

4 
3 


41 
41 


140 

139 

1 

3 
3 


74 
73 

1 

1 
1 


^6 
66 


26 
26 


17 
17 


9 
9 


1 
1 




i 

1 






i 

2 
1 

1 


3 

1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
1 


2 
2 


4 
3 


4 
3 




1 

1 




1 
1 












1 


1 

































1 
105 


1 
56 










50 


28 


22 


69 


41 


28 


180 


88 


92 


49 




33 


19 


14 








3 
66 


2 
39 


1 
27 


1 

179 

9 
314 




1 
91 

2 

154 














28 
29 

30 
31 


50 


28 


22 


88 
7 

160 


105 
2 

129 


56 
2 

75 


49 


33 
3 

35 


19 
1 

18 


14 
2 

17 


166 


88 


78 


159 


91 


68 


54 


119 


62 


57 


97 


55 


42 


143 


74 


69 


30 


21 


9 


2 




2 


32 




117 
5 
2 
2 


60 
3 
2 


57 
2 


93 
7 
4 
1 
1 
1 


52 
5 
3 
1 

1 


41 
2 
1 


140 
4 
2 
1 
1 


73 
1 


67 
3 
2 
1 


26 

1 
1 


17 
1 
1 


9 


1 




1 


33 

34 












35 

36 


2 
















1 














37 
38 
39 








1 
















1 
112 
112 


1 
57 
57 
























55 
55 


86 
85 

1 

4 
3 


. 47 

46 

1 

3 
2 


39 
39 


136 

135 

1 

3 
3 


72 

71 

1 

1 

1 


64 
64 


25 
25 


16 
16 


9 
9 


1 
1 




1 

1 


40 




41 




42 
43 

41 


2 

1 
1 


2 

1 
1 




1 
1 


2 
2 


4 
3 


4 
3 




1 
1 




1 
1 














45 




1 


1 






















46 
















1 

97 


1 
52 










47 


47 


26 


21 


62 


36 


26 


162 


79 


83 


45 


31 


17 


14 


48 








3 

59 


2 
34 


1 
25 


1 

161 

9 
22 




1 

82 

2 
11 














49 


47 


26 


21 


79 

7 

11 


97 
2 

9 


52 
2 

5 


45 


31 
2 

3 


17 
1 

2 


14 
1 

1 


60 
51 

52 


5 


3 


2 


14 


10 


4 


4 


2 


1 


1 


7 


5 


2 


4 


2 


2 


1 


1 










S3 
















6 


4 


2 


4 


2 


2 


1 


1 










54 
















fiS 
































fi6 
































57 
































hH 
































W 
































60 








6 
6 


4 
4 


2 
2 


4 
4 


2 
2 


2 
2 


1 
1 


1 
1 










61 
















«? 
















en 


2 
1 


1 


1 

1 


1 
1 


1 
1 






















64 






















fi'i 
























66 


1 


1 




























67 




























RR 


3 


2 


1 


7 


5 


2 


18 


9 


9 


8 


4 


4 


2 


2 




69 




































70 


3 


2 


1 


7 


5 


2 


18 


9 


9 


8 


4 


4 


2 
1 


2 




71 


1 


78 



















1 1 







158 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 24.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 5 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 
RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO AGE WHEN HEARING WAS LOST AND EDUCATION, FOR THE UNITED 
STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



EDUCATION. 



Total. 



Having attended school. 



Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Common school only 

High school or academy 

University or college 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 

Having attended no other school 

Reporting no other instruction 

Reporting private instruction at home. . 

Not having attended special school for ine deaf. 
Having attended- 
Common school only 

High school or academy 

Schools of miscellaneous character 

Schools of character not reported 



deaf and dximb population 6 tears op aqb or over foe 'whom special schedules were 

eetuened: 1910.1 



Not haying attended school . 



Reporting private instruction at home. 
Reporting no instruction 



Not reporting as to education. 



Total. 



18,850 



15,736 



15,388 

601 

430 

72 

34 

44 

21 

14,787 

14,667 

120 

348 

237 
24 
70 
17 



2,862 



112 

2,750 

252 



Number whose deafness was- 



Congenital. 



7,346 



5,861 



5,757 

145 

89 

22 

9 

18 

7 

6,612 

6,578 

34 

104 

61 
7 

32 
4 



1,406 



43 



79 



Acquired.' 



Total. 



11,504 



9,875 



9,631 

456 

341 

50 



14 
9,175 
9,089 

86 

244 

176 
17 



13 



1,456 



1,387 



173 



At less than 

5 years of 

age.' 



9,147 



8,079 



7,935 

265 

184 

33 

20 

19 

9 

7,670 

7,601 



144 

109 

14 

18 

3 



996 



57 
939 



72 



At 5 to 9 

years of 

age. 



1,594 



1,303 



1,253 

166 

141 

14 

5 

2 

4 

1,087 

1,072 

15 

50 

42 
3 



11 

258 



22 



At 10 years 

of age or 

over. 



140 



67 



67 



At age not 
reported. 



623 
~4M 



400 
18 
9 
3 



5 

1 

382 

380 

2 

26 



17 
1 



124 



1 
123 



7S 



> Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. 

* Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 

* Includes those reported as having lost their hearing in infancy but without statement as to the exact age. 



160 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 25— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES 

DIVISIONS AND 



DIVISION AND STATB. 



United States. 



GEOGEAPHIC DIV13ION3: 

New England 

Uiddle Atlantic 

East North Central. . 
West North Central . 

South Atlantic 

East South Central . . 
West South Central. 

Mountain 

Pacific 



New England: 

Uaine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts . . . 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 



Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey. — 
Pennsylvania.. 



East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 



West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 



South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia.. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 



East South Central: 
Kentucky 



Alabama. . . 
Mississippi. 



West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 



Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 



PAcmc: 

Washington. 

Oregon 

Caluomia 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OP AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910. ' 



Total. 



17,000 



1,059 
3,537 
3,981 
2,538 
2,012 
1,626 
1,428 
312 
507 



155 
91 
55 

513 
88 

157 



1,950 

280 

1,307 



1,054 
590 

1,206 
617 
514 



460 
413 
819 
78 
93 
248 
427 



19 
332 

54 
336 
262 
420 
215 
299 

75 



591 
607 
278 
250 



293 
213 
272 
650 



45 
35 

B 

100 

53 

14 

50 

6 



126 
117 
264 



Able to 
read lips. 



5,457 



464 
1,432 
1,249 
709 
566 
457 
363 
105 
112 



35 
21 
224 
62 
54 



813 
104 
515 



270 
149 
476 
180 
174 



155 
95 

222 
18 
14 
96 

109 



9 
117 
17 
89 
49 
131 
57 
72 
25 



171 

139 

82 

65 



57 

44 

92 

170 



Not able 

to read 

lips. 



11,154 



564 
2,008 
2,623 
1,782 
1,407 
1,136 
1,047 

201 



81 
55 
33 
276 
22 
97 



1,088 
165 
755 



757 
418 
694 
424 
330 



297 
307 
581 
60 
79 
148 
310 



10 
206 

37 
236 
208 
282 
158 
222 

48 



412 
353 
191 
180 



234 
167 

176 
470 



98 
90 
198 



Not re- 
porting 

as to 
ability 
to read 

lips. 



31 

97 

109 

47 

39 

33 

18 

6 

9 



Reporting as to means of communication. 



Total. 



16,367 



1,013 
3,409 
3,812 
2,467 
1,893 
1,568 
1,404 
306 
495 



146 
85 
54 

487 
85 

156 



1,875 

276 

1,258 



997 
569 
1,169 
587 
490 



450 
409 
791 
72 
85 
244 
416 



16 
318 

53 
301 
255 
388 
208 
281 

73 



577 
480 
268 
243 



292 
210 
268 
634 



43 
35 

8 

100 

52 

14 

48 

6 



126 
114 
255 



Using speech as a means of communication. 



Total. 



4,057 



377 
1,228 
923 
491 
378 
248 
211 
74 
127 



48 
34 
11 
191 
SO 
43 



753 
67 

408 



196 
94 
374 
123 
136 



97 
68 
161 
13 
13 
67 
72 



7 
102 
22 
49 
33 
80 
25 
49 
11 



111 
64 
33 
40 



Reporting means of communication as- 



Speech, 
writing, 

finder 
spelhng, 
and sign 
language. 



826 
683 
382 
282 
186 
163 
61 
94 



32 
21 

5 
106 

8 
31 



513 

52 

261 



151 
78 

294 
83 

77 



79 

55 

123 

8 

9 

52 

56 



10 
9 
3 

18 
3 
1 

14 
3 



Speech, 

writing, 

and 

finger 

spelling. 



154 



Speech, 
writing, 
and sign 
lan- 
guage, 



100 



Speech, 

finger 

spelling, 

and sign 

lan- 
guage 



84 



10 



Speech 

and 
writing. 



463 



76 

239 

89 

16 

20 

7 

6 

2 

8 



158 

5 

76 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



161 



WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ABILITY TO READ LIPS AND MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, BY 
STATES: 1910. 



DEAT AMD DUMB 


P0PX7LATI0N 10 TEAKS OP AOE OB OVER FOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910 »— Continued. 








Reporting as to means of communication— Continued. 


Not reporting as 
munic 


to means 
ation. 


of com- 




Using speech as a means of com- 
munication—Continued. 


Not using speech as a means of communication. 




Report- 
ing 
them- 


Beport- 
them- 


Not re- 
porting 




Beporting means of communica- 
tion as— Continued. 






Reporting means of communication as 


— 






















Report- 
ing no 


Total. 


selves 
as able 


selves 
as un- 


as to 
ability 






























Speecb. 

and 

fineer 

spelling. 


Speech 
and 
sign 
lan- 
guage. 


Speech 
and mis- 
cellar 
neous 
meth- 
ods. 


Speech 
only. 


Total. 


Writing, 

finger 
spelling, 
and sign 
language. 


Writing 

and 

finger 

spelling. 


Writing 
and 
sign 
lan- 
guage. 


Finger 
spelling 

and 
sign lan- 
guage. 


Writing 
only. 


only. 


Sign 
lan- 
guage 
only. 


Miscella- 
neous 
methods. 


means 
of com- 
muni- 
cation. 




to 
speak. 


able to 
speak. 


to speak. 




31 


53 


127 


165 


12,310 


8,273 


521 


291 


625 


218 


142 


375 


1,767 


98 


633 


125 


443 


65 


1 


8 


4 


7 


34 


636 


429 


27 


22 


33 


23 


9 


18 


67 


8 


46 


4 


39 


3 


2 


8 


10 


19 


24 


2,181 


1,516 


99 


61 


106 


52 


30 


59 


242 


18 


128 


32 


87 


9 


3 


S 


10 


22 


40 


2,889 


2,033 


89 


82 


147 


61 


34 


88 


320 


35 


189 


36 


119 


14 


4 


1 


10 


24 


21 


1,976 


1,441 


71 


51 


87 


20 


14 


58 


219 


15 


71 


18 


45 


8 


5 


2 


8 


15 


26 


1,515 


863 


84 


20 


91 


19 


18 


70 


341 


9 


119 


10 


85 


24 


6 


3 


4 


17 


S 


1,320 


774 


86 


21 


63 


27 


26 


29 


289 


5 


58 


18 


34 


6 


7 


2 


1 


le 


6 


1,193 


771 


52 


10 


75 


10 


9 


38 


225 


3 


24 


6 


17 


1 


8 




3 
3 


1 
6 


2 
6 


233 

368 


147 
299 


6 
7 


13 
11 


12 
11 


1 
5 


2 


8 
7 


40 
24 


3 
4 


6 
12 


i' 


6 
11 




9 


2 




in 






2 




2 


2 


98 


61 


4 


3 


10 


2 




4 


14 




9 


2 


8 


1 


11 


1 




1 


3 


51 


33 


S 




4 


1 




2 


4 


2 


6 


1 


5 




12 




1 
2 




1 
13 


43 
296 


22 
197 


2 

14 


3 
12 


1 

14 


3 

10 


¥ 


1 
10 


11 
28 


4" 


1 

26 




1 
25 




13 


4 


3 


1 


14 








11 
4 


35 
113 


21 
95 




1 
3 


2 
2 


6 
1 


1 
1 




3 

7 


1 
1 


3 
1 


1 


1 
1 


1 



15 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


16 


6 


3 


8 


13 


1,122 


831 


59 


25 


69 


21 


16 


27 


77 


7 


75 


12 


66 


7 


17 




3 
4 




2 
9 


209 
850 


142 
543 


3 
37 


6 
30 


13 
34 


7 
24 


7 

7 


6 
28 


25 
140 


9 


4 
49 


26" 


3 

28 


1 
1 


18 


3 


11 


19 




2 
1 


7 
1 


7 

4 


801 
475 


556 
335 


28 
10 


21 
14 


61 
38 


12 
5 


9 
5 


26 
11 


91 
54 


9 
3 


57 
21 


9 
3 


42 
17 


6 
1 


20 


1 


21 


2 


3 


a 


11 


795 


587 


22 


22 


27 


27 


2 


22 


79 


7 


37 


8 


23 


6 


22 




1 
3 


2 
3 


7 
11 


464 
354 


316 
239 


21 
10 


15 
10 


20 
11 


9 

8 


13 
5 


IS 
14 


51 
45 


4 
12 


30 
24 


8 
8 


21 

16 


1 


23 


2 


24 




1 
3 
3 


2 
1 

18 


3 
5 
2 


353 
341 
630 


266 
256 
424 


12 

8 

23 


8 
10 
16 


13 
17 
34 


4 

1 
9 


1 
2 

6 


7 

8 

24 


38 
38 
90 


4 
1 
5 


10 
4 

28 


4 

1 
5 


4 
3 
19 


2 


25 




?l) 


1 


4 


27 




1 
1 


1 


3' 

4 

4 


59 

72 
177 
344 

9 

216 

31 

252 

222 
308 


35 
52 
148 
280 

7 
156 
25 
100 
142 
181 


6 
1 

9 
12 


1 
1 
2 


3 
3 
6 
12 


1 
1 

4" 


i' 

1 

3 
1 


4 

3 

4 

8 


9 

9 

7 

28 

1 
23 

3 
84 
40 
69 


i' 

1 

3 

i" 

1 

2 


6 

8 

4 

11 

3 
14 

1 
35 

7 
32 


4 
2 

1 
1 


2 
6 
3 

8 

3 

8 




28 






?q 








30 




1 


2 


2 


31 




m 




1 


1 

1 
4 
3 
3 


6 
8 
2 

s" 


6 


2 


6 
2 

25 
9 

16 


4 


19 


6 

1 
10 


33 




34 




1 
2 

1 


20 
16 
21 


5 
1 
5 


3 
2 

8 


3 
3 

4 


12 
7 
4 


i' 

4 


25 

6 

23 


35 




36 


1 


5 


37 


1 




2 


3 


183 


91 


13 


2 


11 


1 


4 


13 


45 


3 


7 


2 


4 


1 


38 




3 


I 


2 


232 
62 

468 


129 
32 

271 


7 
1 

44 


4 
1 

6 


17 
6 

24 


1 


3 


11 
4 

14 


59 
17 

79 


1 
1 

1 


18 
2 

14 


1 
2 

3 


16 


1 


39 




40 


1 


1 


2 


5 


15 


12 


9 


2 


41 


1 


1 


8 




416 


260 


27 


10 


22 


7 


10 


7 


72 


1 


27 


7 


18 


2 


4a 




1 
1 


2 

5 


2 

1 


235 
203 


130 
113 


7 
8 


3 
2 


11 
6 


3 
2 


3 

1 


3 
5 


73 
65 


2 

1 


10 
7 


6 
2 


4 
3 




43 


1 


2 


44 






5 
6 
2 
4 


i' 

2 
2 


250 
179 
221 
543 

28 
25 

6 
79 
48 
12 
32 

3 

97 
87 
184 


186 

99 

183 

343 


13 
9 
6 

24 


1 

i" 

8 


16 
14 
10 
36' 


3 

1 
1 
5 


1 
3 
1 
4 


6 

? 
16 


44 

41 
32 
108 


8' 


1 
3 
4 
16 






1 


45 






i' 

6 


3 
3 
11 


46 








47 


2 


1 




48 


2 


20 
17 

6 
59 
13 

6 
24 

3 

78 
68 
153 


3 




2 
3 




1 




2 
3 


i' 


2 




2 




49 








1 




50 


















1 




1 




51 





2 






2 


4 
8 


2 
1 

1 
3 






6 

1 


6 

25 

3 

2 


2 




62 





1 








i 




1 




53 


" ■"" 






1 


1 




54 





1 






1 


1 


1 




2 




2 




65 














66 


1 

1 




3 
2 
1 


1 
i' 


4 


4 


I 


3 






6 


1 










57 


2 

1 




1 
6 


e 

4 


1 

1 




2 
S 


8 
10 


1 
2 


3 
9 


i' 


3 

8 




58 


3 




59 









50171"— 18 11 



162 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 26.— DEAF AND DXJMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 
RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, SEX, ABILITY TO READ LIPS, AND MEANS OF 
COMMUNICATION, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



ABILITY TO BEAD LIPS AND MEANS OF COMMONICATION. 



Total 

Able to read Ups 

Not able to read lips 

Not reporting as to ability to read lips 

Reporting as to means of communication 

Using speech as a means of communication 

Beporting means of communication as — 

Speech, writing, finger spelling, and sign language 

Speech, writing, and finger spelling 

Speech, writing, and sign language 

Speech, finger spelling, and sign language 

Speech and writing 

Speech and finger spelling 

Speech and sign lai^oage 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 

Not using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as— 

Wrltmg, finger spelling, and sign language 

Writing ana finger speuing 

Writing and sign language 

Finger spelling and sign language 

Writing only 

Finger spelling only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous meuods 

Reporting no means of communication 

Not reporting as to means of communication 

Reporting themselves as able to speak 

Reporting themselves as unable to speak 

Not reporting as to ability to speak 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OF AGE OB OVEE FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 

RETURNED : 1910. ' 



All classes. 


White. 


Both 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Native. 




















Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


Both 
sexes. 


Male. 


Female. 


17,000 


9,328 


7,672 


15,957 


8,760 


7,197 


14,212 


7,786 


6,426 


6,457 


2,682 


2,775 


5,163 


2,528 


2,635 


4,535 


2,202 


2,333 


U.IM 


6,431 


4,723 


10,423 


6,027 


4,396 


9,351 


6,409 


3,942 


389 


215 


174 


371 


205 


166 


326 


176 


151 


16,367 


9,004 


7,363 


15,411 


8,476 


6,935 


13,768 


7,657 


6,209 


4,057 


2,036 


2,021 


3,943 


1,972 


1,971 


3,478 


1,732 


1,746 


2,880 


1,457 


1,423 


2,826 


1,430 


1,396 


2,550 


1'^ 


1,268 


154 


82 


72 


148 


79 


69 


131 


70 


61 


100 


50 


50 


98 


49 


49 


76 


35 


41 


84 


32 


52 


80 


30 


50 


75 


27 


48 


463 


223 


240 


456 


218 


238 


366 


178 


188 


31 


17 


14 


29 


17 


12 


26 


15 


10 


53 


33 


20 


48 


30 


18 


36 


25 


11 


127 


59 


68 


111 


49 


62 


97 


42 


55 


165 


83 


82 


147 


70 


77 


122 


58 


64 


12,310 


6,968 


5,342 


11,468 


6,504 


4,964 


10,288 


5,825 


4,463 


8,273 


4,796 


3,477 


8,024 


4,658 


3,366 


7,344 


4,242 


3,102 


521 


310 


211 


461 


275 


186 


426 


254 


171 


291 


202 


89 


276 


190 


86 


239 


169 


70 


625 


260 


365 


584 


243 


341 


534 


220 


314 


218 


130 


88 


200 


120 


80 


167 


101 


66 


142 


69 


73 


132 


64 


68 


109 


54 


65 


375 


217 


158 


345 


200 


145 


292 


168 


124 


1,767 


923 


844 


1,359 


699 


660 


1,106 


572 


633 


98 


61 


37 


87 


55 


32 


73 


46 


28 


633 


324 


309 


546 


284 


262 


446 


229 


217 


125 


61 


64 


113 


56 


57 


97 


48 


49 


443 


233 


210 


382 


205 


177 


305 


161 


144 


65 


30 


35 


51 


23 


28 


44 


20 


24 



ABILITY TO BEAD UPS AND MEANS OP COMMtmiCATION. 



Total 

Able to read lips 

Not able to read lips 

Not reporting as to ability to read lips 

Reporting as to means of communication 

Using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as— 

Speech, writing, finger spelling, and sign language 

Speech , writing, and finger spelling 

Speech, writing, and sign lai^:u«;e 

Speech, finger spelling, and sign bnguage 

Speech ana writing 

Speech and finger spelling 

Speech and sign language 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 

Not using speech as a means of communication 

Reporting means of communication as- 
Writing, finger spelling, and sign langnage 

Writing and finger spelUng 

Writing and sign language. 

Finger spelling and 

Writing only 

Finger spellmg only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous methods 

Reporting no meaos of communication 

Not reporting as to meaos of communication... 

Reporting themselves as able to speak 

Reporting themselves as unable to speak. . 
Not reporting as to ability to speak 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OB OVER FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 

RETURNED: 1910' — continued. 



White— Continued. 



Foreign-bom. 



Both 



1,745 



628 

1,072 

45 



1,645 



465 

276 
17 
22 

5 
90 

4 
12 
14 
26 

1,180 

680 
36 
37 
60 
33 
23 
63 

254 
14 

100 



Male. 



974 



326 

618 

30 



919 



240 

148 
9 

14 
3 

40 
2 
6 
7 

12 

679 

416 
21 
21 
23 
19 
10 
32 

127 
10 

55 



Female. 



771 



302 

454 

15 



726 



225 

128 
8 
8 
2 

50 
2 
7 
7 

13 

501 

264 
15 
16 
27 
14 
13 
21 

127 
4 

45 



Colored. 



Total. 



Both 
sexes. 



1,043 



294 

731 

18 



956 



114 

54 
« 
2 
4 
7 
2 
6 
16 
18 

842 

249 
60 
16 
41 
18 
10 
30 

408 
11 

87 



Male. 



Female. 



568 



154 

404 

10 



528 



64 

27 
3 
1 
2 
8 



3 

10 
13 

464 

138 

35 

12 

17 

10 

5 

17 

224 

6 

40 



475 



140 

327 

8 



428 



60 

27 
3 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
6 
5 

378 

111 

26 

3 

24 

8 
6 
13 
184 
6 



47 



Negro. 



Both 



983 



280 

686 

17 

903 



109 

53 
6 
2 

4 
6 
2 
5 
15 
16 

794 

241 
60 
15 
39 
17 
10 
29 

372 
11 



Male. 



Female. 



535 



144 

381 

10 



496 



61 

26 
3 
1 
2 
5 



3 
10 
11 

435 

133 

36 

12 

15 

9 

6 

17 

203 

6 

39 



448 



136 

305 

7 



407 



48 

27 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
6 
5 

350 

108 

25 

3 

24 

8 

5 

12 

169 

6 

41 



Other colored. 



Both 



60 



53 



Male. 



Female. 



33 



I Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



27 



4 

22 

1 

21 

a 



19 
8 



1 

u 



GENERAL TABLES. 



163 



Table 27.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 
RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ABILITY TO READ LIPS, MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, AND AGE 
WHEN HEARING WAS LOST, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



ABILITY TO BEAD UPS AND MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 



Total 

Able to read lips 

Not able to read lips 

Not reporting as to ability to read lips 

Beporting as to means of communication 

Usine speech as a means of communication 

Beporting means of communication as— 

Speech, ^rriting, finger spelling, tmd sign language 

Speech, writing, and finger spelling 

Speech, writing, and sign langu^e 

Speech, finger spelling, and sigh language 

Speech and writing 

Speech and finger spelling 

Speech and sign language 

Speech and miscellaneous methods 

Speech only 

Not using speech as a means otconununicatian 

Bepwting means of communication as- 
Writing, finger spelling, and sign language 

Writing ana finger spelling 

Writing and sign language 

Finger spelling and dgn language 

Writing only 

Finger spellmg only 

Sign language only 

Miscellaneous methods 

Beporting no means of communication 

Not reporting as to means of communication 

Beporting themselves as able to speak 

Beporting themselves as unable to speak 

Not reporting as to ability to speak 



DEAP AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEAKS OF AGE OB OVEB FOB WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES 
WERE BETUBNED: 1910.' 



Total. 



17,000 



5,457 

11,154 

389 



16,367 



4,057 

2,880 

154 

100 

84 

463 

31 

53 

127 

165 

12,310 

8,273 
521 
291 
625 
218 
142 
375 

1,767 
98 



125 

443 

65 



Number whose deafness was- 



Congenital. 



6,466 



1,796 

4,498 

172 



6,190 10,177 



1,193 

834 
41 
37 
25 

13S 

9 

20 

39 

53 

4,997 

3,101 
237 
106 



71 
154 
921 

38 

276 



217 
23 



Acqulred.2 



Total. 



10,534 



3,661 

6,656 

217 



2,864 

2,046 

113 

63 

59 

328 

22 

33 

88 

112 

7,313 

5,172 
284 
185 
342 
132 

71 
221 
846 

60 

357 



226 
42 



At less than 
5 years of 



8,305 



2,699 

5,453 

153 



8,098 



2,091 

1,539 
81 
53 
45 
226 
18 
22 
47 
60 

6,007 

4,438 

233 

147 

275 

85 

54 

173 

567 

35 

207 



64 

135 

18 



At5to9 

years of 

age. 



1,543 



759 
764 



1,480 



627 

433 
24 

9 
10 
65 

4 
10 
30 
42 

853 

531 

38 

21 

50 

26 

7 

25 

150 

5 

63 



At 10 years 

of age or 

over. 



140 



34 

102 

4 



126 



117 

29 
8 
4 
5 
9 
3 
2 

56 
1 

14 



At age not 
reported. 



546 



169 

337 

40 



473 



137 

71 
5 
1 

4 
36 



1 

9 

10 

336 

174 
6 
13 
12 
13 
7 
21 
73 
19 

73 



8 
SO 
17 



1 Includes the small number whose age at enumeration was not reported. ' Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported, 

'bicludes those reported as having lost their hearing in infancy but without statement as to the exact age. 



164 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 28.— MALE AND FEMALE DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, AND OCCUPATION, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 





DEAJf AND DUMB 


POPTTLA.TION 10 YEAE3 OF AGE OE OTEE lOE WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDXJLE3 WEEK EETDENED: 1910.1 




Male. 


Female. 


OCCTTPATION. 


All 
classes. 


White. 


Colored. 


AU 
classes. 


White. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Native. 


For- 
eign- 
bom. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Other 
col- 
ored. 


Total. 


Native. 


For- 
eign- 
bom. 


TotaL 


Negro. 


other 
col- 
ored. 


Total 


9,328 


8,760 


7,786 


974 


568 


535 


33 


7,672 


7,197 


6,426 


771 


475 


448 


27 


Ga>intully employed 


5,659 


5,320 


4,667 


653 


339 


325 


14 


1,213 


1,039 


858 


181 


174 


170 


4 






In agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries. . 


2,083 


1,903 


1,749 


154 


180 


171 


9 


163 


103 


93 


10 


60 


59 


1 


T'fvnners (iTHchidi^p d^^^lTy fpTTTOPrp) , . . 


836 

29 

20 

452 

684 

15 
15 
15 
17 

51 


807 

29 

18 

393 

591 

14 
15 
15 
16 

51 


743 

28 

16 

366 

541 

12 
15 
12 
16 

39 


64 
1 
2 

32 

50 

2 


29 


27 


2 


48 
2 


45 
2 


39 
2 


6 


3 


2 


1 








2 

54 
93 

1 


90 


2 
1 
3 

1 










A^icultural laborers (home farm) 


57 
51 


33 
18 


31 
16 


2 
2 


24 
33 


24 
33 




AB other and not s})ecified agriculturs^ laborers 

Foresters, lumbermen and raftsmen, and wood- 




Fishermen and oystermen 

















Gardeners (not otherwise specified) 


3 

12 






















All others 


1 


1 




5 


5 


5 










































Coal-mino workers 


34 
5 
5 
7 

2,547 


34 
5 
5 
7 

2,495 


26 
5 
2 
6 

2,098 


8 














































3 

1 

397 






















AH others 






















In manufacturing and mechanical pursuits and building 
and hand trades 


52 


50 


2 


520 


509 


400 


109 


11 


9 


2 








76 
20 
6 
14 
20 
16 

208 
142 


75 
19 
6 
14 
20 
16 

206 
142 


61 
16 
5 
11 
15 
14 

129 
89 


14 
3 

1 
3 
5 
2 

77 
53 


1 

1 


1 
1 




1 


1 


1 










Brick and tile makers 










Pottery workers 




1 


1 


1 


























Marble and stone cutters 














































2 


2 




302 
24 

124 
93 
17 
23 
8 
13 

8 


293 
24 

122 
87 
17 
22 
8 
13 

8 


225 
14 
94 
70 
16 
17 
8 
6 

6 


68 
10 
28 
17 
1 
5 


9 


8 


1 


Taifors 




Dressmakers 








2 
6 


3 

6 




Seamstresses 


















Shirt, collar, and cufl makers 


10 

19 

1 

36 

85 

38 

5 

42 

243 

29 

65 

6 

13 

130 

374 

104 

216 

30 

15 

9 

315 
7 
18 
83 
16 
11 
31 
84 
65 

68 
19 
18 
31 

27 

6 

21 


10 

19 

1 

34 

84 

37 

5 

42 

240 

27 

65 

6 

13 

129 

366 

102 

211 

30 

14 

9 

298 
7 
18 
83 
16 
11 
30 
70 
63 

63 
19 
IS 
31 

27 

6 

21 


5 
12 

1 
22 

78 

35 

4 

39 

202 

23 

56 

6 

12 

105 

310 
87 

177 

27 

12 

7 

258 
6 
17 
70 
13 
9 
26 
63 
54 

61 
17 
15 
29 

21 

4 
17 


5 
7 










Garment workers (not otherwise specified) 








1 




1 


Milliners 










All others 


12 

6 
2 
1 
3 

38 

4 

9 


2 

1 
1 


2 

1 

1 




7 
2 








Food and kindred product industries 








Bakers 








Flour-mill and gristmill workers 


















All others 








8 
2 


8 
2 


6 
2 


2 








Iron and steel industries 


3 
2 


3 
2 










Blast-tumdce and rolling-mill workers (including 
tin-plate factory workers) 










Foundry and metol-working establishment work- 
ers 












W 






Wire-mill workers 






















Iron and steel workers (not otherwise specified).. 


1 
24 

56 

15 

34 

3 

2 

2 

40 
1 
1 

13 
3 
2 
4 
7 
9 

7 
2 
3 
2 

6 
2 
4 






















All others 


1 

8 
2 
5 


1 

8 
2 
5 




2 

25 

20 

2 


2 

2-1 

20 

2 


2 

19 
17 

1 












5 
3 

1 


1 




1 


Boot and shoe factory workers 


Custom work and repairing on boots and shoes. . . 








Bioness and saddle makers and repairers 










1 


1 




2 

1 

10 
2 
1 


1 
1 

10 
2 

1 


i' 

10 
2 

1 


1 


1 




1 


AU others 


Tdimt'e'' iiidnfJtriBa 


17 


16 


1 










Basket makers, willow workers, etc 










Wooden-box makers 
















Cabinet workers 
















Wood polishers and gilders 








■■ i 


1 


1 










Wood carvers 
















Furniture workers (not elsewhere classified) 


1 
14 
2 


1 

13 
2 


i' 


3 


3 


3 










Lumber-mill workers 










All others 


3 

8 

1 
1 
6 

13 
10 
3 


3 

8 
1 
1 
6 

13 
10 
3 


3 

8 
1 
1 
6 

10 
8 
2 










Metal Industries other than iron and steel 










Clock and watch makers and repairers 
















Jewelry workers 
















Paper industries 

Paper-box makers 

All others 









3 
2 
1 




z. 






1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



165 



Table 28 —MALE AND FEMALE DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, AND OCCUPATION, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAT AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEAKS OF AOE OE OVEB FOB WHOM SPEOAI. SCHEDULES WEEE EBTUENED: 1910.> 




Male. 


Female. 


OCCUPATION. 


All 
classes. 


White. 


Colored. 


All 
classes. 


White. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Native. 


For- 
eign- 
bom. 


Total. 


Negro. 


other 
col- 
ored. 


Total. 


Native. 


For- 
eign- 
bom. 


TotaL 


Negro. 


other 
col- 
ored. 


In manufacttiring and mechanical pursuits and building 
and hand trades— Continued. 


30S 
266 

la 

20 
9 

99 

41 

13 

1 

11 

IS 

9 

5 

i 

211 
16 
14 
82 
11 
88 

446 

32 

187 

15 

17 

7 

139 

6 

7 

8 

11 

10 

7 

87 
47 
29 
11 

89 


306 

264 

13 

20 

9 

99 

41 

13 

1 

11 

15 

9 

5 

4 

203 
16 
14 
79 
11 
83 

438 

31 

184 

IS 

17 

7 

136 

6 

7 

8 

10 

10 

7 

85 
47 
27 
11 

77 


273 
244 

9 
16 

9 

74 

28 

13 

1 

10 
8 
8 
4 
2 

165 
10 
11 
62 
11 
71 

391 

30 

165 

14 

18 

5 

121 

6 

7 

7 

9 

6 

5 

70 
36 
24 
10 

65 


28 

20 

4 

4 


2 
2 


2 
2 




16 
4 


16 
4 


15 
4 


1 


































10 
2 

93 

27 

28 

16 

7 

4 

S 

1 

5 

25 


10 
2 

93 

27 

28 

16 

7 

4 

S 

1 

5 

24 


9 
2 

71 

20 

24 

15 

6 

2 

2 

2 

20 


1 
























25 
13 








22 
7 
4 
1 
1 
2 
3 
1 
3 

4 






















































1 

7 
1 
1 
2 

38 
6 
3 

17 


































, 








Textile-mill operatives (not otherwise specified).. 


























Mi^pellaneous manufacturing industries ■• 


8 


7 


1 


1 


1 
































3 


3 




13 


13 


11 


2 
















All others 


12 

47 
1 

19 
1 
1 
2 

15 


5 

8 
1 
3 


4 

8 
1 
3 


1 


12 
8 


U 
8 


9 
6 


2 
2 


1 


1 


































































































3 


3 




2 


2 


2 














































1 
1 
4 
2 

15 
11 
3 

1 

12 
























1 


1 






















1 
5 

9 


1 

5 

9 


1 
3 

7 


















2 
2 








Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits not classifi- 


2 


2 


















Factory workers (not otherwise specified) 


2 


2 




8 

1 

2 


8 

1 

2 


6 

1 

2 


2 














In transportation ^ 


12 


12 














7 

IS 
IS 

47 
35 
12 

15 

11 

4 

6 
149 


7 

14 
14 

39 

30 

9 

12 
9 
3 

6 
139 


7 

11 
11 

31 

23 

8 

11 
9 
2 

5 
127 












r — 












Construction and maintenance of roads, streets, sew- 


3 
3 

8 
7 
1 

1 

i' 


1 
1 

8 
5 
3 

3 
2 
1 


1 
1 

8 
5 
3 

3 
2 
1 






















































Drivers, draymen, teamsters, and expressmen 




























































































2 
21 


2 
21 


2 
19 










In trade 


12 


10 


9 


1 


2 








Canvassers and agents (not elsewhere classified) 


31 
7 
29 
9 
18 
20 
35 

19 


31 
7 
29 
9 
17 
12 
34 

15 


29 
7 
27 
7 
16 
10 
31 

14 


2 








13 


13 


13 

























Merchants and dealers, retail 


2 
2 

1 
2 
3 

1 




i 




2 

1 
3 


2 
1 
3 


1 

1 
2 


1 








Hucksters and peddlers 

Salesmen and saleswomen fin stores) 

Laborers (including porters and helpers in stores) 


1 
8 
1 

4 


1 
7 
1 

4 


i' 


1 








i 2 
1 


2 
1 


2 
1 










In public service (not elsewhere classified) 










Laborers 


U 
8 

113 


8 
1 7 

112 


7 
7 

107 


1 
5 


3 
1 

1 


3 

1 

1 


















All others 

In professional service 




28 


27 


25 


2 


1 


1 




Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc 

Artists, sculptors, and teachers of art 


12 
20 
7 
8 
54 
12 


12 
20 
7 
8 
54 
U 


10 
19 
7 
7 
54 
10 


2 

1 








1 
3 


1 
3 


1 
3 










Photograpliers -•--, iv c 

Professors, school principals, and teachers 

All others 


1 

i 


i' 


i 




3 

19 

2 


3 
19 

1 


3 
17 

1 


2 


i 


i 








' 



' Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



166 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 28.— MALE AND FEMALE DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO RACE, NATIVITY, AND OCCUPATION, FOR THE 
UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 





DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEAB3 OP AGE OB OVER FOR WHOM SPECLAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 


1«10.> 




Male. 


Female. 


OCCUPATION. 


All 
classes. 


White. 


Colored. 


All 
classes. 


White. 


Colored. 




Total. 


Native. 


For- 
eign- 
bom. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Other 
col- 
ored. 


Total. 


Native. 


For- 
eign- 
bom. 


Total. 


Negro. 


Other 
col- 
ored. 


In domestic and personal service 


188 


146 


130 


16 


42 


42 




450 


348 


295 


53 


102 


101 


1 








55 


52 


50 


2 


3 


3 






















8 

46 

249 

2 


8 

45 

203 

2 


8 

41 

175 

2 












■ 1 
46 
30 
13 
2 
11 
30 

75 


1 

27 

28 

7 

2 

7 

22 

74 


1 

24 

22 

6 

2 

6 

19 

66 










4 
28 


1 
46 


i 

46 




Servants &ot includiig waiters) 


3 
6 

1 


19 
2 
6 


19 
2 
6 






Janitors and sextons 




Doorkeepers, porters (not in stores) , watchmen, etc . . . 
Launderers and laundresses (not in laundries) 












123 


68 


52 


16 


55 


54 


1 




1 
3 

8 


4 
8 

1 


4 
8 

1 










22 
21 


22 
21 


17 
18 


5 
3 








In occupations not peculiar to any one industry or service 

KTOUD. .. ..... 
















Accountants, auditors, boolckeepers, and cashiers 

Clerks (other than salesmen and saleswomen) 

Electricians and their assistants ..... 


6 
35 
11 
10 
13 

345 


6 
35 
11 
10 
12 

308 


5 
30 
10 
10 
11 

272 


1 
5 

1 








6 
9 


6 
9 


6 
6 
















3 




















Engineers and firemen (other than locomotive) 

Allothers.... 






















1 

36 


1 
37 


1 
35 


2 


6 
7 


6 

7 


6 
5 












2 
















Laborers (not otherwise specified). . 


340 
5 

3,669 


303 
5 

3,440 


269 
3 

3,119 


34 
2 

321 


37 


35 


2 


7 


7 


5 


2 








Allothers 










229 


210 


19 


6,459 


6,158 


5,568 


590 


301 


278 


23 






T'lvinff OTi own incomft 


76 
3,593 


73 
3,367 


66 
3,053 


7 
314 


3 

226 


1 
209 


2 

17 


64 
6,395 


62 
6,096 


55 
5,513 


7 
583 


2 

299 


■■■278' 


2 


Allothers 


21 







1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



167 



Table 29.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OP AGE OR OVER GAINFULLY EMPLOYED FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SEX, OCCUPATION, ABILITY FOR SELF-SUPPORT, 
DEPENDENCE ON OCCUPATION, AND ANNUAL EARNINGS, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 





deat and dx7mb population 10 tears op age ob over gainpullt employed por whom special schedules were 

returned: 1910.1 




Total. 


Sell- 
sup- 
port- 
ing. 


Not 
seU- 
sup- 
port- 
ing. 


Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
abil- 
ity 
tor 
self- 
sup- 
port. 


De- 
pend- 
ent 
on 
occu- 
pation 

for 
living. 


Not 
de- 
pend- 
ent 
on 
occu- 

flm 
for 
Uv- 
ing. 


Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
de- 
pend- 
ence 
on 
occu- 

tion. 


Reporting annual earnings from occupation of— 


Not 
re- 


OCCUPATION AND SEX. 


IjCSS 

than 
<100 


$100 
but 
less 
than 
$200 


S200 
but 
less 

than 
$300 


$300 
but 
less 
than 
$400 


$400 
but 
less 

than 
$500 


$500 
but 
less 
than 
$600 


$600 
but 
less 
than 
$800 


$800 
but 
less 
than 
$1,000 


$1,000 
but 
leS 
than 
$1,200 


$1,M0 
but 
less 
than 
$1,500 


$1,500 

or 
over. 


port- 
ing 
an- 
nual 
earn- 
ings 
from 
occa- 

tion. 


Ail occupations: 

Aeereeato . 


6,872 


5,139 


1,382 


351 


5,458 


1,067 


347 


617 


717 


617 


634 


516 


509 


681 


311 


138 


58 


66 


2,008 






Male 


5,659 
1,213 


4,386 
753 


983 
399 


290 
61 


4,640 
818 


730 
337 


289 
58 


375 
242 


531 
186 


486 
131 


517 
117 


455 
61 


477 
32 


665 
16 


303 
8 


137 
1 


58 


65 
1 


1,590 


Female 


418 






In agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and 


2,246 


1,583 


516 


147 


1,728 


376 


142 


273 


318 


217 


163 


51 


83 


47 


27 


28 


9 


20 


1,010 






Fanners ( including dairy fanners) 


884 
31 
20 

509 

735 

15 
15 
15 
22 

51 


734 
25 
14 

244 

521 

10 

9 

11 

15 

40 


114 
4 
4 

202 

174 

4 
6 
3 

5 

9 


36 
2 
2 

63 

40 

1 
...... 

2 
2 


775 
21 
18 

247 

618 

13 
12 
11 
13 

44 


63 

I 
206 

81 

""2 

3 

8 

6 


41 
3 
1 

56 

36 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 


65 
2 

1 
80 

120 

1 

""■4" 

1 


102 

1 

4 

56 

149 

2 
2 
1 
1 

4 


70 
5 
2 

28 

98 

4 
4 
2 
4 

6 


83 
3 

"u 

57 

3 
1 


29 
1 
1 
4 

15 

1 


68 

1 


32 
3 


20 

2 


23 8 


18 
2 


366 


Tnick farmers, fruit growers, florists, etc 

Stock raisers, herders, drovers, and feeders... . 


11 


1 


1 


10 


3 
5 


1 
9 


1 
1 


324 


Au other and not specified agricultural 


3 
1 






278 


Foresters, lumbermen and raftsmen, and 
woodchoDDers 






3 


VinhArmATi nnH nvstArmnTi 


2 
2 
2 

3 


1 

1 

4 








5 




2 

1 

2 








7 


AU others 


4 
7 


8 








6 


Tn A-rt.rar»tinn nf mlTiArals 


2 






14 












34 
5 
5 

7 

3,067 


25 
5 
4 
6 

2,460 


8 


1 


30 
5 
4 
5 

2,520 


3 


1 


1 


2 
1 


5 

"i' 


6 

1 


5 


3 


2 
1 


2 








8 




2 










1 
481 


...... 

126 


1 
2 

412 






2 
1 

357 








2 


All others . . 






1 
166 


358 


1 
518 










4 


In manufacturing and mechanical pursuits and 


135 


123 


254 


337 


226 


76 


30 


18 


604 






Clay^ glass, and stone product industries 


77 
20 
7 
14 
20 
16 

610 

166 

124 

93 

27 

42 

9 

49 

93 

38 

S 

50 

245 

29 

65 
6 

13 
132 

399 
124 

218 
30 
17 
10 

325 
9 
19 
83 
17 
11 

34 
84 
68 

76 
20 
19 
37 

40 
16 
24 


61 
13 
5 
12 
19 
12 

361 
147 
72 
45 
19 
37 
6 
35 

77 

29 

3 

45 

226 

23 

63 
5 

12 
123 

296 
103 

151 

21 

15 

6 

274 
6 
14 
77 
15 
10 

26 
72 
65 

67 
18 
14 
35 

33 
11 
22 


12 

6 

2 

2 

....„ 

128 

19 

40 

46 

8 

t 
10 

13 

7 
2 
4 

10 

3 

...... 

....„ 

83 
17 

53 
7 
2 

4 

39 
3 
3 
3 
2 

8 

8 

12 

4 
...„. 

2 

4 
3 
1 


4 
2 

...... 

1 
21 

"n 

2 
""3 

3 

2 

...... 

9 
3 
2 

1 
3 

20 

4 

14 
2 

12 
1 
2 
3 

■"i" 

...„. 

1 

5 
2 
3 

3 
2 
1 


70 
18 
6 
14 
18 
14 

350 
140 
64 
49 
20 
33 
7 
37 

75 

29 

4 

4L 

224 

26 

63 
S 

12 
118 

330 
105 

175 

25 

16 

9 

282 
8 
12 
78 
15 
10 

26 
74 
69 

68 
17 
16 
35 

31 
11 

20 


5 
2 
1 


2 


1 
1 


5 
2 
2 

1 


5 

3 

..... 

1 


17 
6 
1 
3 
2 
5 

52 
14 
10 
12 
3 
7 


6 

"i' 

1 
4 

45 
21 
9 
6 
2 
4 


11 
3 

1 
2 
1 
4 

45 
23 
7 
2 
3 
6 
2 
2 

13 

4 


7 

1 


10 

1 


1 


1 


1 
1 


12 
2 








3 








2 
3 

1 

56 
37 

1 


1 
7 
1 

25 
19 


1 






a 




1 
1 

133 

22 

48 

40 

7 

5 

2 

9 

14 

7 

...... 

13 

1 

2 
1 

1 
8 

47 
13 

29 
3 

1 
1 

30 
1 
5 
2 
2 

7 
7 
6 

3 

1 

....„ 

4 
2 
2 


1 
1 

27 
4 

12 

4 

....„ 




1 




4 








1 




41 

1 

13 

21 

3 

1 


41 
3 
13 
12 
3 
3 
3 
4 

6 
3 
1 
2 

2 

1 

1 


51 
9 
13 
10 
7 
6 
1 
5 

11 
8 

1 
2 

11 

1 

4 

1 


9 
8 


6 
3 


1 
1 


139 


Tai^rs 


27 




58 












30 




3 
3 

1 
11 

16 
4 

1 
11 

69 

10 

25 
2 

2 
30 

50 
28 

15 
4 
1 
2 

66 










3 


Garment workers (not otherwise specified) 

UTillfTIAT^ 


3 


1 






8 






2 




3 

4 
2 

1 
1 

8 

2 


2 

1 

..... 

3 

1 


6 

11 
3 
1 

7 

13 

1 

3 

1 

1 
7 

40 
11 

23 
...„ 

3 

27 

1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

3 
11 

7 

11 
3 
3 
5 

7 
2 
'6 


3 

9 
5 


3 

8 
5 

1 
2 

27 


1 


2 




11 




17 








6 














4 

40 

6 

9 

4 
21 

47 
21 

11 

7 
8 


9 

49 

6 

10 

1 

4 
28 

42 
16 

21 
4 

1 


1 
3 






11 




1 


1 


26 


Blast-furnace and rolling-mill workeis 

(including tin-plate factory workers) . . . 

Foundry and metal-working establish- 


4 


9 






1 


2 








1 


Zron and steel workers (not otherwise 








1 
17 

21 
6 

13 
2 








1 


All others 


6 

22 
6 

14 
2 


2 

15 
2 

11 

1 
1 


31 

7 

20 
3 
1 


5 

30 
10 

17 

1 

"2 

27 

1 
3 
2 

1 


3 

13 
2 

10 


1 
2 


1 


18 


Leather industries 


107 




21 


Custom work and repairing on boots and 
shoes 


2 


1 


74 


Harness and saddle makeis and repairers. 










2 


All /vthara 


29 


1 
7 






a 




13 
....„ 

3 


14 
2 
1 
2 


20 
2 
1 
2 


60 
1 
8 
5 
3 

9 
9 
16 

4 

1 

...„ 

9 
3 
6 


42 

1 
1 
16 
1 
2 

4 

12 

S 

11 
3 
1 

7 

3 
1 
2 






43 


Basket makers, willow workers, etc 






1 


2 

25 

6 

5 

3 
H 
14 

21 
7 
2 

12 

10 
3 

7 










a 




16 
3 

1 


4 






10 








2 




I 

1 
3 
3 

5 
2 
3 












2 


Furniture workers (not elsewhere classi- 
fied) 


2 
4 
3 


6 
6 
3 

1 


3 
12 
5 

4 
1 
1 
2 

4 
4 








4 

16 
7 


Lumber-mill workers 

All nth Am 


7 

7 
1 
6 
1 


2 

2 

1 






Metal industries other than iron and steel. . . . 
Clock and watch makers and repaiieis.... 




2 


13 
3 








2 


5 


All nthATR 




1 

3 
2 
1 


1 

1 




5 




5 
3 
2 








3 








1 


Alfothers 




i 






2 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



168 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 29 —DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OYER GAINFULLY EMPLOYED FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SEX, OCCUPATION, ABILITY FOR SELF-SUPPORT, 
DEPENDENCE ON OCCUPATION, AND ANNUAL EARNINGS, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Con. 





deaf and dumb population 10 teaes op xcts ok ovee gainfully employed fok whom special schedules were 

eetitrned: imo.i 




Total. 


SeU- 
sup- 
port- 
mg. 


Not 
self- 
sup- 
port- 
ing. 


Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
abil- 
ity 
for 
self- 
sup- 
port. 


De- 
pend- 
ent 
on 
occu- 
pation 

for 
living. 


Not 
de- 
pend- 
ent 
on 
occu- 

tion 
for 
liv- 
ing. 


Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
de- 
pend- 
ence 
on 
occu- 

tion. 


Reporting annual earnings from occupation of— 


Not 
re- 


OCCUPATION AND SEX. 


Less 
than 
$100 


SlOO 
but 
less 
than 
$200 


$200 
but 
less 
than 
$300 


$300 
but 
less 
than 
$400 


$400 
but 
less 
than 
$500 


$500 
but 
less 
than 
$600 


$600 
but 
less 

than 
$800 


$800 
but 
less 
than 
$1,000 


$1,000 
but 
less 
than 
$1,200 


$1,200 
but 
less 
than 
$1,500 


$1,500 

or 
over. 


port- 
ing 
an- 
nual 
earn- 
ings 
from 
occu- 


In manufacturing and mechanical pursuits and 
bnilding and hand trades— Continued. 


324 

270 

13 

30 

11 

192 
68 
41 
17 
18 
19 
14 

6 
9 

236 
16 
14 
95 
11 

100 

454 

32 

187 

15 

17 

7 

141 

6 

7 

8 

11 

11 

12 

96 
47 
37 
12 

91 


269 

226 

12 

22 

9 

150 
58 
31 
10 
14 
17 
11 

6 
3 

196 
13 
11 
75 
10 
87 

368 

28 

155 

12 

11 

6 

111 

5 

4 

7 

10 

10 

9 

82 
42 
30 
10 

70 


44 

36 

....„ 

2 

35 
8 
6 
7 
3 
2 
3 


11 

8 
1 
2 

7 
2 
4 

'"'i' 


263 

219 

12 

24 

8 

156 
59 
32 
10 
14 
17 
12 

6 
6 

196 
14 
12 
74 
11 
85 

391 

25 

162 

13 

15 

6 

125 

5 

5 

7 

9 

10 

9 

84 
44 
30 
10 

76 


50 
42 

"'h' 
2 

29 
5 
7 
7 
3 
2 
2 


11 

9 

1 


6 

4 


10 
9 


16 
14 


29 

22 


32 
29 


44 

33 

1 

7 

3 

11 
3 
1 
1 

1 
2 

1 
2 

29 
3 
3 

11 
1 

11 

44 
3 

22 
2 

1 
3 
11 


66 
58 

2 

6 

12 

4 

1 

■3' 

1 
1 

1 
1 

43 
3 
2 

14 
3 

21 

88 
3 

34 
3 
3 
1 

28 
3 


36 

30 

1 

4 

1 

3 

1 


22 
18 
4 


11 
9 

1 
1 


8 
6 
2 


44 


Printers, lithographers, and pressmen 

Ensravers .... .' 


38 
2 








2 

31 

14 

11 

..... 

1 
1 


5 

2 

44 
13 
13 
3 
2 
6 
6 

1 


2 

1 

24 

14 

3 

'"2 
3 

1 

1 


3 


All others 


1 

7 
4 
2 

"'i' 


2 

18 
5 

I 

1 


1 

9 
3 
2 
1 
1 


1 










40 










11 


Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 








8 


1 








5 










5 


Woolen and worsted mill operatives 

All nthftr textile-mill oTieratives 


1 








5 




2 


1 








2 


Textile-mill operatives (not otherwise 
specified) 










2 


All other textiifi workers 


6 

31 
3 
3 

14 

1 
10 

70 
3 

26 
2 
5 
1 

24 
1 
3 
1 
1 
...... 

8 

4 
3 

1 

18 


9 

""6 

""3 

16 
1 
6 
1 
1 
....„ 

...... 

6 

1 
4 
1 

3 


3 

31 
2 
2 

16 


9 


2 
4 


1 

12 
1 
2 
5 


1 

23 
2 

"ii 










2 


Miscellaneoiis manufacturing industries 


32 
3 
3 

12 


29 
2 

1 
9 


19 


4 


1 


1 


39 
2 








1 

7 
4 
7 

23 


1 
2 






1 


Tobacco and cicrar workers . 


5 


1 




1 


19 




3 


Allothers 


11 

47 
6 

19 
1 
1 
1 

11 

1 

2 

...... 

1 
2 

6 
2 
3 

1 

14 


4 

16 

1 
6 
1 

1 


3 

20 
1 
8 
2 
1 
1 
5 


4 

24 
3 
9 

1 
1 


7 

35 
6 
13 


14 

47 

3 

22 


17 

50 
3 

18 
5 

1 


1 
11 


1 
7 


2 


14 


Building, mechanical, and hand trades 


103 
10 


Camenters . 


14 

1 


4 


3 


1 


39 




1 


Masons Cstone and brick^. 


1 


1 


2 






6 


Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 






2 


6 


13 


12 
2 

1 
2 
1 
2 
1 

7 
2 

4 
1 

16 


18 


7 


3 


2 




36 




1 


Plasterers 7. 






2 

1 


1 


1 

1 




1 




1 

1 






Tinsmiths and connersmiths 


1 




1 


1 
7 
3 
2 

14 

10 

3 

1 

10 




1 








3 


laborers 










3 

12 
8 
4 

13 


..... 

14 
8 
4 
2 

7 


18 
9 
6 
3 

3 


1 
1 

2 
2 






2 


All others 


1 

6 
1 
4 
1 

1 


2 


1 
2 


1 
6 


2 
1 
1 


1 

1 
1 


2 


Hanufocturing and mechanical pursuits not 


18 


Machinists (not otherwise specified) 


6 


Factory workers (not otherwise specified) . 
Allothers 




2 


5 
1 

10 


8 

4 




7 


8 


1 




1 


15 






Water transnortation .. 


7 

15 
15 

47 

35 

12 

15 
11 

4 

7 
170 


4 

12 
12 

37 

29 
8 

11 
8 
3 

6 
118 


2 

3 
3 

10 

6 

4 

i 
1 

1 

1 

43 


1 

2 
2 

9 


5 

15 
15 

39 

29 
10 

13 

10 

3 

4 
123 


2 




1 


1 

1 
1 

3 

1 
2 

2 

1 

1 

1 
14 


2 
2 

7 

6 

1 


2 

5 
5 

6 

4 
2 

3 
3 


1 
1 

9 

7 
2 

3 
2 
1 


2 

1 
1 

3 

3 

1 
1 












1 


CJonstmction and maintenance of roads, 
streets, sewers, and bridges 


2 
2 

3 

2 
1 

3 
2 

1 

2 
14 


1 
1 

2 

2 








2 
















2 


Road, street, and bridge transportation 

Drivers, draymen, teamsters, and ex- 
nressmen - 


8 

6 
2 

1 
...... 

3 

34 


1 
1 


5 

4 

1 






1 

1 


8 






6 


Au others 






3 


Railwav transnortation. 










3 


Steam-railroad laborers 










2 


Other steam-railroad employees 










1 




13 


1 
16 


1 
10 




11 


1 
4 






1 




21 


10 


15 


2 


10 


43 






Canvassers and agents (not elsewhere classi- 
fied) 


44 

7 
31 
10 
21 

20 
37 

20 


26 
5 

29 
5 

14 

14 

25 

17 


16 

""2 
6 
6 

5 
10 

3 


2 

a 

....„ 

1 
2 


28 
5 

28 
6 

16 

16 
24 

19 


13 
...... 

4 
4 

2 
9 

1 


3 
2 

1 


11 


3 


1 


4 




4 


3 


1 

1 
4 


1 
1 
1 


...... 


1 
2 
5 


15 


Commercial travelers and sales agents 


3 




..... 


2 


1 


5 
4 
4 

2 
2 

1 


2 
2 
2 

3 

1 

2 




7 


3 


Hucksters and peddlers 


4 




1 

2 
4 


1 
4 


3 

2 
4 


4 

1 
3 

3 


1 

3 

7 

1 


1 

"3 

3 


1 

1 
3 

4 






1 


4 


Laborers (including porters and helpers in 






7 


All others 


1 
1 


1 

1 


1 


7 


In public service (not elsewhere classified) 


4 












11 
9 

141 


10 

7 

122 


1 
2 

15 


4 


11 
8 

114 










3 


1 


2 


1 


3 










1 


All others 


1 
23 








4 
16 


1 
14 


1 
12 


12 


8 




4 


4 


7 


9 


11 


6 


5 


30 


15 






Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc 


13 
23 
7 
11 
73 
14 


12 
17 
5 
9 
67 
13 


1 
4 
2 
2 
4 
2 


""2 
""2 


10 

11 

7 

9 

as 

12 


3 
10 






1 
1 


■■■3 


1 
1 
2 
2 
6 






5 
3 


3 






1 
3 
1 
1 
3 
4 


2 




2 


1 




1 
1 


1 
1 
1 

10 
1 


2 

2 

1 
7 


7 


Clergymen and other religious workers 




Photographers 


2 
6 
2 


""2 


1 
1 
1 


1 
2 
2 


1 
4 

1 


1 

19 
2 


1 

11 
1 


I 


Professors, school principals, and teachers — 
AU others 


6 


3 


3 
2 



> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



169 



Table 29.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER GAINFULLY EMPLOYED FOR WHOM SPECIAL 
SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO SEX, OCCUPATION, ABILITY FOR SELF-SUPPORT, 
DEPENDENCE ON OCCUPATION, AND ANNUAL EARNINGS, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Con. 





deaf and dvitb population 10 yeae3 of age or ovek oujutulhy employed pob whom special schedttles weeb 

eetubned: 1910.1 




Total. 


Self- 
sup- 
port- 
ing. 


Not 
self- 
sup- 
port- 
Ing. 


Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
abil- 
ity 
for 
self- 
sup- 
port. 


De- 
pend- 
ent 
on 
occu- 
pation 

for 
living. 


Not 
de- 
pend- 
ent 
on 

occu- 
py 
tion 
for 
liv- 
ing. 


Not 
re- 
port- 
ing 
as to 
de- 
pend- 
ence 
on 
occu- 

tion. 


Reporting annual earnings from occupation of— 


Not 
re- 


OCCUPATION AND SEX. • 


Less 
than 
$100 


SlOO 
but 
less 
than 
J200 


$200 
but 
less 
than 
$300 


$300 
but 
less 
than 
$400 


$400 
but 
less 
than 
$500 


$500 
but 
less 

than 
$600 


$600 
but 
less 
than 
$800 


$800 
but 
less 
than 
$1,000 


$1,000 

but 

less 

than 

$1,200 


$1,200 

but 

less 

than 

$1,500 


$1,500 

or 
over. 


port- 
ing 
an- 
nual 
earn- 
ings 
from 
ocou- 

tFon. 




638 


442 


169 


27 


490 


125 


23 


139 


134 


53 


43 


27 


16 


23 


8 


7 




3 


185 






Barbers and hairdressers 


55 

8 

47 

295 

32 

13 

125 
11 
52 

96 


50 

6 

43 

215 

25 

10 

48 

9 

36 

89 


5 
1 
2 
67 
6 

3 

72 

1 

12 

6 


...... 

2 
13 

1 

...... 

1 
4 

1 


52 

4 

33 

230 

25 

11 
85 
9 
41 

80 


3 
4 

10 

53 

5 

1 
37 

1 
11 

15 






4 


5 


5 

1 

5 

11 

7 

1 
10 

1 
2 

7 


4 


10 


8 


4 
1 


5 




2 
1 


8 


Boarding and lodging house keepers 


"■■■4" 

12 
2 

1 
3 

1 

1 


1 
9 

% 

"53' 
2 
5 


4 


Housekeepers and stewards " 


10 

78 

5 

3 
21 

2 
11 

2 


4 

23 
3 

1 
7 
3 

7 

4 


6 

? 

2 
2 










13 




1 
2 

2 


3 
3 

2 




1 
1 






109 


Janitors suid sextons . -~ 






2 


Doorkeepers, porters (not in stores), watch- 
meii, etc. 






2 


Launderers and laun(h'esses (not in laundries) . 






32 


Laborers in domestic and professional service . 














3 


All others 


4 
16 


1 
13 


7 
17 


3 

13 


5 


3 


' 2 


12 


In occupations not peculiar to any one industry 
or service ctoud . ... 


J4 






Acconntants, auditors, bookkeepers, and 
cashiers , 


12 
44 
11 

10 
19 

352 


11 
42 
10 

10 
IG 

198 


1 
2 


...... 


8 
38 
10 

9 

15 

264 


4 
6 

1 
4 

61 












2 
9 
1 

1 
3 

26 


2 
4 
1 

2 

4 

8 


1 
7 
5 

1 
3 

15 


3 
6 
3 

""2 

1 






1 
1 


3 


Clerks (other than salesmen and saleswomen). 








3 


2 


4 


3 


6 


F.lectriciftTiR ftnd their assiptfl-nts '. . 


1 






1 


Engineers and firemen (other than locomo- 






1 
51 


2 
3 

28 


1 






, 




3 ' 






2 
64 


2 




122 


32 


27 


54 




1 


104 








347 
5 


195 
3 


121 
1 


31 
1 


260 
4 


61 


26 
1 


54 


63 
1 


61 


28 


25 

1 


8 


14 

1 


1 




1 




102 


All others 


2 



















> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



170 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 30.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 

EARNINGS, AND EDUCATION, BY RACE, NATIVITY, 



BACE, NATTVITT, AND EDUCATION. 



DEAF AND DUMB POFDLATION 10 TEAES OF AGE OB OVEB FOB 'WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEBE 

betubned: iQio.i 



Total. 



Oalnfully employed. 



Total. 



Self- 
support- 
ing. 



Not 

seU- 

upport- 

Ing. 



Not 
reporting 
as to 
abiUty 
for self- 
support. 



Dependent 

on 
occupation 

for 
living. 



Not 
dei>endent 

on 
occupation 

living. 



Not 
reporting 

as to 
dependence 

on 
occupation. 



All classes 

Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school 

Not reporting as to education 

White 

Having attended school 

, Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school 

Not reporting as to education 

Native 

Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school 

Not reporting as to education 

Foreign-bom 

Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school 

Notreportmg as to education 

Colored 

Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school, 

Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school. 

Notieponmg as to education. 



17,000 



14,470 
14,161 

572 
13,589 

309 
2,294 

236 



15,957 



13,943 
13,655 

554 
13,101 

288 
1,794 

220 



14,212 



12,599 
12,350 

491 
11,859 

249 
1,441 

172 



1,745 



1,344 
1,305 

63 
1,242 

39 
353 

48 



1,043 



527 
506 

18 
488 

21 
600 

18 



6,872 



5,893 

6,785 

251 

5,534 

108 

890 



6,359 



5,668 

6,571 

240 

6,331 

97 

611 

80 



5,525 



6,012 

4,925 

210 

4,715 

87 

451 

62 



834 



656 
646 

30 
616 

10 
160 

18 



513 



225 
214 

11 
203 

11 

279 

9 



Both Sexes. 



5,139 



4,623 

4,437 

201 

4,236 

86 

554 

62 



4,8 



4,382 

4,302 

197 

4,105 

80 

392 

58 



4,133 



3,829 

3,756 

172 

3,584 

73 

260 

44 



553 
546 

25 

521 

7 

132 

14 



307 



141 
135 

4 
131 

6 
162 

4 



1,382 



1,075 

1,060 

44 

1,016 

15 

298 

9 



1,199 



1,003 

992 

37 

955 

11 

190 

6 



1,093 



919 

911 

32 

879 

8 

169 

5 



106 



183 



72 
68 

7 
61 

4 
108 

3 



351 



295 

288 

6 

282 

7 

38 

18 



328 



283 

277 

6 

271 

6 

29 

16 



299 



264 

258 

6 

262 

6 

22 

13 



19 



23 



5,458 



4,729 

4,643 

208 

4,435 

86 

663 

66 



5,070 



4,560 

4,481 

199 

4,282 

79 

451 

59 



4,390 



4,020 

3,947 

174 

3,773 

73 

326 

44 



680 



540 
534 

25 

509 

6 

126 

16 



388 



162 
9 

153 
7 

212 
7 



1,067 



871 
854 

33 
821 

17 

191 

5 



961 



822 
809 

32 
777 

13 

131 

5 



840 



731 
721 

27 
694 

10 

105 

4 



121 



106 



347 



288 
10 

278 

5 

36 

18 



328 



281 

9 

272 

5 

26 

16 



295 



261 

257 

. 9 

248 

4 

20 

14 



19 



1 Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



171 



RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ABILITY FOR SELF-SUPPORT, DEPENDENCE ON OCCUPATION, ANNUAL 
AND SEX, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910. 



DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AQE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE RETURNED: 1910' — Continued. 



Gainfully employed— Continued. 



Not gainfully employed. 



Less 
than 
$100. 



Beporting annual earnings from occupation of- 



SlOO 

but less 

than 

S200. 



1200 

but less 

than 

S300. 



$300 

but less 

than 

S400. 



$400 

but less 

than 

$500. 



$500 

but less 

than 

$600. 



$600 

but less 

than 

$800. 



$800 
but less 

than 
$1,000. 



$1,000 

but less 

than 

$1,200. 



$1,200 

but less 

than 

$1,500. 



$1,500 

or 
over. 



Not 
reporting 
annual 
earnings 
from 
occu- 
pation. 



Total. 



Living 
on 
own 

income. 



AU 

others. 



Both Sexes. 



617 


717 


617 


634 


516 


609 


681 


311 


138 


58 


66 


2,008 


10,128 


140 


9,988 


1 


411 

406 

12 

394 

5 

200 

6 


589 

582 

18 

564 

7 
121 

7 


533 

522 

17 

505 

11 

77 

» 


667 

■"tes 

22 

56 

11 


485 

480 

18 

462 

5 

27 

4 


481 

471 

25 

446 

10 

23 

6 


640 

632 

23 

609 

8 

34 

7 


298 

290 

26 

284 

8 

10 

3 


129 
127 
11 
116 
2 
6 
3 


55 
53 

7 
46 

2- 

2 

1 


61 

61 

9 

62 


1,644 
1,606 

63 
1,543 

38 
330 

34 


8,577 
8,376 

321 
8,055 

201 
1,404 

147 


116 
113 

5 
108 

3 
22 

2 


8,461 
8,283 

318 
7,947 

198 
1,382 

145 


2 
3 

4 
5 


4 
1 


7 
8 


466 


633 


581 


606 


502 


504 


67S 


310 


137 


58 


65 


1,822 


9,598 


136 


9,463 


9 


354 

354 

11 

343 


555 

548 

17 

531 

7 

74 

4 

569 


514 

504 

17 

487 

10 

61 

6 

498 


550 
539 
21 
518 
11 
46 
10 

619 


473 

468 

16 

452 

5 

26 

3 

422 


477 

467 

25 

442 

10 

22 

5 

427 


636 

628 

23 

605 

8 

32 

7 

560 


298 

290 

26 

264 

8 

9 

3 

259 


129 
127 
11 
116 
2 
5 
3 

113 


55 
63 
7 
46 
2 
2 
1 

50 


60 

60 

9 

61 


1,667 
1,533 

67 
1,476 

34 
224 

31 

1,624 


8,275 
8,084 

314 
7,770 

191 
1,183 

140 

8,687 


116 
112 

5 
107 

3 
18 

2 

121 


8,160 
7,972 

309 
7,663 

188 
1,165 

138 

8,566 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


106 
6 

427 


4 
1 

57 


15 
18 

17 


327 

327 

10 

317 


502 

496 

11 

485 

6 

63 

4 

64 


452 

442 

12 

430 

10 

41 

5 

83 


491 

480 

17 

463 

11 

23 

5 

87 


410 

407 

15 

392 

3 

11 

1 

80 


415 

405 

26 

380 

10 

9 

3 

77 


541 

533 

20 

513 

8 

14 

5 

115 


253 

248 

21 

227 

6 

4 

2 

51 


110 
108 
11 
97 
2 
1 
2 

24 


49 
47 

7 
40 

2 


54 

54 

9 

45 


1,408 
1,378 

62 
1,326 

30 
188 

28 

198 


7,587 
7^425 
281 
7,144 
162 
990 
110 

911 


103 

100 

3 

97 

3 

16 

2 

14 


7,484 
7,325 
278 
7,047 
159 
974 
108 

897 


18 
19 
20 
21 

m 


95 
5 

39 


2 

1 

8 


n 


1 
8 


24 
25 


27 

27 

1 

26 


63 
52 

6 
46 

1 
11 


62 

62 

5 

57 


59 

59 

4 

55 


63 
61 

1 
60 

2 
15 

2 

14 


62 
62 


95 
95 
3 
92 


45 
42 
5 
37 
3 
5 
1 

1 


19 
19 


6 
6 


6 
6 


159 
155 

5 
150 

4 
36 

3 

186 


688 
659 

33 
626 

29 
193 

30 

530 


12 

12 

2 

10 


876 
647 

31 
616 

29 
191 

30 

625 


26 
27 

?8 


62 


19 


6 


6 


29 
<)0 


11 

1 

151 


20 

1 

36 


23 

5 

28 


13 
2 

5 


18 
2 

6 


4 

1 

1 


2 


2 


2 


31 
3? 


84 




1 


5 


"n 






57 
52 

1 
51 

5 
94 


34 
34 

1 
33 


19 

18 


17 
16 

1 
15 

1 
10 

1 


12 

12 

2 

10 


4 
4 


4 
4 








1 
1 


77 
73 

6 
67 

4 
106 

3 


302 
292 

7 

285 

10 

221 

7 


1 
1 


301 
291 

7 

284 

10 

217 

7 


34 








S') 








36 


18 

1 
16 

1 


4 


4 








1 


1 


37 








38 


47 
3 


1 

1 


1 


2 


1 


1 






4 


39 






40 





















172 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 30.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 

EARNINGS, AND EDUCATION, BY RACE, NATIVITY, 



BACE, NATTTOtr, AND EDUCATION. 



deaf and duub population 10 teab3 of age ob oveb for whou specux schedules webe 

betubned: 1910.1 



Total. 



Gainfully employed. 



Total. 



SeU- 

support- 

ing. 



Not 
sell- 



ing. 



Not 
reporting 
as to 
ability 
for self- 
support. 



Dependent 

on 
occupation 

for 
living. 



Not 
dependent 

on 
occupation 

for 
living. 



Not 
reporting 

as to 
dependence 

on 
occupation. 



33 

34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 



All classes.. 



Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 

Not having attended school 

Not reporting as to education 



White. 



Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 

Not having attended school 

Not reporting as to education 



Native. 



Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 

Not having attended school 

Not reportmg as to education 



Foreign-bom 

Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 

Not having attended school 

Not reporting as to education 



Colored., 



Having attended school 

Having attended special school for the deaf 

Having attended other schools also 

Having attended no other school 

Not having attended special school for the deaf. 

Not having attended school 

Not reportmg as to education 



9,328 



8,017 
7,847 

313 
7,534 

170 
1,177 

134 



8,760 



7,724 
7,569 
302 
7,267 
155 
914 
122 



7,786 



6,964 

6,832 

275 

6,557 

132 

729 

93 



974 



760 
737 

27 
710 

23 
185 

29 



668 



293 
278 

11 
267 

15 
263 

12 



5,659 



4,942 

4,861 

200 

4,661 

81 

643 

74 



5,320 



4,787 

4,715 

193 

4,522 

72 

468 

65 



4,667 



4,264 

4,199 

176 

4,023 

65 

355 

48 



653 



523 
616 

17 

499 

7 

113 

17 



339 



155 
146 

7 
139 

9 
175 

9 



4,3 



3,905 

3,837 

171 

3,666 

68 

430 

51 



4,156 



3,795 

3,733 

167 

3,566 

62 

314 

47 



3,593 



3,342 

3,285 

150 

3,135 

57 

218 

33 



563 



453 

448 

17 

431 

6 

96 

14 



230 



110 

104 
4 

100 
6 

116 
4 



983 



780 

23 

757 

9 
185 

9 



753 

747 

20 

727 

6 
130 

6 



821 



698 

694 

20 

674 

4 

118 

5 



68 



94 



290 



3^S 

244 

6 

.238 

4 

28 

14 



275 



239 

235 

6 

229 

4 

24 

12 



253 



224 
220 
6 
214 
4 
19 
10 



22 



15 



15 



4,640 



4,089 

4,019 

171 

3,848 

70 

493 

58 



4,376 



3,966 

3,902 

166 

3,736 

64 

358 

51 



3,822 



3,519 

3,460 

150 

3,310 

59 

267 

36 



553 



447 

442 

16 

426 

5 

91 

15 



265 



123 
117 

5 
112 

6 
135 

7 



730 



605 

597 

19 

578 

8 
121 

4 



578 

573 

18 

555 

5 

87 

4 



597 



523 

519 

17 

502 

4 

71 

3 



72 



61 



289 



248 

245 

10 

235 

3 

29 

12 



276 



243 

240 

9 

231 

3 

23 

10 



248 



222 
220 

9 
211 

2 
17 

9 



28 



20 
1 
6 
1 



13 



^ Includes the small number who^e age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



173 



RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ABILITY FOR SELF-SUPPORT, DEPENDENCE ON OCCUPATION, ANNUAL 
AND SEX, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 1910— Continued. 



DEAF AOT) DUMB P0PT7LATI0N 10 TEAES OP AGE OE OVEK FOR 'WBOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WEBE EETXnSNED: 1910 I— Continued. 




Gainfully employed— Continued. 


Not gainfully employed. 




Reporting annual earnings from occupation of— 


Not 
reporting 
annual 
earnings 
from 
occu- 
pation. 


Total. 


Living 

on 

own 

income. 


All 
others. 




Less 
than 
$100. 


$100 

but less 

than 

$200. 


$200 

but Jess 

than 

$300. 


$300 

but less 

than 

$400. 


$400 

but less 
than 
$500. 


J500 

but less 

than 

$600. 


$600 

but less 

than 

$800. 


$800 

but less 

than 

$1,000. 


$1,000 

but less 

than 

$1,200. 


$1,200 

but less 

than 

$1,500. 


$1,500 

or 
over. 





375 


531 


486 


517 


455 


477 


665 


303 


137 


58 


65 


1,590 


3,669 


76 


3,593 


1 


258 
254 

8 
246 

4 
114 

3 


429 

425 

11 

414 

4 

96 

6 


420 

415 

13 

402 

5 

60 

6 


467 

458 

13 

445 

9 

41 

9 


427 

422 

14 

408 

5 

24 

4 


451 

442 

20 

422 

9 

21 

5 


626 

618 

23 

595 

8 

32 

7 


290 

282 

25 

257 

8 

10 

3 


128 
126 
11 
115 
2 
6 
3 


55 
53 
7 
46 
2 
2 
1 


60 

60 

9 

51 


1,331 
1,306 

46 
1,260 

25 
233 

26 


3,075 

2,986 

113 

2,873 

89 

534 

60 


66 
64 
1 
63 
2 
9 
1 


3,009 

2,922 

112 

2,810 

87 

525 

59 


2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


4 

1 


7 
8 


302 


470 


454 


493 


442 


473 


659 


302 


136 


58 


64 


1,467 


3,440 


73 


3,367 


9 


228 

228 

8 

220 


408 

404 

11 

393 

4 

S9 
3 

435 


403 

399 

13 

386 

4 

46 

6 

401 


451 

443 

12 

431 

8 

34 

8 

433 


416 

411 

12 

399 

S 

23 

3 

376 


448 

439 

20 

419 

9 

20 

5 

402 


622 

614 

23 

591 

8 

30 

7 

547 


290 

282 

25 

257 

,8 

9 

3 

252 


128 

126 

11 

116 

2 

5 

3 

112 


55 
53 
7 
46 
2 
2 
1 

60 


59 

59 

9 

50 


1,279 
1,257 

42 
1,215 

22 
165 

23 

1,322 


2,937 

2,854 

109 

2,745 

83 

446 

57 

3,119 


66 
64 
1 
63 
2 
6 
1 

66 


2,871 

2,790 

108 

2,682 

81 

440 

56 

3,053 


10 
11 
12 
13 

14 


71 
3 

281 


4 

1 

66 


15 
16 

17 


215 

215 

8 

207 


377 
373 

8 
365 

4 
55 

3 

35 


361 

357 

10 

347 

4 

36 

4 

53 


411 

403 

11 

392 

8 

19 

3 

60 


364 

361 

12 

349 

3 

11 

1 

66 


390 

381 

20 

361 

9 

9 

3 

71 


528 

520 

20 

600 

8 

14 

5 

112 


246 

241 

20 

221 

5 

4 

2 

SO 


109 

107 

11 

96 

2 

1 

2 

24 


49 
47 

7 
40 

2 


53 

63 

9 

44 


1,161 
1,141 

40 
1,101 

20 
140 

21 

145 


2,700 
2,633 

99 
2,534 

67 
374 

45 

321 


60 
58 
1 
57 
2 
5 
1 

7 


2,640 
2,575 

98 
2,477 

65 
369 

44 

314 


18 
19 
20 
21 
22 


64 
2 

21 


2 

1 

8 


?3 


1 
8 


24 
25 


13 
13 


31 

31 

3 

28 


42 

42 

3 

39 


40 
40 

1 
39 


52 
50 


58 
58 


94 

94 

3 

91 


44 
41 
5 
36 
3 
5 
1 

1 


19 
19 


6 
6 


6 
6 


118 
116 

2 
114 

2 
25 

2 

123 


237 
221 
10 
211 
16 
72 
12 

229 


6 
6 


231 
215 
10 
205 
16 
71 
12 

226 


26 
27 
28 


13 


50 
2 

12 
2 

13 


58 


19 


6 


6 


6 


29 
30 


7 
1 

73 


4 


10 

1 

32 


15 
5 

24 


11 
2 

4 


16 
2 

6 


4 

1 

1 


2 


2 


1 


31 
32 


61 




1 


3 


.13 






30 
26 


21 
21 


17 
16 


16 

15 

1 

14 

1 
7 

1 


11 
11 
2 
9 


3 

3 


4 

4 








1 

1 


52 
49 

4 
45 

3 
63 

3 


138 
132 

4 
128 

6 
88 

3 




138 
132 

4 
128 

6 
85 

3 


34 










35 










3fi 


26 

4 

43 


21 


16 

1 
14 

1 


3 


4 








1 




37 










38 


37 
3 


1 

1 


1 


2 


1 


1 






3 


34 






40 




1 


1 











174 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 80.— DEAF AND DUMB POPULATION 10 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 

EARNINGS, AND EDUCATION, BY RACE, NATIVITY, 





EACE, NATIVITT, AND EDUCATION. 


BEAT AND 


dumb population 10 years op age ob oveb for whom special schedules were 
returned: 1910.1 




Total. 


Gainfully employed. 




Total. 


Self- 

support- 

mg. 


Not 

self- 

support- 

•ing. 


Not 
reporting 
as to 
ability 
for self- 
support. 


Dependent 

on 
occupation 

for 
Uving. 


Not 
dependent 

on 

occupation 

for 

living. 


Not 
reporting 

as to 
dependence 

on 
occupation. 




Allclasses 


FEMALE. 


1 


7,672 


1,213 


753 


399 


61 


818 


337 


58 




TTftvine a-tttmUnii snhnol 


? 


6,453 
6,314 

259 
6,055 

139 
1,117 

102 


951 
924 

51 
873 

27 
247 

15 


618 
600 

30 
570 

18 
124 

11 


286 
280 
21 
259 
6 
113 


47 

44 


640 
624 

37 
687 

16 

170 

8 


266 

257 

14 

243 

9 

70 

1 


45 
43 


n 


Having attended special school for the deaf. - 


4 


Having attended other schools also 


5 


Having attended no other school 


44 
3 
10 

4 


43 
2 
7 
6 


6 
7 


Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school 


8 


Not leportlbg as to education 




White 




9 


7,197 


1,039 


676 


310 


S3 


695 


292 


62 




Having attended school 


in 


6,219 

6,086 

252 

5,834 

133 

880 

98 

6,426 


881 
856 

47 
809 

25 
143 

IS 

858 


587 
569 
30 
539 
18 
78 
11 

540 


250 
245 

17 

228 

5 

60 


44 
42 


594 

579 

33 

646 

15 

93 

8 

568 


244 

236 

14 

222 

8 

47 

1 

243 


43 
41 


11 


Having attended special school for the deaf 


n 


Having attended other schools also 


13 


Having attended no other school 


42 
2 
6 
4 

46 


41 
2 
3 
6 

47 


14 
15 


Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school 


Ifi 


Not reporting as to education 


17 


Native 


272 




Having attended school 


1R 


5,635 

5,518 

216 

5,302 

117 

712 

79 

771 


748 
726 
34 
692 
22 
96 
14 

181 


487 
471 
22 
449 
16 
42 
11 

136 


221 
217 

12 

206 

4 

51 


40 
38 


501 

487 

24 

463 

14 

59 

8 

127 


208 

202 

10 

192 

6 

34 

1 

49 


39 
37 


19 


Having attended special school for the deaf 


m 


Having attended other schools also 


n 


Having attended no other school 


38 
2 
3 
3 

7 


37 
2 
3 

5 

5 


22 


Not having attended special school for the deaf 

Not having attended school *. 


94 


Not reporting as to education 


?■> 




38 




Having attended school 


?fi 


584 
568 

36 
632 

16 
168 

19 

475 


133 

130 

13 

117 

3 

47 

1 

174 


100 
98 

8 
90 

2 
36 


29 

28 

5 

23 

1 

9 


4 
4 


93 

92 

9 

83 

1 

34 


36 
34 

4 
30 

2 
13 


4 

4 

" 4' 


77 


Having attended special school for the deaf 


m 


Having attended other schools also 


79 


Having attended no other school 


4 


m 


Not having attended special school for the deaf. 

Not having attended school 


31 


2 

1 

8 




3? 


Not reportmg as to education 


1 

6 


33 


Colored 


77 


89 


123 


45 




Having attended school 


31 


234 
228 

7 
221 

6 
237 

4 


70 
68 

4 
64 

2 
104 


31 
31 


36 
35 

4 
31 

1 
53 


3 
2 


46 
45 

4 
41 

1 
77 


22 
21 


2 
2 


3') 




3A 


Having attended other schools also 


37 


Having attended no other school 


31 


2 

1 
5 


21 

1 
23 


2 


38 


Not having attended special school for the deaf 


39 


-^ 


4 


40 


Not reportmg as to education 





















> Includes the small number whose age was not reported. 



GENERAL TABLES. 



175 



RETURNED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO ABILITY FOR SELF-SUPPORT, DEPENDENCE ON OCCUPATION, ANNUAL 
AND SEX, FOR THE UNITED STATES AS A WHOLE: 191(>-Continued. 



DEAT AND DUMB POPULATION 10 TEARS OP AGE OR OVER FOB 'WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES ■WERE RETURNED: 1910 ' — Continued. 



Gainfully employed— Continued. 



Not gainfully employed. 



Reporting annual earnings from occupation of- 



Less 
than 
SIOO. 



$100 

bnt less 

than 

S200. 



S200 

but less 

than 

$300. 



$300 

but less 

than 

$400. 



$400 


$500 


but less 


but less 


than 


than 


$500. 


$600. 



$600 

but less 

than 

$800. 



$800 

but less 

than 

$1,000. 



$1,000 

but less 

than 

$1,200. 



$1,200 

but less 

than 

$1,500. 



$1,500 

or 
over. 



Not 

reporting 

annual 

earnings 

from 

occu- 
pation. 



Total. 



Living 

on 

own 

Income. 



AU 
others. 



242 


186 


131 


117 


61 


32 


16 


8 


1 




1 


418 


6,459 


64 


6,395 


1 






153 
152 

4 

148 

1 

86 
3 


160 
157 

7 
150 

3 
25 

1 


113 
107 

4 
103 

6 
17 

1 


100 
97 

9 
88 

3 
15 

2 


58 

58 

4 

54 


30 

29 

5 

24 

1 
2 


' 14 


8 
8 
1 
7 


1 
1 




1 
1 


313 

300 

17 

283 

13 

97 

8 


6,502 

6,390 

208 

6,182 

112 

870 

87 


SO 
49 

4 
45 

1 
13 

1 


6,452 

5,341 

204 

6,137 

111 

867 

86 


71 




3 




4 


14 


1 




1 


n 




A 


3 


2 










7 










8 


















164 


163 


127 


.113 


60 


31 


16 


8 


1 




1 


355 


6,158 


62 


6,096 


9 






126 

126 

3 

123 

35" 

3 

146 


147 
144 

6 
138 

3 
15 

1 

134 


111 
105 

4 
101 

6 
IS 

1 

97 


99 
96 

9 
87 

3 
12 

2 

86 


57 

67 

4 

53 


29 

28 

5 

23 

1 
2 


14 
14 


8 
8 

1 
7 


1 

1 




1 
1 


288 

276 

15 

261 

12 

59 

8 

302 


5,338 

6,230 

205 

5,025 

108 

737 

83 

6,568 


49 
48 

4 
44 

1 
12 

1 

56 


6,289 

5,182 

201 

4,981 

107 

725 

82 

5,613 


in 




11 




12 


14 


1 




1 


13 




14 


3 


2 










IS 











16 


46 


25 


13 


7 


1 




1 


17 






112 

112 

2 

UO 


125 
123 
3 
120 
2 
8 
1 

29 


91 
85 
2 
83 
6 
5 
1 

30 


80 
77 
6 
71 
3 
4 
2 

27 


46 

46 

3 

43 


25 
24 

5 
19 

1 


13 
13 


7 
7 

1 
6 


1 
1 




1 
1 


247 

237 

12 

226 

10 

48 

7 

53 


4,887 

4,792 

182 

4,610 

95 

616 

65 

690 


43 

42 

2 

40 

1 
11 

1 

7 


4,844 

4,750 

180 

4,670 

94 

605 

64 

583 


18 




19 




20 


13 


1 




1 


21 




22 


31 
3 

18 














23 
















24 


14 


6 


3 


1 








25 










14 

14 

1 

13 


22 

21 

3 

18 

1 
7 


20 

20 

2 

18 


19 
19 
3 
16 


11 
11 

1 
10 


4 

4 


1 
1 


1 
1 








41 
39 

3 
36 

2 
11 

1 

63 


451 
438 

23 
416 

13 
121 

18 

301 


6 
6 
2 
4 


445 
432 

21 
411 

13 
120 

18 

299 


26 








27 








28 


4 


1 


1 








29 








30 


4 


10 


8 


3 


2 


2 










1 


31 










32 


78 


23 


4 


4 


1 


1 












2 


33 














27 

26 

1 

25 

1 
51 


13 

13 

1 

12 


2 
2 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 

1 












25 

24 

2 

22 

1 
38 


164 
160 

3 
157 

4 
133 

4 


1 
1 


163 
159 

3 
156 

4 
132 

4 


34 












35 












36 


2 


1 


1 


1 












1 


37 












38 


10 


2 


3 
















1 


39 
















40 































176 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Table 31.— POPULATION BOTH BLIND AND DEAF AND DUMB FOR WHOM SPECIAL SCHEDULES WERE 

RETURNED: 1910. 



CLASSraCATION. 



Total 

Male 

Female 

CLASSIFIED ACCOEDING TO EACB AND NATIVITY. 

White 

Male 

Female 

Native 

Male 

Female 

Foreign-bom 

Male 

Fem^e 

Negro 

Male 

Female 

CLASSIFIED ACCOEDINO TO AGE. 

Under 5 years 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years 

15 to 19 years 

20 to 24 years 

25 to 34 years : . . 

35 to 44 years , 

45 to 54 years , 

55 to 64 years 

65 to 74 years , 

75 to 84 years 

85 years or over 

PEESONS 15 TEARS OF AGE OB OVEE CLASSIFIED ACCOEDINO TO MAEITAL 
CONDITION. 

Male 

Single 

Widowed 

Female 

Single 

Married.... 

Widowed 

Divorced 

Marital condition not reported 

CLASSIFIED ACCOEDING TO AGE WHEN DEFECT OCCUEEED. 

Blindness: 

Congenital 

Not congenital ' 1 

Age when vision was lost — 

Under lyear 

1 to 4 years 

5 to 9 years 

10 to 14 years ' 

15 to 19 years 

25 to 34 years 

35 to 44 years 

45 to 54 years 

55 to 64 years 

65 to 74 years 

75 to 84 years 

Age not definitely reported- 
Early adult life 

Middle life 

Old age 

Age not reported 

Deafness: 

Congenital 

Not congenital > 

Age when hearing was lost — 

Under 1 year 

lyear 

2 years 

3 years 

4 years 

5yfaia 

6 years 

7 years 

8 years 

9 years 

10 years or over 

Age not reported 



Number. 



14 



CLASSIFICATION. 



CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO EEPOETED CAUSE OF DEFECT. 



Blindness: 

Disease 

Glaucoma 

Retinitis pigmentosa 

Atrophy of the optic nerve 

Cataract 

Cataract and atrophy of the optic nerve 

Smallpox 

' Measles 

Scarlet fever 

Meningitis 

Brain fever 

Influenza (grippe) 

Accident ( including sympathetic ophthalmia) . . 

Explosion of powder 

Injury in blasting 

E ye knocked out 

Injury from fall 

Lack of development of nerve centers 

Fore^ substance in one eye, cataract in other. . 
Causes indefinitely or inaccurately Reported 

Congenital 

Catarrh and colds 

Malaria 

Neuralgia 

Old age 

Sore eyes 

All other 

Cause imknown 



Deafness: 



Otitis media 

Scarlet fever 

Measles 

Smallpox and measles 

Influenza (grippe) 

Catarrh and colds 

Scrofula 

Typhoid fever 

Meningitis 

Brain fever , 

Convulsions 

Injury from fall 

Lack of development of nerve centers 

Causes indeflnitely or inaccurately reported. 

CcmgenitEil 

Fever 

Medicine 

Nervousness and cold i 

Rheumatism 

■ Sickness 

Cause unknown 



CLASSIFIED ACCOEDINQ TO RELATIONSHIP OF PARENTS. 



Parents not first cousins 

Parents first cousins 

Not reporting as to relationship of parents. 



CLASSIFIED ACCORDIKG TO STATUS OF FAEENTS AS TO DEFECT. 



Neither parent blind or deaf 

One parent only blind or deaf 

One parent blind, the other neither blind nor deaf. 

Father blind 

Mother blind 

One parent deaf, the other neither blind nor deaf. . 

) ather deaf 

Not reporting as to vision or hearing of parents 



CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO STATUS AS TO BROTHERS AND SISTEE3. 



Reporting no brothers or sisters 

Reporting brothers or sisters 

Reporting no blind or deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting blind or deaf brothers or sisters 

Reporting blind brothers or sisters but no deaf brothers or sisters. 
Reporting deaf brothers or sisters but no blind brothers or sisters. 

Reporting both blind and deaf brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to vision or hearing of brothers or sisters 

Not reporting as to existence of brothers or sisters 



CLASSIFIED ACCOEDINO TO STATUS AS TO CHILDREN. 



Reporting no chUdren 

Reporting children 

Reporting no blind or deaf children 

Not reporting as to vision or bearing of children . 
Not reporting as to existence of children 



Number. 



34 
1 
1 
4 
9 
1 
1 
1 
S 
9 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
33 
11 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
13 
22 



30 
1 
7 
2 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
9 
1 
2 
1 
1 

51 

46 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

13 



61 
16 
19 



78 
5 
4 
1 
3 
1 
1 

13 



5 
76 
60 
22 

3 
12 

7 

4 
15 



91 
3 
2 
1 
2 



I Includes those for whom the age when vision was lost was not reported. 



> Includes those for whom the age when hearing was lost was not reported. 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS RELATIVE TO 

THE DEAF 

AS OF JANUARY I, 1918 



50171°— 18 12 (177) 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS RELATIVE TO THE DEAF. 



Prepared in the Bureau of the Cenaus by Loms C. Taylob and Abeaham Shbpfbemak. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The state laws relating to the deaf are summarized 
in the succeeding pages. The sutmnaries are intended 
to supply general information as to the principal pro- 
visions that have been made by the legislation of the 
various states regarding the education of the deaf and 
the alleviation of their condition. Only provisions 
dealing with the deaf as such have been included; 
such laws as those for the indigent in general which 
may also apply to deaf indigents are regarded as not 
being within the scope of this report. 

The laws have not been copied verbatim, although 
in many instances the particular phrasing of the laws 
has been preserved in order to avoid possible misin- 
terpretation. Those given are the laws as they appear 
on the statute books, and as a rule no attempt has 
been made to indicate cases where the provisions of 
the law were not carried out in practice. In a few 
instances, however, where the authorities to whom 
the summaries were submitted for verification indi- 
cated definitely that the actual practice varied in 
important respects from that provided for by law, the 
situation has been set forth by means of footnotes. 

Compulsory education especially for the deaf is pro- 
vided for in the laws of 22 of the states (California, 
lUinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, 
Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska. New Mexico, North 
Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Ver- 
mont, Washington, and Wisconsin) . These laws are 
summarized, but the general provisions for compulsory 
education which exist in the great majority of the 
states are not presented. 

In the constitutions of Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, 
Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, 
New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North 
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South 
Dakota, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and West 
Virginia there are references to institutions for the deaf, 
stating, usually, that such institutions must be estab- 
lished and maintained by the state, or that it is the 
duty of the legislature to provide by law for the educa- 
tion of the deaf. Since the statutes of these states 
contain more comprehensive provisions concerning 
the deaf, and since an understanding of the constitu- 
tional provisions seems in Ho sense to be essential for 
the present study, no mention of them appears in the 
state summaries. 



Day schools or classes for the deaf are maintained 
in a number of states, but only in California, Ilhnois, 
Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
and Wisconsin are there special laws authorizing day 
schools for the deaf to be established and operated as 
a part of the educational system of the state. Deaf 
students in higher institutions of learning are under 
certain conditions given state aid in New York, Okla- 
homa, and South Carolina. In only one state, Minne- 
sota, is there a state agency for the deaf whose duty 
it is to promote the interests of the deaf generally. 

No summary of laws is given for Alaska, Hawaii, or 
the Philippine Islands, because no provisions were found 
in the laws of these possessions, except for an appropri- 
ation in Hawaii in 1917 for the construction and opera- 
tion by the department of public instruction of a school 
for blind, deaf, dumb, and other defective children, 
and an appropriation for a deaf and blind school in the 
PhiUppine Islands made for the first time in 1914. 

In addition to the laws relating to the deaf which 
have been enacted in the various states, the Federal 
Government has provided that deaf-mutes, not ex- 
ceeding 100 in number, residing in the several states 
and territories, and applying for admission to the colle- 
giate department of the Columbia Institution for the 
Deaf must be received on the same terms and condi-* 
tions as those prescribed by law for residents of the 
District of Columbia, at the discretion of the president 
of the institution, and the expense for their instruction, 
together with so much of the expense of their support 
when indigent and while in the institution as may be 
authorized by the board of trustees, with the approval 
of the Secretary of the Interior, is paid from Federal 
appropriations. No more than three deaf-mutes from 
any one state or territory may be admitted or main- 
tained in the institution at any one time while there 
are applications pending from deaf-mute citizens of 
states or territories having less than three pupils in the 
school. ( V. S. R.S.,1 4865; 26 V. 8. Stat. L., p. 392; 
31 TJ. S. Stat. L., p. 620.) The law authorizing the 
census of the deaf and dumb which is set forth in the 
introduction to this report (see p. 12) also is of interest 
as Federal legislation concerning the deaf. 

The laws of the different states are so varied that 
no precise outline for their summarization could be 
followed, but an effort was made to present first the 
provisions concerning state commissions or boards 
having general duties in regard to the deaf, if there 

(179) 



180 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



were any, then the laws concerning the education of 
the deaf, provisions for the rehef of the needy deaf, and 
lastly whatever miscellaneous provisions for the deaf 
exist. To insure the accuracy of the summaries, a 
copy of the summary for each state was sent to some 
authority in the state, such as the secretary of the state 
board of charities or of control, or the superintendent 
of the school for the deaf, with the request that inaccu- 



seemingly conflicting laws are on the statute books 
or where confusion otherwise exists which was not 
cleared up by means of this correspondence, the situa- 
tion is e:^plained by a footnote. The laws are those up 
to and including the session laws of 1917. References 
are given to pages or chapters of the session laws and 
to pages or sections of the latest available edition of 
the code, revised laws, or supplement to the code or 



rate statements or omissions be indicated. Where revised laws of each state. 

SUMMAEY OF LAWS. 



ALABAMA. 

Befesence: 

Code of Alabama, 1907. 

SCHOOL FOE THE DEAF. 

The board of trustees of the Alabama School for the Deaf consists 
of the governor, the superintendent of education, and 11 other 
persons appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate, 
three of whom must be from the congressional district in which the 
school is located and one from each of the other congressional dis- 
tricts. The three members appointed from the district in which the 
school is located must be from Talladega County. The appointed 
trustees serve for terms of afac years and receive no compensation 
other than actual expenses incurred in the dischai^e of their official 
duties. The board meets from time to time as in their judgment the 
interests of the school may require and must make a full report at the 
close of the year to the governor. The object of the school is to afford 
means of education to the deaf of the state. All deaf children of the 
state between the ages of 7 and 21 years who are of sound mind, free 
from disease, and of good moral character may be admitted to the 
benefits of the school. All applicants must make satisfactory proof to 
the board of trustees that they are citizens of the state and proper 
candidates for admission; such proof may be made by an applicant 
in person, by next friend, or by the affidavit of any person cognizant 
of the facts, before a probate judge or notary public. The length of 
time which any pupil may continue in the school must not exceed 10 
•years, but upon recommendation by the principal of the school the 
board may increase the term from year to year, but not to exceed 
four additional years; no pupil, however, may be retained after 
having passed the age of 25 years or after it has been ascertained 
that the pupil has ceased to make progress or is not being benefited. 
The board may drop any pupil at any time for any cause. 

The government of the Alabama School for Negro Deaf and Blind 
is vested in the board of trustees of the school for the deaf, and the 
rules governing the admission, instruction, and length of term of 
the white deaf are applicable to the school for the Negro deaf. 
The object of the school is stated as being to afford the means of 
education to the Negro deaf and bUnd of the state. (Code 1907, 
§§ 19SSff.) 

ARIZONA. 

Bbferences: 

Revised Statutes of Arizona, 191S. 
Session Laws, 1917. 

CABB AND EDUCATION OF THE DEAF. 

The commission of state institutions has oversight and general 
control of the care and education of the deaf, dumb, and blind. 
Upon presentation of a certificate of the commission showing that the 
applicant is deaf or dumb, the University of Arizona must admit the 
applicant to the benefits of an education at state expense and pro- 
vide him with board and lodging. The expenses for board and lodg- 
ing, including board and lodging dtiring vacation, are paid by the 
state, the amount not to exceed $250 a year for each pupil. 

It is the duty of the board of regents of the state university to 
make suitable provision for the accommodation and education of the 



applicants according to the most improved modem systems for such 
purposes. This requirement, however, is not operative unless at 
least five residents of the state affected with either deafness, dumb- 
ness, or blindness make application. (R. S. 1913, §§ S854ff, 4496; 
Laws 1917, p. ISO.) 

The school census marshal of each school district must include 
annually in his report the number and names of the deaf and dumb 
of school age in his district. The report is sent to the county school 
superintendent, who forwards a copy of it to the state commission 
of institutions, who upon receipt of proof that those enumerated are 
deaf and dumb, and of sound mind and of parents who are not able 
to provide for their education, issue a certificate to them entitling 
them to an education at the expense of the state. (R. 8. 191S. 
§ 2855; Laws 1917, p. ISO.) 

ARKANSAS. 
Reference: 

Kirby and Castle's Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1916. 

SCHOOL FOB THE DEAF. 

The board of control for state charitable institutions has the gen- 
eral management and control of the Arkansas Deaf-Mute Institute. 

All deaf-mutes between the ages of 6 and 21 years, of fair intellect 
and free from any contagious disease, and all deaf-mutes under the 
age of 6 years who are orphans and subjects of charity may be 
admitted to the school upon an application accompanied by a cer- 
tificate of a county judge that they are legal residents of the county 
in which they claim residence. The state furnishes board and 
lodging and suitable instruction for all deaf-mutes received as state 
beneficiaries. Other deaf-mutes may be received into the school 
according to regulations prescribed by the board. The term of 
instruction is 13 years.' 

The parents or guardians must provide the pupils with clothing 
and pay all traveling expenses, but where they are not provided 
with money for such expenses the principal of the school may pro- 
vide money for them to an amount not to exceed the sum of $40 a 
year for one pupil, and charge the same against the county of his 
residence. Whenever a pupil is removed from the school on account 
of ill-health or vacation, or having completed his course of instruc- 
tion, or been found disqualified, the expenses for such removal 
must be paid by the parent or guardian, and if not, then by the 
county of his residence. The same applies to funeral expenses.* 
(K. and C. D. 1916, §§ 4682 ff.) 

1 Kirby and Castle's Digest also contains a paragraph (§ 4714) not 
specifically altered by subsequent legislation, empowering the board 
of trustees to extend the term of pupils recommended by the prin- 
cipal, ' 'from time to time beyond me original period of 7 years, either 
for fiurther instruction with a view to entering college or for perfect- 
ing themselves in their trades," provided that no more than 20 
pupils may be so recommended in one year, nor anyone for more 
than three years' extension. 

^ Such is the provision which appears in Kirby and Castle's 
Digest, but the state has appropriated a sum of money for this purpose 
biennially since 1891, and m 1895 and 1897 the law specified that no 
part of the appropriation for clothing and traveling expenses should 
be refunded by the county from which indigent pupils were sent. 
The superintendent of the school reports that the costs are paid from 
state appropriations without recomse to the counties. 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS. 



181 



It is the duty of the sherifi of each county to ascertain and keep a 
record of the names, ages, and sex of all deaf-mutes in the county 
between the ages of 9 and 30 years and to report the same to the 
board of control at least once a year, and the county examiners are 
required to include the name and address of all deaf-mutes under 
30 years of age in their annual reports to the state superintendent 
of public instruction. (,K. and G. D. 1916, §§ 4696, 9462.) 



CALIFORNIA. 
Befebences: 

Kerr's Political Code of California, 1915. 
Deering's General Laws of California, 1916. 
Session Laws, 1917. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The management and control of the California School for the Deaf 
and Blind is vested in a board of directors, consisting of five persons 
appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate for the 
term of four years, who receive no compensation. The board 
must report to the governor. 

The school is a part of the school system of the state, except that 
it does not derive any revenue from the public school fund, and has 
for its object the education of the deaf and blind who by reason of 
their infirmity can not be taught in the public schools. 

Every deaf resident of the state of suitable age and capacity is 
entitled to an education in the school free of charge. If the parent 
or guardian of any pupil in the school is unable to clothe such child 
or pay for its transportation to and from the school, he may testify to 
such inability before a judge of the superior court of his county of 
residence, and if the judge is satisfied of the truth of the testimony 
he must issue a certificate to that effect, and upon presentation of the 
certificate, the directoTB of the school must clothe the pupil and 
provide the transportation at the expense of the county from which 
the pupil comes. All pupils in the school are maintained at the 
expense of the state. Deaf persons from other states may be ad- 
mitted to the school upon paying the treastirer $85 quarterly in 
advance. (K. P. C. 1915, §§ 2237 ff, 368.) 

STUDENTS IN THE COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOE THE DEAF. 

An appropriation is made for defraying the expenses of deaf citi- 
zens of the state who are graduates of the school for the deaf and are 
taking a collegiate course of instruction at the National College for 
the Deaf at Washington, D. C; but not more than $300 may be 
expended for any one student during any one school year. {Laws 
1917, p. 485.) 

SPECIAL CLASSES FOR THE DEAF. 

The board of education of every city or city and county, or board 
of school trustees of every school district containing five or more 
deaf children, or children who from deafness are unable to hear 
common conversation, between the ages of 3 and 21 years, may in 
their discretion establish and maintain separate classes in the 
primary and grammar grades of the public schools, and such pupils 
must be taught by the pure oral system for teaching the deaf. 
{K. P. C. 1916, § 1618.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Every parent or guardian of any deaf child who is legally entitled 
to admission in the state school for the deaf must send the child to 
the school for five years, or until the child has reached the age of 
majority, unless the child is excused from attendance by the board 
of education or board of trustees of the city, city and county, or 
school district in which the child resides, for the reason that the 
child's bodily or mental condition is such as to prevent or render 
inadvisable attendance at the school or that he is receiving proper 
instruction at home or at some public or private school. Failure to 
comply with this requirement constitutes a misdemeanor. {D.G.L. 
1916, p. 1688.) 



COLORADO. 

Reference : 

Mills' Annotated Statutes, 1912. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The management of the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind 
la vested in a board of five trustees appointed by the gov- 
ernor with the consent of the senate for terms of six years. The 
trustees receive no compensation other than their actual expenses 
incurred in the performance of their duties. The object of the 
school is the education of such children of the state as can not, by 
reason of the impairment of their sense of hearing or of sight, be 
advantageously educated in other schools of the state. Every 
deaf citizen of the state of sound mind, over 6 and under 21 years 
of age, is entitled to receive an education in the institute at the 
expense of the state. All applicants above the age of 21 years may 
be admitted at the option of the board. Each county superintend- 
ent of common schools must report annually to the superintendent 
of the institute for the deaf and blind the name, age, and address 
of every deaf person of suitable age for admission to the school, 
residing in his county, including all such persons as may be too 
deaf to acquire an education in the common school. At the time 
of taking the annual census, the district secretary must use reason- 
able diligence to ascertain the number of deaf-mute persons, resi- 
dent in his district, between the ages of 4 and 22 years, with the 
name and address of each, which items are to be included in his 
annual report to the coimty superintendent. When there is room 
in the institution residents of other states may be admitted upon 
the payment of a sum to be fixed by the trustees but not to be 
less than the per capita cost of the inmates for the preceding year. 
In every case where a deaf person sent to the institute is too poor 
to furnish himself with sufficient clothing and pay the expenses of 
transportation to and from the institution, the county of his resi- 
dence must meet the expenses if the judge of the county court thinks 
him a proper subject for the care of the institute. {M.A.S. 1912, 
§§ 6009 ff, 6910, 6031 ff, 6672.) 

CONNECTICUT. 

References: 

General Statutes of Connecticut. Revision of 1902. 
Session Laws, 1915. 

EDUCATION OP THE DEAF. 

The governor may appoint any deaf minor person who is domi- 
ciled within the state as a pupil at any institution in the state for 
the education of the deaf, for a period of not more than 12 years, and 
he may upon recommendation of the principal or superintendent of 
the institution extend the period for 6 years. The governor may 
revoke any such appointment. The governor may contract for the 
support, care, and education of persons appointed as pupils of the 
state, and no pupil can be withdrawn from any institution without 
the consent of the proper authorities thereof or of the governor. 
The expense incurred for the support, care, and education of all 
deaf persons appointed by the governor must be paid by the state, 
except so far as such expense may be voluntarily paid by any such 
pupils or their parents or guardians. The expense may not exceed 
$300 a year for any one pupil, but an additional sum not exceeding 
$20 a year may be expended for necessary clothing for any pupil. 
(Laws 1915, p. 2193.) 

CENSUS OF THE DEAF. 

The selectmen of each town must return to the governor annually 
the number of deaf and dumb persona in their town and the age, 
sex, and pecuniary circumstances of each. (G. S. 1902, § 1831.) 



182 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



DELAWARE. 

Reference: 

Revised Code of Delaware, 1915. 

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF. 

The judges of the superior court are ex officio trustees of the 
indigent deaf and dumb of the state, and applications may be made 
to them for admission of any such persons into any institution or to 
place them with any private instructor teaching the oral method 
that they may select. Upon recommendation by the trustees the 
governor may accordingly appoint any deaf and dumb person as a 
beneficiary of the state to any institution for the instruction of the 
deaf and diunb or place him with any private instructor teaching 
the oral system that may be selected by the trustees. The state 
pays for the board and tuition of each beneficiary a sum not greater 
than the sxun paid by the state of Pennsylvania for each indigent 
pupil of the state who is taught in the Pennsylvajiia Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb. The term of instruction as beneficiary of 
the state is five years, but upon recommendation by the principal 
of the institution of a continuance and his statement that the pupil 
is capable of making further improvement, the term may be ex- 
tended to any time not exceeding seven additional years. (J?. C. 
m5,%%ZS85ff.) 

Whenever the parents or guardian of a deaf and dxunb beneficiary 
elect to have the beneficiary receive the oral instruction by private 
instructor, the superintendent of free schools for the county in which 
the beneficiary resides must see that the amount so appropriated 
is spent for the specific purpose intended. {R. C. 1916, § 2S9S.) 

The commission for the blind must appoint a representative to 
visit twice a year the institutions outside the state where the indi- 
gent blind, deai, dumb, and idiotic children of the state are instructed 
in order to ascertain whether or not they are receiving proper 
treatment and instruction and are making such improvement or 
advancement as to justify the state in incurring the expense 
attached to their remaining in the institution; the commission must 
make a report of the investigation to the governor annually . (R.C. 
1915, § ZS8S.) 

STUDENTS IN THE COLUMBIA INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF. 

The state appropriates $250 annually for the board, tuition, and 
clothing for each pupil from the state at the Columbia Institution 
for the Deaf at Washington, D . C . {R.C. 1915, § 2588.) 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

References: 

United States Revised StatiUea. 

United States Statutes at Large, vols. S5, SO, SI, S3, 35, 36, S9. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The Columbia Institution for the Deaf is governed by a board of 
eleven directors, one of whom is a Senator, appointed by the Presi- 
dent of the Senate, two of whom are Representatives, appointed 
by the Speaker of the House, and two of whom are the president and 
secretary of the institution, ex officio. The directors appointed 
from Congress hold their offices for the term of a single Congress and 
imtil the appointment and acceptance of office of their successors; 
they are eligible to a reappointment. The other eight directors are 
self-perpetuating and serve for life. The president and directors 
of the institution must make a report to the Secretary of the Interior 
annually. 

All deaf-mutes of teachable age, of good mental capacity, and 
properly belonging to the District of Columbia are received and 
instructed in the institution, their admission being subject to the 
approval of the superintendent of public schools in the District of 
Columbia. One-half of the expenses of such pupils are paid from the 
revenues of the District of Columbia and one-half from the Treasury 
of the United States. The institution is declared not to be regarded 



nor classified as an institution of charity. {R. 5'., §§ 4859 ff; 36 
Stat. L., p. U2Z: 30 Stat. L., p. 6U: 26 Stat. L., p. 962; 31 Stat. L., 
p. 8U.) 

EDUCATION OF THE COLORED DEAF. 

The District Commissioners are authorized to contract for the 
maintenance and tuition of colored deaf-mutes of teachable age 
belonging to the District of Columbia, in Maryland or some other 
state. (55 Stat. L.,p. 901; S5 Stat. L. , p. 295; 39 Stat. L., p. 1027.) 

CENSUS OF THE DEAF. 

It is the duty of the justices-of the peace for the District of Colum- 
bia to ascertain the names and residences of all deaf and dumb 
persons within their respective districts, who of them are of teach- 
able age, and also who of them are in indigent circumstances; and 
to report the same to the president of the Columbia Institution for 
the Deaf. (R.S.,^ 4866.) 

FLORIDA. 

Reference: 

Compiled Laws of Florida, 1914- 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The state board of control has charge of the control and manage- 
ment of the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind. Any deaf 
person residing in the state between the ages of 6 and 21 years 
may upon certification of his application by the commissioner of 
his county of residence be received into the school. No deaf 
person who is making marked progress on reaching the age of 21 
years may be dismissed from the school excepting at his own option, 
until he has graduated. The county commissioners pay all trans- 
portation expenses and the state pays all the expenses for clothing, 
food, and other necessities. Those who are able are required to 
pay all the necessary expenses, tuition excepted. The board, upon 
the recommendation of the superintendent, may allow pupils to 
remain after they reach the age of 21 years. (C. L. 1914, §§ 417c ff.) 

GEORGIA. 

Reference: 

Park's Annotated Code of Georgia, 1914. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The Georgia School for the Deaf is governed by a board of seven 
trustees; the governor may remove for cause any member at any 
time, and fills all vacancies which occur in the board. The gov- 
ernor appoints a board of visitors, who meet the board of trustees 
annually at the school; any of the board of trustees may in the dis- 
cretion of the governor be removed by him upon recommendation 
of the board of visitors. The trustees must report the condition 
of the school to the governor annually. All persons in the state 
between the ages of 7 and 25 years, who are too deaf to be educated 
in the common schools, and who are otherwise in a condition men- 
tally and physically to receive instruction profitably, and free from 
any immoral conduct or contagious disease, are entitled to admission 
as pupils to all the privileges of the school free of charge. 

The pupils may remain in the school for any number of terms that 
the board upon recommendation by the principal may see proper to 
grant, but no pupU may remain more than 12 terms. 

In case parents or guardians are unable to furnish the pupil with 
such clothing as prescribed by the board of trustees, the clothing 
may be supplied by the authorities of the school, free of cost, 
upon the certificate of the ordinary of the county from which the 
pupil comes, that the parent or guardian is not in a pecuniary con- 
dition to furnish the clothing. All pupils may be furnished shoes 
from the shop free of cost. In case of great destitution the railroad 
fare of pupils coming to and from the school may be paid from the 
support fund of the school; and in case such pupQs have no homes 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS. 



183 



to which they can be sent for the vacations, the board of commis- 
sioners of their county or other proper, authority must make provi- 
sion for their care during vacation. Any parent or guardian of a deaf 
person may send him to the school for the deaf and board him at their 
own expense at any place outside the institution. The tax receiver 
of each county must keep a column in his books, showing the num- 
ber of deaf persons between the ages of 7 and 25 years in his county. 
The ordinary of each county must make a record of all the indigent 
deaf and procure their admission into the school, and if they are 
not received he must report the names, ages, and sex of such persons 
to the trustees, who keep a record of all such reports. {Code 1914, 

i^uieff.) 

IDAHO. 

Reference: 

Session Laws, 1909. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general control and management of the State School for the 
Deaf and the Blind is vested in the state board of education. The 
board ascertains the nimiber of deaf persons in the state and takes 
necessary steps to provide for their education. It may provide for a 
careful examination of all applicants for admission to the school. 
All persons between the ages of 6 and 21 years who are too deaf 
to be educated in the public schools may be admitted into the 
school. All the expenses of the examination and education of the 
deaf are paid by the state. The board also arranges for the con- 
veyance of scholars to and from the school at the expense of the 
state. The census marshal of each school district at the time of 
enumerating the children of school age must carefully ascertain what 
children between the ages of 6 and 21 years are deaf, and record the 
names, ages, and sex of such children, and the name of the parents, 
guardian, or other person having charge of such children, and 
report the same to the county superintendent of public instruction, 
who in turn reports them to the state superintendent of public 
instruction. {Laws 1909, pp. S79 ff.) 

ILLINOIS. 

Bcference: 

Revised Statutes of Illinois, 1917. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general supervision of the Illinois School for the Deaf is 
vested in the Department of Public Welfare, which has control of 
state charities and charitable institutions. The object of the school 
is to promote the intellecttial, moral, and physical culture of the 
deaf and to fit them as far as possible for earning their own liveli- 
hood and for futiire usefulness in society. {R. S. 1917, pp. 612, 211, 
209, 225.) 

All deaf persons residing in the state receive their board, tuition, 
and treatment free at the state school for the deaf. When there is 
room, deaf residents from other states may enter the school, upon 
payment for their board, tuition, and treatment. In all cases 
where a person sent to the school is too poor to furnish himself with 
clothing, and to pay his expenses for traveling to and from the school, 
the county of his residence must pay the expenses, if the judge of 
the county court, upon application of any relative or friend of the 
deaf person, thinks him a proper subject for the care of the institu- 
tion. {R. S. 1917, p. 228.) 

DAY SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF. 

Boards of education and school directors may establish and main- 
tain classes and schools for deaf and dumb residents, and the excess 
cost of maintaining such classes and schools over the cost for schools 
for normal children is paid by the state, provided that the excess 
cost does not exceed the amount of $110 for each deaf and dumb 
pupil. The classes and schools are for the benefit of deaf children 
between the ages of 3 and 21 years and no person may teach the 



deaf in such schools who has not had instruction in teaching the 
deaf for a term of one year. {R. S. 1917, pp. 2736 ff.) 

OOMPULSOBY EDUCATION. 

Every parent, guardian, or other person having control or charge 
of any child between the ages of 8 and 18 years who is deaf or whose 
hearLng is so defective as to make it impracticable to have the child 
educated in the ordinary public schools must send the child to some 
school within the state where special provision is made for the edu- 
cation of the deaf, unless the child is not physically or mentally 
competent to be educated. In cases where the parent, guardian, or 
other person is unable financially to furnish the child with transpor- 
tation or the proper and necessary clothing, the county court of the 
coimty in which the child resides, or in which it may be found, may 
make an order directing the child to be taken to the school the par- 
ent, guardian, or custodian prefers, or if no preference is expressed, 
to the school the court thinks for the best interest of the child, and 
for the furnishing of transportation for the child, including a proper 
custodian, preferably the parent or guardian, and for the furnishing 
of suitable and proper clothing, if necessary. The expense is to be 
advanced by the sheriff of the county and allowed by the board of 
supervisors; the order may also include an allowance for the return 
of the child at suitable intervals.. The county court is empowered 
in cases where the parent, guardian, or other person having custody 
of the child fails or neglects to perform the duty imposed on him by 
law to hold a summary hearing on due notice, on complaint of any 
citizen of the county, and to make an order directing the child to be 
sent to school, which may be enforced by legal process. The duty 
of seeing that this law is enforced is placed upon the truant officer 
of the school district and up)on the state's attorney of the coimty 
where the child resides. It is a misdemeanor for the parent, guar- 
dian, or other person having charge of such a child to fail, neglect, or 
refuse to send the child to a suitable school. {R. S. 1917, pp. 2737 ff. ) 

INDIANA. 
Reference : 

Bvrm's Annotated Indiana Statutes, 1914. 

SCHOOL FOR the DEAF. 

The general government and management of the Indiana State 
School for the Deaf is vested in a board of trustees consisting of four 
members appointed by the governor for terms of four years. Not 
more than two members of the board may be members of the same 
political party. The members of the board receive an annual salary 
of $300 for their services, and a sum not to exceed $125 a year for 
their necessary expenses. The board must meet at least once a 
month and must make an annual report to the governor. The 
school is declared to be piuely an educational institution and is not 
to be classed as benevolent or charitable. Upon application to the 
board, accompanied by a certificate from a justice of the peace that 
the applicant is a legal resident of the county in which he resides, 
any deaf person of school age and with average mentality may be ad- 
mitted to the school for the deaf. In all cases where the parents, 
guardians, or friends are able, they must pay for the necessary 
clothing and for the traveling expenses to and from the school, and 
wherever the parents, guardians, or friends of the pupils have neg- 
lected to pay, the county from which they are sent pays such ex- 
penses, but not exceeding the amount of $40 for each person. The 
county may collect this amount from the parents, when they are 
able to pay, but property to the amount of $300 is exempt from such 
charges. Pupils from without the state may be admitted to .the 
school on the payment of such sum as the board may consider suffi- 
cient to defray expenses. {Stat. 1914, §§ 3435 ff, 3427 ff, 3493 ff.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Parents, guardians, or other persons in the state having control or 
charge of any child, between the ages of 7 and 18 years, who is either 
totally deaf or whose hearing is so defective that he is unable to 
secure an education by the sense of hearing, are required under 



184 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



penalties to send the child to the Indiana School for the Deaf during 
the full scholastic term of that school unless discharged therefrom or 
refused admittance thereto by the board of trustees ; but if an appli- 
cation for admission to the school is rejected by the board of trustees, 
or if the applicant is discharged after admission, the parent, guar- 
dian, or other person having charge of the child is exempted from 
any penalty. Any parent, guardian, or other person having control 
of a deaf child between the ages of 7 and 18 years, who permits its 
employment, and the person employing it, during the school term, 
without a certificate of discharge issued by the superintendent of 
the school, duly presented, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

The assessors of property are required to make a list of all the 
deaf persons in their districts, setting forth the name, age, and sex, 
and the names of the parents or guardians. Such lists are returned 
to the bureau of statistics, which in tmn submits the lists to the 
superintendent of the school for the deaf. (Stat. 1914, §§ 6675, 
6685d, lows.) 

IOWA. 
References: 

Suppkment of the Code of Iowa, 191S and 1915. 

Session Laws, 1917. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general management and control of the Iowa School for the 
Deaf is vested in the state board of education. The superintendent 
of the school is required to be proficient in the use of the sign lan- 
guage. Every resident of the state, between the ages of 5 and 21 
years, who ia deaf and dumb, or is so deaf as to be imable to ac- 
quire an education in the common schools, is entitled to receive 
an education in the school at the expense of the state, and non- 
residents may also be entitled to its benefits, if they can be accom- 
modated, upon paying to the treasurer $66 quarterly, in advance. 
Deaf persons over the age of 21 but under 35 years of age may 
be admitted by the consent of the board. Each superintend- 
ent of common schools must report to the superintendent of the 
school for the deaf the name, age, and address of all such deaf 
persona residing in his county. When a pupil is not supplied 
with clothing, he must be furnished with it by the superintendent 
and the expense is charged against the parents or guardian or . 
the pupil himself. The amount is paid by the state and collected 
from the county of the pupil's residence, which may collect from 
the parents or guardian or the pupil himself. (Supp. 191S, §§ 
1714 ff, 272708; Laws 1917, p. 176.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Any person having under his control a child, a resident of the 
state, between 12 and 19 years of age, who is so deaf as to be unable 
to obtain an education in the common schools, must send such child 
to the school for the deaf during the scholastic year. The superin- 
tendent of the school may excuse the attendance of such child when 
he is in such mental or bodily condition as to prevent his attendance , 
or when he is so diseased or possesses such habits as to render his 
presence a menace to the health or morals of the other pupils, or 
when he is sufficiently taught by a private tutor in the branches 
taught in the public schools. A penalty is provided for the failure 
to comply with this requirement, and it is a misdemeanor for any 
person to induce a deaf child to absent himself from school or to 
employ or harbor a deaf child when school is in session. {Supp. 
ms, § 2718c ff.) 

The county assessors record the names, ages, sexes, and addresses 
of the deaf in their jurisdiction and the records are forwarded to 
the board of control of state institutions. (Supp. 191S, § 1364a ff.) 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTORS OP THE DEAF. 

Any school corporation within the state having deaf children of 
school age may provide one or more special instructors for such chil- 
dren, the instruction given by such instructors to be substantially 
equivalent to that given other children of corresponding age in the 



graded schools. Any corporation providing such instruction re- 
ceives state aid to the amount of $11 for each month that each child 
not more than 10 years of age is instructed. No child more than 
10 years of age is to be admitted to such instruction. The state 
board of education has general supervision of the carrying out of 
the provisions of this law, and no instructor can be appointed and 
no courses or methods of instruction can be installed without the 
approval of the board. (Laws 1917, p. 347.) 

KANSAS. 
References: 

General Statutes of Kansas, 1915. 
Session Laws, 1917. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The state board of administration has charge of the management 
and control of the Kansas School for the Deaf. It is the duty of 
the board to admit to the privileges of the educational department 
children whose parents reside in the vicinity of the school, the 
parents having the privilege of boarding and caring for the children 
outside of the school without expense to the state. Nonresidents 
are not admitted into the school unless the board of administration 
orders their admission because their legal residence can not be 
ascertained or there are other peculiar circumstances that constitute 
a sufficient reason for the suspension of the rule. (G. S. 1915, §§ 
9940, 6010; Laws 1917, pp. 428 ff.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Every parent, guardian, corporation, a^ociation, or person having 
control of a deaf person between the ages of 7 and 21 years must 
send such person to some suitable school for the deaf. The instruc- 
tion given the deaf must be conducted either orally or by the sign 
method, or both, for a period of at least five months a year. This 
does not apply to any child who is being given skilled private 
instruction for a period of at least five months each year. The 
truant officer enforces this provision and a penalty is provided for 
failure to comply with it. (G. S. 1915, § 9441.) 

CENSUS OF THE DEAF. 

The assessors of the respective townships must take an annual 
census of the deaf and dumb, which includes their age, sex, and 
color, and names, and the addresses of their parents and guardians. 
The census is taken together with one of manufactures, agriculture, 
the blind, insane, and idiotic. (G. S. 1915, §§ 762, 766.) 

KENTUCKY. 

References : 

Carroll's Kentucky Statutes, 1915. 
Session Laws, 1881. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general control and management of the Kentucky School for 
the Deaf is vested in a board of commissioners consisting of 12 mem- 
bers, 6 of whom must be residents of Boyle County, appointed by 
the governor with the consent of the senate, for terms of six years. 
The board must annually report to the governor showing the finan- 
cial and general condition of the school. It may receive into the 
school without regard to their pecuniary condition and circum- 
stances all d«af resident children of suitable age, character, and 
capacity on terms and conditions prescribed by law. Any deaf child 
entering under the age of 13 years may remain as a state beneficiary 
until he attains the age of 21 years. All children residing in the 
state must be received and taught free of tuition, board, and use of 
books and other instruments and apparatus used in teaching. The 
amount of $200 is appropriated annually for the purpose of clothing 
the indigent pupils. Nonresident deaf may be admitted to the 
school upon payment of the expenses of their maintenance, pro- 
vided that their admission does not operate to exclude any indigent 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS. 



185 



pupils of the state, until such number reaches 25. (C. K. S. 1915, 
§§ 27Sff, 285, 291 ff; Laws 1881, p. 41.y 

SCHOOL FOR THE COLORED DEAF. 

A separate school is maintained for the colored deaf of the state 
under the control and management of the board of commissioners of 
the school for the white deaf. All the provisions for the education 
and maintenance of the white deaf are applicable to the colored 
deaf. (C. K. S. 1915, §§ 282 ff.) 

LOUISIANA. 
References: 

Man's Revised Statutes of Louisiana, 1915. 
Session Laws, 1916. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The Louisiana State School for the Deaf is governed by the 
state board of education. The institution provides, according to 
the law, all the requisite facilities for acquiring a good literary 
education, and an industrial department in which instruction is 
given in such trades as are best suited to render the pupils self- 
austaining citizens. 

All residents of the state between the ages of 8 and 22 years, so 
deaf as not to be able to acquire an education in the ordinary schools, 
are admitted to the state institution if they are of sound mind and 
body. Such persons receive instruction, board, lodging, medicine, 
and medical attendance at the expense of the state, and if in such 
indigent circumstances as to render it necessary, are also furnished 
with clothing and traveling expenses to and from the institution. 
Persons admitted as pupils under 14 years of age may continue in 
the institution ten years; if over 14 and under 17 years of age, they 
may continue eight years; and if over 17 years of age, they may con- 
tinue five years. The board may in any case extend the term two 
yeais. {M. R. S. 1915, §§ 2385 ff; Laws 1916, p. 506.) 

MAINE. 

Reference: 

Session Laws, 1897. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The government of the Maine School for the Deaf is vested in 
a board of five trustees, appointed by the governor with the con- 
sent of the council, for terms of five years. They receive |2 per 
day and actual expenses. With the consent of its parents or 
guardian any deaf or dumb child of not less than 5 years of age 
who is a resident of the state may be admitted to the school for a 
term not exceeding 12 years. No pupil may be withdrawn or 
discharged from the school without the consent of the trustees or 
the governor and council. The state pays for the support and 
instruction of the pupils while attending the school. Deaf and 
dumb children from other states may at the discretion of the trus- 

' Carroll's Kentucky Statutes (§§ 284 ff) also contain the following 
provisions, which were, however, declared to be inoperative by the 
superintendent of the Kentucky School for the Deaf: 

When children whose parents are able to pay for their mainte- 
nance in whole or in part attend the school, tne state pays only to 
the extent that the parents are not able to pay. All indigent deaf 
children residing in the state may be received into the school, 
maintained and educated gratuitously, so far as the funds of the 
institution will admit. When more children than can be received 
are offered the board must so apportion their number among the 
counties, that every county shall equally receive the benefits of the 
institution. The term of instruction is five years, but the board 
may allow pupils to remain after such time m carder to complete 
their education. The board each year may select as many as five 
indigent pupils of good talents and character and retain them for 
two additional years at the expense of the state. 



tees be admitted to the school upon the payment by their parents 
or guardians of a reasonable compensation fixed by the trustees. 
(Laws 1897, p. 704.) 

MARYLAND. 

References: 

Annotated Code, 1911-14. 
Session Laws, 1867, 1916. 

SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF. 

The general supervision of the Maryland State School for the 
Deaf is vested in a board of visitors consisting of 30 members, 
whose terms are for life, the governor filling all vacancies. (Laws 
t867, pp. 486 ff; Laws 1916, p. 124.) 

Upon the application of any patent, guardian, or next friend 
(provided that they have been residents of the state for two years) 
of any deaf and dumb person of teachable age and capacity, not 
exceeding the age of 21 years, the county commissioners or the 
mayor and city council of Baltimore must inquire into the age, 
capacity, and ability of such deaf and dumb person, and also into 
the ability of the parent or guardian to pay the expense of the 
pupil's education, and must certify their findings to tiie governor. 
Upon receipt of the certificate the governor must authorize the 
instruction of the pupil at the school for a term not exceeding 
seven years.* 

The state allows $200 for each such deaf and dumb pupil taught 
in the school, and also pays the expenses necessarily incurred in 
transporting and returning the pupil, but the whole amount drawn 
from the treasury for these purposes may not exceed $7,500 in any 
one year. The governor must dispose of applications in the order 
in which they are made. (Code 1914, pp. 814 ff.) 

In 1917 the appropriation for the school for liie deaf waa $37,500, 
and $12,000 was appropriated to the Maryland School for the Blind 
for the education of the deaf, dumb, and blind colored children of 
the state. (Laws 1916, pp. 1553, 1568.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Any person having under his control a deaf child between the 
ages of 6 and 16 years must send such child to a school for the deaf 
for eight months, or during the scholastic year each year, imless 
the child is elsewhere receiving thorough instruction in studies 
taught in public schools to children of the same age, or is regularly 
enrolled at a deaf school and is temporarily excused from attend- 
ance by the authorities of the school, or is in such physical condition 
as would render instruction impracticable. If the person having 
control of the child is unable to pay the transportation expenses, 
the state pays the expenses upon the certification of such fact by 
three reputable male citizens over the age of 21 years, residents of 
the school district in which the child resides. The principal teacher 
of every county school and the truant officers of the city of Balti- 
more report to the county commissioners or the board of education 
of Baltimore, as the case may be, the names of all deaf children 
between the ages of 6 and 16 years in their district who do not attend 
school. This report is certified to the principals of the schools for 
the deaf. 

Any person having such a deaf child under his control and failing 
to comply with this provision is guilty of a misdemeanor and must, 
upon conviction before a justice of the peace, be fined a sum not 
exceeding $5 for each offense; and any person inducing a deaf child 
to absent himself from a school during its session is guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, punishable by a fine not exceeding $50 for each ofiense. 
(Code 1914, pp. 1761 ff.) 

' According to the principal of the Maryland State School for the 
Deaf this paragraph is rendered obsolete by the later compulsory 
education law. 



186 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

References: 

Revised Laws of Massachusetts, 19011. 
Session Laws, 1914. 

EDUCATION OF THE DEAJ. 

The general supervision of the' education of the deaf of the state 
is vested in the state board of education. The governor may, upon 
the request of the parents or guardians and with the approval of the 
board, send such deaf persons as he considers proper subjects for 
education to the American School for the Deaf at Hartford, Conn., 
the Clarke School for the Deaf at Northampton, Mass., the Horace 
Mann School at Boston, or to any other school for the deaf in the state, 
as the parents or guardians may prefer. The regular term may not 
exceed 10 years, but upon request by the parents or guardians and 
with the approval of the board, he may continue for a longer term 
the instruction of meritorious pupils recommended by the principal 
or other chief ojSicer of the school of which they are members. No 
such pupil may be withdrawn from such institution without the con- 
sent of the governor or the authorities thereof. The expense of 
instruction, support, and transportation is paid by the state, but 
the parents or guardians of the pupils may pay the whole or any 
part of the expense. With the approval of the board and at the 
expense of the state, the governor may make such provision for the 
care and education of children who are both deaf and blind as he 
may think expedient. The sum of $3,500 is paid annually upon 
the approval of the board of education to the New England Indus- 
trial School for Deaf-Mutes at Beverly, Mass., to be expended imder 
the direction of the trustees of the institution. (JR. L. 1902, p. 462; 
Laws 1914, p. 1023.) 

MICHIGAN. 

* 

Refebences: 

Compiled Laws, 1915. 
Session Laws, 1917. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general supervision and government of the Michigan School 
for the Deaf is vested in a board of trustees, consisting of three 
members appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate. 
The members serve for terms of six years, without compensation 
other than their necessary expenses. All deaf and partially deaf 
residents of the state, whose defective hearing prevents their receiv- 
ing instruction in the common schools, between the ages of 7 and 21 
years, are received in the school without charge for tuition, board, 
lodging, washing, medicine, or medical attendance, if in suitable 
condition of body and mind to receive instruction. The school is 
declared to be a public school and is not to be classed as charitable. 
Its object is the education of such of the children of the state as 
may not, by reason of the impairment of their sense of hearing, be 
advantageously educated in another public school of the state. The 
term of instruction is not to exceed 13 years. The board may, in 
their discretion, admit persons under the age of 7 or over the age of 21 
years. The board may admit appUcanta from other states, and 
prescribe the compensation to be paid fbr them, but the compen- 
sation must be sufficient to cover all their necessary expenses. In 
all cases where deaf and dxmib persons, residents of the state, are 
unable to furnish themselves with suitable clothing and other 
necessaries for attending the school the board of trustees has dis- 
cretionary power to render them assistance, not exceeding $40 a 
year for each person, and the amount is a charge upon the county 
of the person's residence. 

The superintendent of the poor in each county where there are 
any deaf and dumb persons of good natural intellect and good moral 
character who have no contagious disease and who are at all likely 
to become a charge upon the county must send such persons to the 
state school for the deaf. The superintendent must see that the 
persons so sent are in a state of perfect bodily cleanliness, com- 



fortably and decently clothed, and provided with suitable changes 
of clothing; he must also provide clothing and all other articles of 
necessity during their stay in the school and pay for their traveling 
expenses. If such persons remain at the school during vacation 
the superintendent must pay for their board during the vacation; 
no pupil of the school may be returned to any poorhouse during a 
vacation. (0. L. 1915, §§ 1445 ff; Laws 1917, p. 270.) 

DAY SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF. 

Upon application to the superintendent of public instruction, a 
school district board, the board of trustees of a graded school, or a 
board of education of any city may establish and maintain within 
the limits of its district one or more day schools having an average 
attendance of not less than three persons, for the instruction of deaf 
persons over the age of 3 years whose parents or guardians are resi- 
dents of the state and who by reason of defective hearing can not 
profitably be educated in the public schools. The state pays for the 
maintenanceof such schools, the cost of which is not to exceed $150 
for each deaf person instructed during the school year, and a part of 
such simi proportionate to the time of instruction of any pupil 
instructed for less than nine months during the year. AH teachers 
in such schools must be graduates of a school for teachers of the deaf 
by the "oral" method and they must also have at least one year's 
experience as a teacher in a school for the deaf. The oral system 
must be taught in the schools and if, after a fair trial of nine months, 
any of such pupils are unable to learn the oral method, then no 
further expense may be incurred to teach the pupil in such a school. 
(C. L. 1915, U 596S ff.) 

COMPTJLSORT EDUCATION. 

Every parent, guardian, or other person having control or charge 
of any child or children between the ages of 7 and 18 years, who by 
reason of deafness or imperfect hearing can not be taught success- 
fully in the public schools, must send the child or children to a day 
school for the deaf, the state school for the deal, or to any other 
school for the deaf that they may prefer, but if they do not send them 
to any other school, then they must send them to the state school. 
A penalty is provided for the failure to comply with this provision. 
In cases where the parent or guardian is tmable to furnish the travel- 
ing expenses of the child, the board of trustees of the state school 
may furnish the expenses each year and include traveling expenses 
for the parent or guardian if the child is under 12 years of age, and 
the county of residence of the child then pays such expenses. 
(C. L. 1915, i^ 5986 ff.) 

CENSUS OF THE DEAF. 

The supervisor or assessor of each township and ward in the state 
at the time of making his general assessment and assessment roll for 
his township or ward in each year must set down the name, age, and 
general health, habits, and occupation of every deaf and dumb 
person; the kind, degree, and duration of the afSiction; the sex; 
whether married or single or widowed; the time under medical 
treatment; the pecuniary ability of the person thus afflicted, and 
of the relatives of such person liable for his support; whether sup- 
ported wholly or in part by the public ; and such further information 
relative to this class as may be thought useful. This record is 
transmitted to the secretary of state, who must present an abstract 
of the information to the governor. (C. L. 1915, §§ 5638 ff.) 

MINNESOTA. 

References: 

General Statutes of Minnesota, 1913. 
Session Laws, 1915, 1917. 

STATE AGENCY FOR THE DEAF. 

There is a division in the bureau of labor devoted to the deaf, 
which is under the supervision of the commissioner of labor. The 
commissioner appoints a competent person to take charge of the 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS. 



187 



division, wlio must devote his time to special ■work for the deaf. 
He must collect statistics of the deaf, ascertain what trades or occu- 
pations are most suitable for them and best adapted to promote their 
interest, and use his best efiorts to aid them in securing employ- 
ment in which they may be fitted to engage. He must keep a 
census of the deaf and obtain facts, information, and statistics as 
to their condition in life with a view to the betterment of their lot; 
and obtain information of the condition of labor and employment 
and education of the deaf in other states, with a view to promoting 
the general welfare of the deaf in the state. (G. S. 191S, § 3829.) 

SCHOOL FOE THE DEAF. 

The general supervision and control of the Minnesota School 
for the Deaf is vested in the state board of control. Any 
deaf resident of the state of suitable age and capacity for instruc- 
tion may be received, kept, and taught in the school for the deaf 
under such conditions as the board may prescribe. In any case 
where a deaf person is too poor to pay for his clothing, postage, and 
transportation expenses, the county of his residence, upon certifi- 
cation of the probate judge of the coimty, must pay such expenses, 
the amount not to exceed $40. (G. 8. 1913, §§ 4143, 4146; Laws 
1917, p. 490.) 

DAY SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF. 

Upon application of any school district, made to the state super- 
intendent of education, he may give it permission to maintain 
and establish schools for instructing deaf children who are resi- 
dents of the state, provided that the school has an attendance of 
not less than five deaf children, between the ages of 4 and 10 years. 
All such schools must be conducted by the combined system 
which includes the oral, the aural, the manual, and every method 
known to this profession, and the courses and methods of instruction 
mustbe equally as efficient as those in the state school for the deaf. 
The sum of $100 is appropriated for each deaf pupil instructed for 
the annual session of nine months. (Laws 1915, p. 258.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Every parent, guardian, or other person having control of any 
normal child between the ages of 8 and 20 years, too deaf to be 
materially benefited by instruction in public schools, must send 
such child to the state school for the deaf, and the child must con- 
tinue in the school until discharged by the superintendent upon 
approval by the board of control. Such attendance may be ex- 
cused if the child is in such bodily or mental condition as to prevent 
his attendance at school or application to study for the period re- 
quired, or if he is afflicted with such contagious disease or possesses 
such habits as to render his presence a menace to the health or 
morals of the other pupils, or if he is efficiently taught for the 
scholastic year in a private or other school or by a private tutor, the 
branches taught in public schools so far as possible. A penalty is 
imposed for the failure to comply with this provision. It is the 
duty of the principals of the county schools and the truant officers 
in the cities of St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Duluth to furnish the 
name, age, sex, and address of the parent or guardian of aU such 
children who do not attend school to the educational authorities, 
who shall certify them to the superintendent of the school for the 
deaf. {Laws 1917, p. 491.) 

MISSISSIPPI. 
Reference: 

Hemingway's Annotated Mississippi Code, 1917. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The government of the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb is 
vested in a boaid of five trustees, appointed by the governor with 
the consent of the senate for terms of four years. The board may 
admit into the institute only bona fide residents of the state, of good 
moral character. It must fix the amount to be paid by pupils for 
board, the terms of admission, and times of payment, but it must 
admit free of all charges, upon the certificate of the county superin- 



tendent of education, all invalid and indigent deaf and dumb persons 
who are eligible, provided the amount appropriated by the legislature 
is sufficient to care for them properly. (E. A. M. S. 1917, §§ 4994 f.) 

MISSOURI. 

References: 

Revised Statutes, 1909. 
Session Laws, 1915, 1917. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The government of the Missouri School for the Deaf is vested in a 
board of managers composed of five members. The managers are 
appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate for terms 
of four years, and each receives a salary of $100 a year. If non- 
residents of the county where the school is located they receive 
actual traveling expenses. For every regular monthly meeting any 
member is absent he forfeits $5. Two members of the board must, 
together, personally visit and inspect the school in detail monthly; 
a majority of them, together, quarterly; and all the members of the 
board must, together, make a detailed inspection not less than once 
a year. The object of the school is to educate deaf persons in the 
use of written and spoken language, the elementary branches, and 
in mechanical trades and industrial pursuits and to give them 
special training in such mechanical trades and industrial pursuits 
as will fit them for the practical duties of life and render them self- 
supporting. All deaf persons of suitable mental and physical 
capacity under 21 years of age, residing in the state, are en- 
titled to the benefits of the institution, and are permitted to 
remain in the institution for 12 years, but a pupil may be dis- 
charged at any time for failure to make sufficient progress in the 
school course and industrial training, or for violation of the rules of 
the school. In all cases where a pupil is not provided with suitable 
clothing and necessary traveling expenses, his county of residence 
must pay the same to an amount not to exceed $60 a year, and col- 
lect the same from the parents or the pupil, if they are able to pay. 
The superintendent of the school is authorized to expend $200 an- 
nually for books and papers for general reading suitable for the 
pupils, and adapted. to their ages. (iJ. S. 1909, §§ 1367 ff, 14S6ff: 
Laws 1916, p. 209; Laws 1917, p. 192.) 

CENSUS OF THE DEAF. 

The board of directors of each district must in connection with 
the school census annually take or cause to be taken an enumera- 
tion of all deaf and dumb persons of school age residing in their 
districts. (R. S. 1909, § i0790.) 

MONTANA. 

References: 

Revised Codes of Montana, 1907. 
Supplement, 1915. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general control and supervision of the Montana School for the 
Deaf and Blind is vested in the state board of education, but the 
board confers upon the executive board of the school such authority 
relative to the immediate management, other than financial, as it 
thinks expedient. The board of education appoints the president 
of the school and fixes his salary. The executive board consists of 
the president of the school, ex officio chairman, and two members 
appointed by the governor with the consent of the board of educa- 
tion. At least two of the three members of the board must reside 
in the county where the institution is located. The appointed 
members of the board hold office four years, and receive such com- 
pensation as the board of education determines, not to exceed $5 
for each day actually spent in the discharge of their duties, and not 
exceeding $125 in any one year, for each member. All expenses 
necessarily incurred by them in the discharge of their duties are 
paid by the state. (Supp., 1915. pp 74 /.) 



188 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



The object of the school is to furnish all children who are debarred 
from the public schools by reason of deafness, dumbness, blindness, 
or feeble-mindedness with at least an ordinary public school edu- 
cation in all the customary branches, and to train them into mastery 
of such trades as will enable them to become independent and self- 
sustaining citizens. All deaf persons between the ages of 6 and 
21 years residing in the state and not of unsound mind or dangerous- 
ly diseased in body, or of confirmed immorality, or incapacitated 
for useful instruction by reason of physical disability, are eligible 
for admission to the school, and all pupils are entitled to 10 years 
of attendance. Upon special petition approved by the president, 
by any pupil who has completed the course of 10 years, he may 
be allowed 2 additional years. Pupils may be expelled for suffi- 
cient cause. When there is room nonresident deaf persons may 
be admitted to the school upon payment in advance of a year's 
cost of maintenance. In all cases where a person to be sent to the 
school is too poor to pay for necessary clothing and transportation 
the expenses are to be paid by the president of the school and 
charged against the county of the deaf person's residence. (iJ. C. 
1907,^^1157, 1168 ff.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Every parent, guardian, or person having custody of any child 
who is too deaf to be educated in the public schools must send the 
child, if of lawful school age, to the institution for the deaf for six 
months of each school year for the period of eight years, unless the 
child is taught in a private school, at home, or in a similar institu- 
tion in another state, in such branches as are taught in the state 
institution, or unless the child be excused by the authorities on 
accoimt of physical or mental disability; provided that the child 
must be required to attend the private school or institution, as 
provided for above, not less than six months of each year for eight 
years, or imtil he has arrived at the limit of the lawful school age. 
The school district clerks of each county must annually report to 
the county superintendent of schools the names, ages, and ad- 
dresses, and the names of parents and guardians, of every deaf 
person between the ages of 5 and 21 years residing in the school 
district. The county superintendent must send a complete list of 
the names, ages, and addresses of all such persons in their county 
to the president of the school for the deaf. (R. C. 1907, §§ 1172 ff.) 

NEBRASKA. 

References: 

Revised Statutes of Nebraska, 191S. 
Session Laws, 1915. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The board of commissioners of state institutions has the oversight 
and general control of the Nebraska School for the Deaf. The pur- 
pose of the school is the physical, moral, and intellectual culture 
and training of the deaf, to the end that they may be returned to 
society capable of becoming self-sustaining and useful citizens. All 
deaf and dtmib persons and those deaf to such an extent that they 
can not acquire an education in the common schools of the state, 
who are of suitable age and capacity and ofgood moral character, 
are entitled to an education in the institution for the deaf without 
charge. The parents or guardians must furnish suitable clothing 
and traveling expenses and support the pupil dining the summer 
vacation, but if they do not do so the coimty of his residence is 
charged with the expense of his clothing and transportation home, 
and it must collect from the parent or guardian, if the person is a 
minor, or from himself if he is an adult. In all cases where the 
parent or g^uardian is unable to pay the necessary expenses and the 
pupil is a pauper the county of his residence must pay. Persons 
not residents of the state may avail themselves of the benefits of the 



school by complying with the condition of admission for citizens of 
the state and paying in advance a sum fixed by the governing board. 
All pupils must be trained in the school by the oral, aural, and lip- 
reading method to the exclusion of the deaf alphabet and sign lan- 
guages, imless incapacitated by mental defects or malformation of 
the vocal organs. (R. S. 191S, §§ 7187, 7210 ff; Laws 1915, p. 29S.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

All persons between the ages of 7 and 18 years who by reason of 
partial or total deafness are unable to obtain an education in the 
public schools are required to attend the state school for the deaf, 
imless they are being privately or otherwise educated. Each 
county superintendent of common schools must report to the super- 
intendent of the state school for the deaf the name, age, and address 
of every deaf person and of every person deaf to such an extent 
as to be unable to acquire an education in the common schools, who 
resides in his coimty and is between 6 and 21 years of age. {R. S. 
191S, §§ 69U, 6897.) 

NEVADA 

Reference: 

Revised Laws of Nevada, 1912. 

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF. 

The superintendent of public instruction is authorized to make 
arrangements with the directors of any institutions for the deaf and 
dumb in the states of CaUfomia or Utah for the admission, support, 
education, and care of the deaf and dumb of the state. 

Upon the application under oath of a parent, relative, guardian, 
or nearest friend of any deaf or dumb resident of the state, to the 
effect that by reason of deafness or dumbness such person is dis- 
qualified from being taught by the ordinary process of instruction 
and education, and that they are unable to pay for his support, 
education, and instruction in any of the institutions mentioned 
above, filed with the board of county commissioners of the proper 
county, if the board is satisfied with the truth of the statements, it 
may make application to the superintendent of public instruction 
for the purpose of having him issue a certificate to that effect, which 
certificate being produced is the authority of the directors of any 
of the prescribed institutions for receiving the deaf or dumb person. 

All deaf and dumb persons that are not mentally or physically 
incapacitated to receive an education or instruction, that are free 
from offensive or contagious diseases, and are unable to pay for their 
support, education, and instruction in any of the institutione 
specified, and whose parent, relative, guardian, or nearest friend 
is unable to pay, are entitled to the benefits of these provisions, and 
the county of the person's residence must furnish the necessary 
expenses for carrying the person to the office of the superintendent 
of public instruction, who must make %11 necessary arrangements 
for carrying him to an institution at the expense of the state. All 
deaf or dumb persons over 21 years of age seeking admission into the 
institutions must be bona fide residents of the state for five years 
previous to the filing of their applications. {R. L. 1912, §§ 1702 ff.) 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
References: 

Public Statvies and Laws of New Hampshire, 1901. 

Supplement, 191S. 

CARE AND EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

Upon recommendation of the state board of charities and correc- 
tion, assistance is furnished to deaf and dumb persons in such 
amounts, and at such asylums and schools or other institutions de- 
signed for the purpose, as the governor and council direct. The fur- 
nishing of such assistance does not affect the settlement of any 
person norhisrightto vote. (P. S. 1901, p. 279;Supp. 191S, p. 158.) 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS. 



189 



NEW JERSEY. 

References: 

Compiled Statutes of New Jersey, 1910. 
Session Laws, 1911. 

INSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OP THE DEAF. 

The governor or person administering the government has super- 
vision of the instruction and maintenance of the deaf and dumb. 
Any deaf and dumb person of suitable age and capacity for instruc- 
tion is entitled to the benefits of these provisions. All applications 
for admission of pupils as beneficiaries of the state must be accompa- 
nied by the certificate of two reputable freeholders, residents of the 
district in which the appUcant resides, which must set forth the 
age, capacity of the pupil, and the ability or inability of the 
parents, guardians, or custodian of the pupil to pay any part of 
the expense for his tuition, care, and maintenance. Such cer- 
tificate must be approved by the judge of the court of common pleas 
of the applicant's county of residence after he has satisfied himself 
of the truth of the statements in the certificate. The governor has 
the power to receive and decide upon all applications for the benefit 
of this provision. The regular term of instruction is three years, 
but upon application of the pupil indorsed by the principal of the 
institution the governor may extend the term to not more than eight 
years, and upon further application the governor may again extend 
the term to any number of years. The governor has the power to 
withdraw the name of any pupil from the list of beneficiaries if it 
appears that such pupil was improperly admitted or after a Mr 
trial is foimd incapable of instruction. An annual sum of $300 is 
appropriated to be applied for the instruction of beneficiaries under 
these provisions in some suitable and convenient institution, and 
whenever the governor is satisfied that the resources of any pupil or 
hifl parents or guardians are insufficient to defray the expense of 
clothing, he may cause an additional sum not to exceed $30 a year 
for each pupil to be paid. Whenever he is satisfied that an appli- 
cant or his parents or guardians are able to pay part of the expense 
of instruction, but not able to defray the whole expense, the gov- 
ernor may cause to be paid such proportion of the expense as 
seems proper. If a deaf person entitled to the benefits mentioned 
becomes a legal charge upon the overseers of the poor of any 
township, they must inmiediately make application to the gov- 
ernor in his behalf, and if he is placed in an institution for instruc- 
tion the expense of conveying him to and from the institution 
and of supplying him with suitable clothing must be defrayed by 
the township. 

Any parent, guardian, or custodian who makes application for 
the admission of any deaf and dumb persons to the institutions 
coming under these provisions waives all right to remove such person 
either permanently or for a limited time. Any inmate may be 
discharged upon the request of the governor on the recommendation 
of the principal or superintendent of the institution and he may also 
be granted a leave of absence for a limited time. Any male person 
admitted to any of the institutions may be paroled into the custody 
of his parents, guardians, or any fit person under such conditions 
that he may be liable at any time to be taken back to such institu- 
tion if the conditions of his parole are violated or if, in the judgment 
of the state commissioner of charities, for any cause his welfare may 
so require. In case of such parole any liability upon the state for 
support ceases during the time such pupil is out on parole. (C. S. 
1910, pp. 1896 ff.) 

SGHOOI' FOR THE DEAF. 

The general control and management of the New Jersey School for 
the Deaf is vested in the state board of education. The school is 
maintained for the purpose of training and educating deaf children, 
and deaf persons of suitable age and capacity for instruction who are 
legal residents of the state and not over 21 years of age are entitled 



to the privileges of the school for such a period of time, not exceeding 
14 years, as the board of education determines.' 

Applications for admission to the school must be made by the 
parent, g^uardian, or friend of a proposed pupil in such manner as 
the board may require, but each application must be accompanied 
by a certificate from the judge of the inferior court of common 
pleas, or the county clerk of the applicant's county of residence, 
the chosen freeholder or clerk of the township, or the mayor or 
other executive officer of the city, borough, or other municipality 
in which the applicant resides, setting forth the facts as to the ap- 
plicant's residence, age, circumstances, and capacity, and the 
ability or inability of such applicant or his parents or guardian to 
pay any part of the expense of his care and maintenance. When- 
ever more persons apply for admission at one time than can be 
properly accommodated in the school, the board must so appor- 
tion the number received that each county shall be represented 
therein in the ratio of its deaf population to the total deaf population 
of the state. When it is found in the judgment of the board that 
any pupil from want of capacity or other cause is not capable of 
receiving the benefits designed to be conferred or that the reten- 
tion of any pupil may be detrimental to the interests of the school, 
the board may shorten the term of instruction, or dismiss from 
school such pupil upon reasonable notice given to his parents or 
g^uardians. 

The expense for teaching, maintaining, and clothing the pupils, 
not to exceed $76 for any three months for each pupil, is paid by the 
state. If the board is satisfied that the resources of any pupil or 
his or her parents or guardian are sufficient to defray either the 
whole or part of the expense, the board may require that they pay 
either the whole or such portion of the annual expense as the board 
thinks just and equitable. (C. S. 1910, pp. 1898 ff, 4790 ff.) 

SPECIAL CLASSES FOR THE DEAF. 

In each school district where there are 10 or more blind or deaf 
children who are not cared for or who can not be cared for in an in- 
stitution a special class or classes must be organized by the board of 
education for their instruction, no class to contain over 15 pupils. 
Such classes must be discontinued when proper provision is made 
for the care and education of the children by the state. {Laws 
1911, p. SIS.) 

NEW MEXICO. 

Reference: 

New Mexico Statutes, 1915. 

SCHOOL FOR the deaf. 

The New Mexico Asylima for the Deaf and Dumb is under the 
control and management of a board of regents consisting of five 
members, not more than three of whom may belong to the same 
political party, who are appointed by the governor with the consent 
of the senate for terms of four years. They receive no compen- 
sation other than actual expenses. They make their own rules and 
regulations for meetings and the care of the institution, and report 
to the governor biennially. All deaf or mute residents of the state 
between the ages of 8 and 21 years are entitled to instruction and 
care in the school free of charge. Deaf children from other states 
and deaf Indian children under the control of United States Indian 
agenta may be admitted into the school under such rules and regu- 

1 According to the superintendent of the school the minimum age 
for admission is 6 years, and the term of instruction is ordinarily 10 
years. . . . , 

The Compiled Statutes (pp. 1899 ff) also contain provisions of an 
earlier law, fixing the age limit at not less than 8 years, and the term 
of instruction at 3 years, but providing that the board might extend 
the term for a term not to exceed 8 years, and in meritorious cases 
might further extend the term for a period not exceeding 3 addi- 
tional years. These provisions also declare the object of the school 
to be the instruction and maintenance of indigent deaf-mutes. 



190 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



lations as are prescribed by the board and upon the payment or 
guaranty of at least $225 for the school year on the basis of nine 
months for each year. {Stat. 1915, §§ 5101 /.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

It is the duty of the clerks of the school districts and boards of 
education to report to the county school superintendents the name, 
age, sex, residence, and the address of the parent or guardian o'f 
every deaf person of school age in their district. This report must 
in turn be sent to the superintendent of the school for the deaf, 
who must notify the parents to send such children to the school for 
proper instruction at a time fixed by him. The school directors of 
every school district are empowered and required to compel the 
sending of such children to the school for the deaf. The failure to 
comply with this requirement constitutes a misdemeanor. If any 
parent or guardian is unable by reason of poverty to furnish such 
child with suitable clothing and traveling expenses and the probate 
judge of his county of residence certifies that fact, then the school 
must pay for the cost of the same. {Stat. 1915, § 5104-) 

NEW YO9.K. 
References: 

Consolidated Laws of New York, 1909 and 1910. 
Session Laws, 1912, 191S, 1917. 

SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF. 

All institutions for the instruction of the deaf and dumb in the 
state are private institutions, but they receive aid from the state 
and are subject to visitation by the commissioner of education and 
by the state board of charities. (C. L. 1910, Vol. VIII, pp. 206 ff; 
C. L. 1909, Vol. V, p. S689.) 

Upon the application of any parent, guardian, or friend of a deaf- 
mute child within the state over the age of 5 and under the age 
of 12 years, the overseer of the poor or any supervisor of the town 
where the child is must place such child in The New York Institu- 
tion for the Deaf and Dumb, The Institution for the Improved In- 
struction of Deaf-Mutes, The Le Couteulx Saint Mary's Institution 
for the Improved Instruction of Deaf-Mutes in the city of Buffalo, 
The Central New York Institution for Deaf-Mutes at Rome, The 
Albany Home School for the Oral Instruction of the Deaf at Al- 
bany, or in any other institution in the state for the education of 
deaf-mutes as to which the state board of charities shall have filed 
with the commissioner of education a certificate to the effect that 
the institution is prepared for the reception and instruction of such 
pupils. Whenever a deaf-mute child under the age of 12 years be- 
comes or is liable to become a charge for its maintenance on any of 
the towns or counties of the state, the overseer of the poor of the 
town or the board of supervisors of the county must place such child 
in one of the institutions above mentioned . The county from which 
a child was appointed in pursuance of these provisions must pay 
for his board, tuition, and clothing an amount not to exceed $350 
per year untQ he attains the age of 12 years, unless the directors 
of the institution to which the child has been sent find that he is 
not a proper subject to remain in the institution. (C. L. 1910, Vol. 
VIII, pp. 211 ff; Laws 1917, p. SS2.) 

Every deaf and dumb person 12 years of age or over who has 
been a resident of the state for one year immediately preceding 
the application, or, if a minor, whose parent or parents, or, if an 
orphan, whose nearest friend has been a resident in the state for 
one year immediately preceding the application, is eligible to 
appointment as a state pupil in one of the deaf and dumb institutions 
of the state, authorized by law to receive such pupils. The regular 
term of instruction for such pupils is five years, but the commissioner 
of education may in his discretion extend the term of any pupU 
for a period not exceeding three years. The commissioner may 
continue such pupils as state pupils for an additional period of 
three years for the purpose of pursuing a course of study in the 



higher branches of learning, but the nxunber of pupils continued 
each year in such course may not exceed 30 in any one institution 
and they must be recommended by the trustees of the institution 
which they attend before such extension of time is granted. ( C L. 
1910, Vol. VIII, pp. 207 ff; Laws 1912, p. 405.) 

The expense for board, lodging, and tuition of state pupils is 
paid by the state. The county supervisors of the county from 
which a state pupU is appointed must raise $30 a year for suitable 
clothing for him if the parents or guardians are unable to pay for 
the same. (C. L. 1910, Vol. VIII, pp. 208 ff.) 

DEAF STUDENTS IN GENERAL INSTITCTIONS. 

Whenever a deaf person who is a citizen of the state and a pupil 
in actual attendance at a college, university, or technical or profes- 
sional school in the state authorized by law to grant degrees, other 
than an institution established for the regular instruction of the 
deaf, is designated by the trustees as a fit person to receive such 
aid, there must be paid by, the state for the use of the pupil $300 
per year, to be used by him to obtain aid in receiving instruction 
in his studies. The trustees may not recommend any such person 
who is not in good and regular standing and who is not working for 
a degree from the institution. (Laws 1913, pp. 321 ff.) 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

References: 

Pell's Revisal, 1908. 

Gregory's Supplement to Pell's Revisal, 191S. 

Gregory's Revisal Biennial, 1915 

Session Laws, 1917. 

schools for the deaf. 

The North Carolina School for the Deaf is under the management 
of a board of seven directors, not more than two of whom may be 
from the same county, appointed by the governor with the con- 
sent of the senate for terms of six years. The board must pro- 
vide for the pupils m the school instruction in the branches of study 
prescribed for the public schools and in such other branches 
as may be of special benefit to the deaf. As soon as practicable the 
boys must be instructed in such mechanical pursuits as may be 
suited to them, and in practical agriculture and related subjects; 
and the girls must be instructed in sewing, housekeeping, and such 
arts and industrial branches as may be useful to them in making 
themselves self-supporting. 

All white deaf-mutes between the ages of 8 and 23 years, who have 
been residents of the state for two years, and who are not of con- 
firmed immoral character, or unsound of mind, or incapacitated by 
physical i nfirmi ty for useful instruction, are eligible to receive free 
tuition and maintenance at the school according to rules prescribed 
by the board. Nonresident deaf persons may be received in the 
school, when there is room, upon payment of charges and according 
to rules fixed by the board. 

Colored deaf-mutes, residents of the state, not of confirmed 
immoral character, or imbecile, or unsound in mind, or incapaci- 
tated by physical infirmities for useful instruction, who are between 
the ages of 7 and 21 years, may be admitted to the State School for 
the Blind and the Deaf at Raleigh, where a separate department is 
maintained for the colored deaf and blind. 

When it appears to the satisfaction of the governor, upon affidavit 
of two respectable citizens, that the parents of any deaf-mute child 
are unable to provide the child with clothing and for expenses to 
and from the institution, the governor must order the amount to be 
paid by the state. Such sums are chargeable to the county from 
which the child came. The amount charged may not exceed $30 
per year for any pupil in addition to such amount as is required 
to defray aU necessary traveling expenses of the pupil. (P. R. 
1908, §§ 4203, 4191; G. S. P. R. 1913, § 4199; G. R. B. 1915, §§ 
4202 ff; Laws 1917, p. 88.) 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS. 



191 



COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Parents, guardians, or custodians of any deaf chUd between the 
ages of 8 and 15 years who fail to send the child to some school for 
the instruction of the deaf for at least five terms of nine months 
each are guilty of a misdemeanor. It is the duty of the school 
census taker to report the name, age, and sex of all deaf children in 
his district and the number of deaf and dumb between the ages of 6 
and 21 years, designating the race and sex, and the address of the 
parent or guardian of such children, to the county superintendent 
of education, who must send the report to the school for the 
deaf. (P. R. 1908, §§ S8S6c, 4144; G. R. B. 1915, §§ 4148, 4i06a.) 

NORTH DAKOTA. 

Reference: 

Compiled Laws of North Dakota, 191S. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general management and control of the North Dakota School 
for the Deaf is 'vested in the board of control of state institutions. 
The board investigates the condition and management of the school 
at least once every six months and makes reports of such investiga- 
tions biennially to the governor. All deaf residents of the state, of 
suitable age and capacity, are entitled to receive an education in 
the school at the expense of the state. In all cases where the pupil 
is not suitably provided with clothing he must be furnished with 
it by the superintendent, who must collect the cost from the county 
of his residence, which must, in turn, collect the cost from the pupil 
or his parents; these are, however, exempt from paying such cost 
if it appears from the affidavits of three disinterested citizens 
of the county that they are unable to do so. The counties of resi- 
dence of indigent deaf pupils pay for their traveling expenses. 
Deaf persons from other states may be admitted into the school 
when there is room upon the payment of $180 a year in advance. 
(C. L. 1913, §§ 243 ff, 1680, 1688 f.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Every parent, guardian, or other person having charge or control 
of any deaf person between the ages of 7 and 21 years must send 
him to the state school forthe deaf for the entire school year, unless ex- 
cused by the superintendent of theschool. Failure tocomply with 
this provision constitutes a misdemeanor. The board of educa- 
tion of the city or village, or school board of the district, may excuse 
the person having control of such deaf person from this duty when 
he can satisfactorily show that the person is being taught in another 
institution approved by the cotmty school superintendent, or that 
such person is actually necessary to the support of the family, or 
that he has already acquired the branches of learning taught in the 
pubhc schools, or that he is physically or mentally incapable of 
attending school. (C. L. 1913, §§ 1342 ff.) 

In connection with the school census an enumeration is made of 
the names and ages of all deaf and diunb persons between the 
ages of 5 and 25 years, and the names and post-office addresses 
of the parents or guardians, a copy of which is sent to the superin- 
tendent of the school for the deaf. (C. L. 1913, §§ 1195 ff.) 

OHIO. 

References : 

General Code of Ohio, 1910. 
Session Laws, 1911, 1917. 

SCHOOL FOE the DEAF. 

The State School for the Deaf, as well as the state penal, cor- 
rectional, and benevolent institutions in general, is governed by 
the Ohio board of administration. AH deaf persons, 7 years of age 
or over, residents of the state, who are too deaf to be educated in 
the public schools may be admitted to the school for the deaf if 



the superintendent and board think them suitable persons to 
receive instruction at the school. The term of instruction is for no 
longer than 13 years; no person addicted to immoral habits or hav- 
ing a contagious and offensive disease nuiy be admitted. Pupils 
may be permitted to remain in the school such portion of the 13 
years as their progress justifies, and if at any time the superin- 
tendent and board determine that a pupil is not making sufficient 
progress in his work to justify his continuance as a pupil, he may 
be returned to his parents, guardian, or the infirmary of the county 
from which he came. The pupils are taught the arts and trades of 
shoemaking, printing, bookbinding, cutlery, fitting and making 
wearing apparel for females, and such other trades and arts as are 
found to be adapted to the capacities and wants of the deaf. 

Deaf and blind persons are admitted to the school for the deaf, 
or the board of administration may provide for the education of a 
deaf and blind child at its home. (G. C. 1910, §§ 1872 ff; Laws 
1911, p. 213.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Education is compulsory for persons entitled to enter the school 
for the deaf, and the truancy laws in general apply to them . {G.C. 
1910, § 7778.) 

CENSUS OP THE DEAF. 

In connection with the school census there is an annual enumer- 
ation of deaf or mute children between the ages of 6 and 21 years. 
Quadrennially, at the time of taking a list of property for taxation, 
an enumeration is made by each assessor of all deaf and dumb per- 
sons in his township or precinct and the returns are filed with the 
county auditor. {G. C. 1910, §§ 3360, 7795.) 

DAY SCHOOLS FOB THE DEAF. 

Deaf persons 3 years of age or over may be educated in day 
schools established by the superintendent of public instruction on 
application by the board of education of a school district, provided 
that the average attendance is not less than three, and the state pays 
$150 for each deaf pupil given instruction in such schools for nine 
months in the school year and a proportionate amount for each deaf 
pupil given instruction for a part of the school year less than nine 
months. The oral system must be taught in these schools and if, 
after a fair trial of nine months, any pupil is unable to learn such 
method, then he may be taught the manual method in a separate 
school, providing thereare not f ewerthan three pupils in attendance. 
After the establishment of such a school by any school district 
persons of sound mind who by reason of defective hearing can not 
profitably be educated in the public schools may be compelled 
to attend one of them or a state institution. An inspector, ap- 
pointed by the state school commissioner, inspects each school twice 
a year and reports to the commissioner as to the method of instruc- 
tion, the condition of the schools, and such other matters as may be 
of interest in the education of the pupils. (Laws 1917, p. 153.) 

CARE OP THE INDIGENT DEAF. 

Any incorporated association organized for the purpose of pro- 
viding a home for deaf and dumb persons may contract with the 
board of county infirmary directors of any county or with the 
proper officers of any corporation infirmary for the care and 
maintenance of deaf persons who are inmates of such infirmaries, 
or who under the law of the state may be entitled to admission in 
the infirmary. The infirmary pays to the home annually a sum 
equal to the per capita cost of maintaining inmates in the infirmary 
Deaf and dumb persons who are inmates of an infirmary and who 
in the judgment of the board of state charities should be removed 
to homes as specified above may by the order of the board be 
removed to such homes; and in case of such removal the transporta- 
tion and maintenance expenses are paid by the infirmary from 
which they were removed. (G. C. 1910, §§ 10190 ff.) 



192 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



OKLAHOMA. 

BEfEBENCES: 

Revised Laws of Oklahoma, 1910. 
Session Laws, 1911, 191S. 

SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF. 

The Oklahoma School for the Deaf is under the direction and 
control of the state board of education. The purpose of the school 
is the physical and moral and intellectual culture and training of 
the deaf, to the end that pupils may be returned to society capable 
of becoming self-sustaining and useful citizens. All deaf residents 
of the state and those deaf and dumb to such an extent that they 
can not acquire an education in the common schools, who are of 
suitable age and capacity and of good moral character, are entitled 
to an education in the school without charge. 

On admission of a pupil the parents or guardian must furnish 
suitable clothing for him, must pay his transportation to and from 
the school, and all incidental expenses such as for dental work, 
and must support him during the summer vacation. If the parents 
or guardians for any reason are unable to provide for the pupil, the 
superintendent, upon proof from the coimty judge of the county 
where the pupil resides, must supply the pupil and collect the 
expenses from the board of coimty commissioners of the pupil's 
county of residence. Deaf persons not residents of the state may 
be admitted into the school by complying with the conditions of 
admission for citizens of the state and paying the superintendent 
of the school a sum to be fixed by the board, in advance, (ii. L. 
1910, §§ 6986 f; Laws 1911, p. 121.) 

The Institute for the Deaf, Blind, and Orphans of the Colored 
Race is also under the direction and control of the state board of 
education. The purpose of the school is to care for, teach, and train 
the unfortunate of the colored race in the rudiments of English as 
in graded schools, and the practical and primary industries, such 
as may fit them for useful citizenship and make them self-helpful 
and self-reliant. (R. L. 1910, §§ 7014 ff; Laws 1911, p. 121.) 

DEAF STUDENTS IK GENERAL INSTITUTIONS. 

The state board of education may provide, for the higher educa- 
tion of those pupils who may qualify themselves to enter college,-a 
sum not to exceed $300 to a pupil in any one year, and for a num- 
ber not to exceed 10 pupils in any year. {Laws 191S, p. S85.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Every parent, guardian, person or persons, corporation, or associa- 
tion, having control or charge of any deaf child between the ages 
of 7 and 21 years, is required to send the child to some suitable 
school for the deaf for a period of at least six months a year, unless 
the child is given skilled private instruction for the same length 
of time each year. {Laws 1913, p. S86.) 

OREGON. 

References: 

Lord's Oregon Laws, 1910. 
Session Laws, 1913. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The Oregon state board of control, composed of the governor, the 
secretary of state, and the state treasurer, ex officio, manages the 
affairs of the Oregon State School for the Deaf. The school is a free 
training school for such deaf persons as are enrolled, but no pupil 
may stay there more than 10 years except in special cases, when 
the board may extend the time from year to year. No pupil may 
be detained in the school after it has been ascertained that he has 
ceased to make progress or is not being benefited, and a pupil may 
be dropped at any time by the board for cause. Admission is 
secured by making application to the superintendent direct or 
through the county school superintendent. The necessary travel- 
ing expenses of all indigent deaf children going to and rom the 



institution, together with the cost of all clothing necessary for 
their comfort, is borne by the county of which they are residents. 
{Laws 1913, pp. 120, ISO, 684.) 

compulsory education. 

Each truant officer of the state must at the beginning of each 
school month report to the county judge of his county the name, 
age, and residence of each deaf child between 8 and 18 years of 
age, with the names of his parents or the person in charge of 
him. He must also make a statement as to whether the par- 
ents or guardians are able to educate such child or whether the 
interests of such child would be promoted by sending it to the state 
school. The child may be brought before the judge for a hearing 
and if the judge is satisfied that the child is not being properly 
educated at home and will be benefited by attending the state 
school and is a suitable person to receive instruction there, he may 
send the child to the school. All expenses are paid by the child's 
county of residence if the parent is unable to pay. These provisions 
apply only to children who are entitled to instruc^on at the school 
under the rules and regulations of the board of control. The clerks 
of the several school districts must report the names, addresses, and 
ages of all deaf children between the ages of 6 and 14 years within 
their respective districts, together with names of parents of such 
children as come or are brought to their attention, to the county 
school superintendent of the county, who must report them to the 
superintendent of the school for the deaf. {L. 0. L. 1910, § 4130; 
Laws 1913, p. 683.) 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

References: 

Purdon's Digest, 13ih edition, 1700 to 1909. 
Session Laws, 1911, 1913, 1917. 
Appropriation Acts, 1915, 1917. 

schools for the deaf. 

The Pennsylvania State Oral School for the Deaf is governed by 
a board of trustees consisting of nine citizens appointed by the 
governor for a term of four years. Subject to the approval of the 
governor, the board of trustees makes such rules and regulations 
as it thinks necessary and appoints such persons as it thinks 
necessary in the maintenance of the school at such compensation 
as is fixed by the governor. No part of the appropriation for this 
institution becomes available until the management of the institu- 
tion files with the board of public charities and the auditor general 
a declaration that all pupils received in the institution under 
16 years of age who have not been pupils in any other institution 
of a similar character are to be taught exclusively by the oral 
method, unless physically incapable of being so taught. {Laws 
1913, p. 163; Appropriation Acts 1915, p. 188; Appropriation Acts 
1917, p. 278.) 

An appropriation is made by the state to the Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb for the education and main- 
tenance of state pupils. No pupil may be educated at the expense 
of the state under the age of 10, or over the age of 20 years, or for a 
longer period than six years. Indigent children resident anywhere 
within the state must be received into the school and asylum 
and maintained and educated gratuitously, so far as the funds 
of the institution will admit. Where more children are ofiered 
for the benefit of this institution than can be received at any 
one time, the president and directors must so apportion their 
number among the several counties according to their representa- 
tion (when application is made) that every county may equally 
receive the benefits of the same. Preference must always be 
given to the children of the state when there are not accommoda- 
tions for all who apply. The appropriation does not become avail- 
able until the managers of the institution file with the board of 
public charities and the auditor general a declaration that all 
pupils received into the institution will be taught exclusively 
by the oral method unless physically incapable of being taught. 
{P. D., 13th ed., p. 1282; Appropriation Acts 1917, p. 265.) 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS. 



193 



An appropriation is also made by the state to the Western Penn- 
sylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb for 
the education and maintenance of state pupils upon the condition 
that the management of the school file ■with the board of public 
charities and the auditor general a declaration that all pupils 
received in the school under 16 years of age who have not been 
pupils in any other institution of a similar character are to be 
taught exclusively by the oral method unless physically or men- 
tally incapable of being taught by such method. {Appropriation 
Acts 1917, p. 875.) 

The Home for the Training in Speech of Deaf Children Before 
They Are of School Age is governed by a board of five trustees 
appointed by the governor for terms of five years. Appropriations 
to the institution are conditioned upon the managers filing with the 
board of public charities and the auditor general a declaration that 
all pupils received into the institution will be taught exclusively 
by the oral method. (P.D., ISih ed.,p. 1284; Appropriation Actt 
1917, p. Z80.) 

DAT SCHOOLS POK THE DEAF. 

The board of school directors of any school district within the 
state having a population of more than 20,000 inhabitants, and 
having within the limits of the city or township, in which the school 
district is, eight or more deaf-mute children of proper age for attend- 
ing school, are authorized to open and maintain a special school 
for the education and training of such deaf-mutes, either in the 
sign language or articulation, as to the board of directors seema 
best for such children. Any such school so organized is a part of 
the common-school system of the district. Deaf-mute children 
may be sent from any school district in the county in which such 
school is established upon payment by the district to the treasurer 
of the school board by which the school is maintained of its propor- 
tionate share of the expense of maintaining the school. Th^ per 
capita cost of education of the deaf-mute children may not exceed 
$150 for any one year. (P. D., ISth ed. , p. 128S.) 

EDUCATION or THE DEAF. 

The county or district superintendent, attendance officer, or 
secretary of the board of directors in every school district of the Com- 
monwealth must report to the medical inspector of the school district 
every deaf child in the district, between the ages of 8 and 16 years, 
who is not being properly educated and trained. The medical 
inspector must examine the child and report to the board of school 
directors whether it is a fit subject for education and training. If 
the child is reported to be a fit subject, but can not be properly 
educated in the public schools of the district, the board of school 
directors must secure proper education for it, but when it is neces- 
sary to educate such children outside the pub lie schools their parents 
or guardians must, if able to do so, pay to the district the expense 
necessarily incurred. {Laws 1911, p. S8S.) 

CENSUS OF THE DEAF. 

At the time of taking the septennial census the assessors or other 
officers must make out a separate list of the deaf and dumb persons, 
if any, resident in their respective townships, towns, wards, or dis- 
tricts, distinguishing their sexes, color, and as nearly as may be, 
their several ages; and it is the duty of the commissioners of the 
several counties to make returns of the census to the governor. 
(P. D., ISih ed., p. 586.) 

EXEMPTION OF THE DEAF. 

Deaf or dumb persons are specially exempted from the penalties 
of the law against tramps. (P. D., 13th ed. , p. 5023.) 

CARE OF THE INDIGENT DEAF AND DUMB. 

The overseers and directors of the poor of any poor district main- 
taining an almshouse for its indigent poor may enter into a con- 
tract with any association in the state organized for the purpose of 
providing a home for deaf and dumb persons for the care and main- 

SOITI"— 18 13 



tenance at such home of any indigent deaf and dumb person who 
may be an inmate of the almshouse of the poor district or who may 
be entitled to relief from the district. The board of public chari- 
ties or any of its authorized agents may direct any poor district to 
remove any deaf and dumb inmate of the almshouse to the care of 
any such association, and in the event of the failure of the overseers 
or directors to comply with such order, the contract and removal 
of such inmate may be made and carried out by the board of public 
charities or its authorized agents. Whenever a contract for such 
care and maintenance of a deaf and dumb person is made, whether 
by the poor district itself or by the board of public charities on its 
behalf, the poor district is required to pay to the association annu- 
ally a sum equal to the per capita cost of malQtaining the inmates 
of its almshouse. {Laws 1917, p. Z23.) 

PORTO RICO. 

Refekence: 

Revised Statutes and Codes, 1911. 

CARE OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

The director of charities must reserve the number of places the 
executive council directs, in the Boys' Charity School and in the 
Girls' Charity School, for indigent deaf and dumb children. The 
director is empowered to prepare and put into force, with the 
approval of the executive council, special r^^lations for the cus- 
tody, care, and instruction of these children. It is his duty in 
making such regulations to make every effort to instruct the chil- 
dren in work suitable to their capacities, with a view to the end that 
upon their discharge from the schools they will in the largest 
measure possible be able to provide for their own support. Chil- 
dren may be admitted at any age not exceeding 21 years and may 
remain in the school until they have reached that age. Provisions 
of law relative to the apportionment of places in these schools to the 
respective municipalities must be followed as a general rule in 
assigning them places, but the director of charities, with the 
approval of the executive council, may depart therefrom when in 
Ids opinion such departure is urgently necessary. {R. S. 1911, 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Reference: 

General Laws of Rhode Island, 1909. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general management and control of the Rhode Island Insti- 
tute for the Deaf is vested in a board of trustees consisting of the 
governor, lieutenant governor, and nine citizens of the state, six 
men and three women, appointed by the governor with the con- 
sent of the senate for terms of six years, who receive no compensa- 
tion for their services; if the nominations of the governor are not 
approved by the senate, the latter fills the positions by election. 
The object of the school is to furnish to the deaf children of 
the state oral instruction and the best known facilities for the 
enjoyment of such a share of the' benefits of the system of free 
public education as their afflicted condition will admit of. All 
deaf persons between the ages of 3 and 20 years, legal residents 
of the state and of sufficient capacity for instruction, whose 
hearing or speech or both are so defective as to make it inex- 
pedient or impracticable to attend the public schools to advantage, 
may attend the institution without charge, for such a period of time 
in each individual case as is thought proper by the board of trustees 
and imder such rules and regulations as they establish. {G. L. 1909, 
pp.S74ff,173ff) 

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF.' 

The governor, on recommendation of the state board of education, 
upon application of the parent or guardian, may appoint any blind 
or deaf child, being a legal resident of the state, who appears to the 

' According to the principal of the Rhode Island Institute for the 
Deaf this section, in practice, is not now considered as applying to 
the deaf. 



194 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



board to be a fit subject for education, as a state beneficiary at any 
suitable institution or school for a period of not over 10 years. 
Upon special recommendation by the state board of education the 
governor may extend the period. The board of education super- 
vises the education of the beneficiaries, and no child appointed as 
above may be withdrawn from any institution or school except with 
their consent or the consent of the governor. The board may ex- 
pend in the purchase of necessary clothing for state beneficiaries a 
sum not exceeding $20 in any calendar year for a single child. (G. 
L. 1909, pp. 373 ff.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Every person having under his control any deaf child between 
the ages of 7 and 18 years, whose hearing or speech or both is so de- 
fective as to make it impracticable to attend the public schools to 
advantage, who is not mentally or otherwise incapable, miist send 
such child to the school for the deaf for such period as the trustees 
of the school may think expedient; but a person is exempt if he can 
prove to the satisfaction of the board of trustees that the child has 
received or is receiving tmder private or other instruction an edu- 
cation suitable to his condition. No child may be removed to the 
school or taken away from the custody of its parent or g^uardian 
except as a day scholar, imless the parent or guardian is an improper 
person to have such custody, and the supreme court has jurisdic- 
tion in habeas corpus proceedings to examine into and revise the 
findings of the board of trustees. (G. L. 1909, p. 376.) 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Bbfebences: 

Code of Laws of South Carolina, 191 g. 
Session Laws, 1915. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The supervision and control of the South Carolina School for 
the Deaf and Blind is vested in a board of commissioners, which 
consists of the superintendent of education ex ofScio and four mem- 
bers appointed by the governor, three of whom nxust be residents of 
Spartanburg County. The appoiated members serve for terms of 
eight years and receive no compensation other than expenses for 
not more than two meetings a year. All deaf-mutes of the state 
who are of proper age and. mental capacity (each case to be decided 
by the board of commissioners) are admitted to the benefits of the 
school. The whole or part of the expenses of the applicants are paid 
by the state, according to the opinion which the board forms as to 
the pecuniary condition of the applicant; but if the number of appli- 
cants exhausts the annual appropriation, the selection is made 
according to the board's opinion of the deserts of the applicants. 
The board, tuition, and incidental expenses of the pupils at the 
school are paid by the state, the sum not to exceed $150 a year for 
one pupil, exclusive of traveling expenses, clothing, and medical 
attendance, which the commissioners must place upon the most 
economical scale. {Civil Code 1912, §§ 1918 ff; Laws 1915, p. 65.) 

DEAF STUDENTS IN GENERAL INSTITUTIONS. 

Upon recommendation by the superintendent and faculty of 
the state school for the deaf and blind the board of commissioners 
may appropriate $150 annually for the higher education of any 
graduate who matriculates in any course offered in a chartered col- 
lege. The board must make suitable regulations for such students. 
Not more than four graduates may be thus aided in any one year. 
{Civil Code 1912, § 1927.) 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

References: 

Compiled Laws, 1913. 
Session Laws, 1915. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The general supervision and control of the South Dakota School 
for the Deaf is vested in the state board of charities and correc- 
tions. All residents of the state between the ages of 6 and 30 years 



who are too deaf to receive the full benefit of the public schoolB 
and who are capable of instruction and free from contagious or 
chronic diseases may, upon application to the superintendent of the 
school for the deaf, be taught at the expense of the state at such 
school for nine years, but if in the judgment of the board and upon 
recommendation of the superintendent, a pupil is capable of 
receiving advanced instruction for the purpose of entering a college 
for the deaf, such pupil may attend the school for an additional 
period of three years without regard to his age. When there is 
room, deaf persons from other states may be admitted to the school 
upon payment for their board, tuition, and care. All pupils must 
be treated with the most considerate regard for their misfortune, and 
always with kindness and humanity, and the board must carefully 
enforce this provision. It is the duty of the person sending a child 
to the school to pay to the superintendent an amount of money suffi- 
cient to purchase for the child a return ticket to its home, and also 
to deposit $10 additional which may be used in the purchase of 
clothing and defraying other incidental expenses of the child, 
and at the close of the school year, or whenever the child ceases to 
attend the school, the superintendent must furnish the child a 
return ticket and return the unexpended portion of the deposit 
t<> him together with an itemized statement showing all moneys 
expended by him for clothing and incidental expenses for the 
child. In case the parents of such a child are unable tp pay the 
South Dakota railroad fare of the child and make the deposit above 
mentioned it is the duty of the board of county commissioners of 
the county of the child's residence to do so upon the requisition of 
the superintendent, approved by the board of charities and cor- 
rections. (C L. 1913, pp. 47, 150 ff; Laws 1915, p. 656.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

If upon a complaint by the superintendent of the school for the 
deaf or by any other person, a county judge is satisfied after exam- 
ination of witnesses that a deaf child resident of his county of proper 
age is being deprived of a proper education by the refusal or neg- 
lect of its parents, guardian, or custodian, he may ortier that such 
child be sent to some public or private institution for the education 
of the deaf. If the parents, guardian, or custodian are unable to pay 
for the transporting of the child to the institution then the county 
must pay. A penalty is imposed for the neglect or failure of any 
parent to obey the order of the county judge. 

It is the duty of every county or city superintendent of schools 
to send to the superintendent of the school for the deaf the names 
of all deaf children of proper school age residing in his county or 
city whenever the residence of the deaf children within their 
jurisdiction becomes known to them, and the superintendent of 
the school for the deaf must take all necessary action to provide 
that the deaf children be given the, advantages of proper educa- 
tion. (C. L. 1913, p. 595.) 

TENNESSEE. 

Reference : . 

Thompson's Shannon's Code of Tennessee, 1917. 

SCHOOL for THE DEAF. 

The general supervision and control of the Tennessee School for 
Deaf and Dumb is vested in the state board of control. Each 
senatorial district may send to the school two pupils free of charge 
in preference to all others, whether free or paying scholars. These 
pupils are selected by the senator representative and in making 
such selection preference is given to such indigent pupils as are un- 
able to bear the expense of tuition. Application for admission to 
the school must be made within 40 days after the commencement 
of each school session. The terms of admission are the same for 
colored students as for white students and separate accommoda- 
tions are made for them. Any deaf, dumb, and blind child whose 
parents are citizens of the state may be placed in either the school 
for the deaf or the school for the blind free of charge. {T. S. C. 
1917, §§ 2660 f, 257708, 2553.) 



SUMMARY OF STATE LAWS. 



195 



EXEMPTION OF THE DEAF OR DUMB. 

All deaf or dumb persons in the state are exempt from the pay- 
ment of poll taxes. (T. 5'. C, 1917, § 686.) 

TEXAS. 

References: 

McBkuchia'a Civil Statutes of Texas, 191S. 
Session Laws, 191S. 

SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF. 

The general control and management of the Asylum for the Deaf 
and Dumb is vested in a board of trustees, consisting of six qualified 
voters selected from different portions of the state by the governor, 
and appointed with the consent of the senate for terms of six years. 
The board meets at least once a month and makes a report to the 
governor annually. The members receive $5 a day for time spent 
at their meetings, and 3 cents per mile for necessary traveling 
expenses. 

A certain number of pupils at the asylum to be designated by the 
superintendent and board may each year receive instruction in the 
art of printing in all its branches. (C S. 191S, Arts. 171 ff; Laws 
191S, p. 191.) 

The superintendent of the deaf and dumb asylum may mate such 
provision as he thinks necessary for the maintenance, care, and 
education of all children in the state who are deaf, dumb, and blind. 
Applications must be made to him by the parents of such children 
under rules prescribed by him, and such children must be placed 
in a reputable school established for the purposes just mentioned. 

The government of the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum for 
Colored Youths is vested in a board of trustees, who are constituted 
like the board for the deaf and dimib asylum. The admission of all 
applicants to the asylum, their treatment, instruction, and contin- 
uance therein, all questions relating to their dismissal or removal 
or voluntary departure, etc., must be governed by the rules and 
regulations of the state asylum for white youths for the deaf and 
dumb and blind. (C. S. 191S, Arts. M9 ff.) 

UTAH. 

References: 

Compiled Laws of Utah, 1907. 
Session Laws, 1911. 

SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. 

The government and control of the Utah School for the Deaf is 
vested in a board of trustees consisting of the attorney general and 
five resident citizens of th'e state, not more than three of whom 
may be members of the same political party, appointed by the 
governor with the consent of the senate. The citizen members of 
the board serve for terms of six years and receive no compensation 
other than actual expenses. 

The piu^ose of the school is to provide a practical education for 
the deaf, the mute, and the deaf-mute of the state who are of sound 
mind and body, imder 30 years of age, capable of receiving bene- 
ficial instruction, and incapacitated, on account of deafness or 
inability to speak, for instruction in the common schools; and to 
instruct such pupils in agriculture and in those mechanical trades 
and arts that tend to enable them to become self-supporting and 
useful citizens. All deaf residents of the state are entitled to the 
benefits of the school free of charge. In all cases where an appli- 
cant or an inmate of the school is too poor to pay for necessary 
clothing and transportation expenses, the county commissioners of 
his residence, after ascertaining that the facts are as represented, 
must pay the expenses. Pupils from other states may be received 
and instructed on such terms as the board may prescribe. (C. L. 
1907 i §§ 2064, Sioeff; Laws 1911, p. 138.) 



COMPtTLSORY EDUCATION. 

Every parent, guardian, or other person having control of any 
deaf or mute child between the ages of 8 and 18 years, who on ac- 
count of its deafness or muteness is unable to be educated in the 
public schools, must send such child to the state school for the deaf 
for at least six months of each school year. The parent or any other 
person is excused from this duty if it can be shown to the satisfac- 
tion of the board of trustees of the school that the child is taught at 
home by a competent teacher in the same branches and for the same 
length of time as children are in the state school, or that such child 
has already acquired the branches of learning taught in the state 
school, or that the child is in such physical or mental condition as 
to render attendance inexpedient or impracticable. The failure to 
comply with this provision, after the proper person has been noti- 
fied of its reqTurements, constitutes a misdemeanor. 

The county school superintendents must include in their annual 
school census a list of persons between the ages of 5 and 30 years 
who are too deaf or too dumb to obtain an education in the public 
schools, and their names, ages, addresses, and names of their parents. 
{C.L.1907, %% 2117,1791.) 

VERMONT. 

References: 

Public Statutes of Vermont, 1906. 
Session Laws, 1908, 1910, 191S, 1917. 

COMMISSION FOR THE DEAF. 

The governor is the commissioner of the deaf, dumb, blind, 
idiotic, feeble-minded, or epileptic children of indigent parents, 
and constitutes the board for their instruction. He receives a 
salary of $50 a year for his services as commissioner. (P. S. 1906, 
Ull66ff.) 

INSTRUCTION OF THE DEAF. 

The governor may designate beneficiaries to be educated at the 
American Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb at 
Hartford, Conn., the Clarke School for the Deaf at Northampton, 
Mass., the Mystic Oral School at Mystic, Conn., or the Austine 
Institution at Brattleboro, Yt., for a period of time that he thinks 
proper. He may designate one or more deaf persons to be educated 
within the state, when in his judgment adequate advantages exist 
for proper instruction, and the public good will be subserved 
thereby. The state pays for instruction and support at the school, 
but the traveling expenses of the deaf person must be paid by the 
town in which he resides, if the parents are imable to pay. The 
governor may provide for the instruction of deaf persons over 14 
years of age in schools without the state which furnish instruction 
in such trades or lines of work as will be best calculated to enable 
the deaf person to be self-supporting. There is an appropriation of 
$2,500 made for the governor to use at his discretion in making 
contracts with any person, association, or corporation for the care, 
education, and training of state beneficiaries after they have been 
discharged from the institution for their instruction. 

The board of civil authority in each town must collect informa- 
tion as to the number of deaf persons in their town, and their age, 
condition, and circumstances, the ability of their parents to edu- 
cate them, and whether, in the opinion of the board, the persons 
are proper subjects for the charity of the state, and whether they 
and their parents or guardians are willing that they should become 
beneficiaries of any of the institutions provided for the instruction 
of such persons. This information is sent to the coimty clerk, who 
returns the report to the governor. (P. 8. 1906, §§ 1169 ff; Laws 
1908, p. 48; Laws 1910, p. 85.) 

An appropriation of $50,000 (payable in six yearly install- 
ments) was made in 1910 to the Austine Institution for the Deaf, 
upon condition that it should bind itself by a contract to the satis- 
faction of the governor that it will at all times receive, take, instruct, 



196 



DEAF-MUTES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



and care for, at actual cost, all cucli deaf and dumb children as the 
governor aa commissioner for the deaf may designate. This is a 
private institution created imder the will of William Austine, but 
is Bubject to visitation and inspection by the board of control. 
(Laws 1910, p. 84; Laws 1917, p. 29.) 

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. 

Any deaf child between the ages of 5 and 18, who is designated 
by the governor to any institution for the education of the deaf and 
blind in the state, must attend such designated school during its 
regular sessions for the period for which he is designated, imless he is 
mentally or physically tmable to attend- the school, or has already 
acquired knowledge of the branches required to be taught in the 
public schools, or is otherwise being fiunished with the same edu- 
cation, provided that he may not be required to attend more than 
40 weeks in one- school year. Any parent or guardian who neglects 
or refuses to permit a child to receive instruction as above speci- 
fied is liable to a fine of not more than $25 nor less than $5. (Laws 
1915, p. 166.) 

VIRGINIA. 

References: 

Pollard's Code of Virginia, 1904- 
Supplement, 1910. 

SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF. 

The government of the Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind 
is vested in a board of visitors, consisting of so. members appointed 
by the governor with the consent of the senate for terms of four 
years, and the superintendent of public instruction. In the insti- 
tution there is one school for the education of deaf-mutes and 
another school, separate and distinct, for the education of the blind. 
The pupils of the school are selected, as the board may prescribe, 
among such persons as are unable to pay for maintenance and sup- 
port to the extent of the means of the institution, and from other 
persons, residents of the state, on such terms for their maintenance 
and support as may be agreed upon, but in no case is there a charge 
for the education of the pupils. (P. C. 1904, §§ 165Sff.) 

The Virginia State School for Colored Deaf and BUnd Children is 
under the government of a board of five visitors appointed by the 
governor for tenns of four years. Any deaf child of the colored 
race whose parents or guardians are residents of the state and who 
can not be educated in the public schools may be admitted to the 
school without charge for his education. (Supp. 1910, p. 656.) 

CENSUS OF THE DEAF. 

The clerk of each district school board must at the time of taking 
the school census also take a separate census of the deaf persons 
between the ages of 7 and 20 years residing within the school dis- 
trict, giving the sex, age, and residence of each, and return a copy 
to the district superintendent. The superintendent